新疆生产建设兵团的历史与发展(中英对照白皮书2014)

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新疆生产建设兵团的历史与发展
The History and Development of the Xinjiang Production and Construction Corps

中华人民共和国国务院新闻办公室
The State Council Information Office of the People’s Republic of China

2014年10月 北京
October 2014, Beijing

目录
Contents

前言
Preface

一、建立与发展
I. Founding and Development

二、职责与体制
II. Responsibilities and Structure

三、开发与建设
III. Development and Construction

四、维稳戍边与促进民族团结
IV. Safeguard the Frontier, Maintain Stability, and Promote Ethnic Unity

前言
Preface

屯垦戍边是中国几千年开发和保卫边疆的历史遗产。中央政府在西域新疆大规模屯垦戍边始于2000多年前的西汉,以后历代沿袭。1949年新疆和平解放,1954年中央政府决定在新疆成立生产建设兵团。这是符合中国国情和新疆实际的战略举措,也是历史经验在新的历史条件下的继承和发展。

The practice of stationing garrison troops to cultivate and guard its border areas is a legacy of China’s several thousand years of history of developing and safeguarding its frontiers. The central government first adopted this practice on a large scale in what is known as the Western Regions (the major part of which was today’s Xinjiang) more than 2,000 years ago, during China’s Western Han Dynasty, and it continues to this day. In 1949 Xinjiang was peacefully liberated. In 1954 the central government decided to form a production and construction corps in Xinjiang. This strategic move conformed to national conditions and the realities of Xinjiang, representing a continuation and development of historical experience under new conditions.

60年来,新疆生产建设兵团白手起家,艰苦奋斗,忠实履行着国家赋予的屯垦戍边的光荣使命。广大兵团军垦职工栉风沐雨,扎根边疆,同当地各族人民一道,把亘古戈壁荒漠改造成生态绿洲,开创了新疆现代化事业、建成了规模化大农业、兴办大型工矿企业,建起了一座座新型城镇,充分发挥了生产队、工作队、战斗队的作用。兵团为推动新疆发展、增进民族团结、维护社会稳定、巩固国家边防作出了不可磨灭的历史贡献。

The Xinjiang Production and Construction Corps (XPCC) started from scratch 60 years ago. It has since made strenuous efforts to fulfill faithfully the responsibilities the state has entrusted to it to cultivate and guard the border areas. Despite a harsh natural environment, XPCC workers put down roots in Xinjiang. They have reclaimed ecological oases from the desolate Gobi desert, initiated Xinjiang’s modernization, built large-scale agriculture and industrial and mining enterprises, and established new cities and towns through joining hands with local people of all ethnic groups. Combining the functions of production, administration, and defense, the XPCC has made indelible contributions to the development of Xinjiang, by promoting unity among ethnic groups, maintaining social stability, and strengthening national border defense.

值此新疆生产建设兵团成立60周年之际,特发表白皮书,全面介绍兵团的历史和发展状况,以助国际社会了解和认识兵团发挥什么样的作用、兵团是一个什么样的社会组织、兵团人是一个什么样的社会群体。

On the 60th anniversary of the founding of the XPCC, we issue this white paper which presents a comprehensive introduction to the history and development of the XPCC, to give the international community a better knowledge of its functions and nature as a social organization, and of XPCC members as a social group.

一、建立与发展
I. Founding and Development

新疆地处中国西北边陲。新疆生产建设兵团是在特殊的地理、历史背景下成立的。

Xinjiang is situated in the border areas of northwest China. Founding of the XPCC occurred under a special geographical and historical background.

1949年新疆和平解放时,当地经济是以农牧业为主体的自然经济,生产力水平低下,生产方式落后,发展处于停滞状态,人民生活贫苦不堪。为巩固边防、加快发展,减轻新疆当地政府和各族人民的经济负担,1950年1月,驻新疆人民解放军将主要力量投入到生产建设之中,当年实现粮食大部分自给、食油蔬菜全部自给。1953年,新疆军区将所属部队整编为国防部队和生产部队两个部分,其中生产部队建有军垦农牧团场43个,拥有耕地77.26千公顷。同时还兴办工业、交通、建筑、商业企业和科技、教育、文化、卫生等事业单位,为之后组建生产建设兵团奠定了基础。

When Xinjiang was peacefully liberated in 1949, the region featured a natural economy, with farming and animal husbandry as the mainstay. Productivity was low and the mode of production was backward. Development was stalled and local residents lived in poverty. Aiming to consolidate border defense, accelerate Xinjiang’s development, and reduce the economic burden on the local government and local residents of all ethnic groups, in January 1950 the People’s Liberation Army (PLA) units stationed in Xinjiang started focusing their efforts on production and construction. By the end of that year they had become largely self-sufficient in grains and fully self-sufficient in edible oil and vegetables. In 1953 the Xinjiang Military District reorganized its troops into two divisions: defense troops and production troops. The latter had 43 regimental agricultural and stock raising farms and 77,260 hectares of farmland. The production troops also set up industrial, transport, construction, and commercial enterprises, as well as public institutions of science and technology, education, health, and culture, so paving the way for the founding of the Production and Construction Corps.

1954年10月,中央政府命令驻新疆人民解放军第二、第六军大部,第五军大部,第二十二兵团全部,集体就地转业,脱离国防部队序列,组建“中国人民解放军新疆军区生产建设兵团”,接受新疆军区和中共中央新疆分局双重领导,其使命是劳武结合、屯垦戍边。兵团由此开始正规化国营农牧团场的建设,由原军队自给性生产转为企业化生产,并正式纳入国家计划。当时,兵团总人口17.55万。此后,全国各地大批优秀青壮年、复转军人、知识分子、科技人员加入兵团行列,投身新疆建设。从1956年5月起,兵团受国家农垦部和新疆维吾尔自治区双重领导。

In October 1954 the central government ordered the demobilization of most of the PLA Second, Fifth, and Sixth Armies and all of the 22nd Army Group in Xinjiang, and their separation from the setups of the national defense forces to form the Production and Construction Corps of the Xinjiang Military District of the PLA, subject to the dual leadership of the Xinjiang Military District and the Xinjiang Sub-bureau of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China. The XPCC’s missions were to carry out both production and militia duties, and to cultivate and guard the border areas. Henceforth the XPCC officially commenced its building of state-run agricultural and stock raising farms, and transformed from military self-sufficient production to production as an enterprise, incorporated into national planning. The XPCC had an initial population of 175,500, later swelled by large numbers of youth, demobilized military personnel, intellectuals, scientists, and technicians. As of May 1956 the XPCC was subordinated to the dual leadership of the Ministry of Land Reclamation and Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region.

1962年,新疆伊犁、塔城地区先后发生了边民越境事件。根据国家部署,兵团调遣了1.7万余名干部、职工奔赴当地维护社会治安,施行代耕、代牧、代管,并迅速在新疆伊犁、塔城、阿勒泰、哈密地区和博尔塔拉蒙古自治州等长达2000多公里的边境沿线建立了纵深10公里到30公里的边境团场带。这对于稳定新疆、维护国家边防安全发挥了不可替代的重要作用,改善了国家西北边防的战略态势。到1966年底,兵团总人口达到148.54万,拥有农牧团场158个。

In 1962 some local residents in Xinjiang’s Ili and Tacheng crossed the frontier. By order of the state, the XPCC dispatched more than 17,000 officials and workers to Ili and Tacheng to maintain public order and tend the farmland and livestock of those who had fled. They quickly set up a belt of regimental farms ranging from 10 to 30 kilometers in breadth along the more than 2,000-kilometer-long boundaries of Ili, Tacheng, Altay, Hami, and Bortala Mongol Autonomous Prefecture. They played a crucial role in maintaining stability in Xinjiang, safeguarding national border security, and improving China’s strategic position in its northwest border defense. By the end of 1966, the Corps had 158 regimental agricultural and stock raising farms, with a population of 1,485,400.

“文化大革命”(1966-1976年)期间,兵团屯垦戍边事业受到严重破坏。1975年3月,兵团建制被撤销,成立新疆维吾尔自治区农垦总局,主管全疆国营农牧团场的业务工作。1981年12月,中央政府决定恢复兵团建制,名称由原有的“中国人民解放军新疆军区生产建设兵团”改为“新疆生产建设兵团”,兵团开始了二次创业。30多年时间里,兵团对国有农牧场进行了大包干责任制、兴办职工家庭农场、企业承包经营责任制、发展多种经济成分等方面的改革,兴办工业,建设城镇,兵团的屯垦戍边事业不断迈向新的阶段。

During the “cultural revolution” (1966-1976), the XPCC suffered serious disruption in fulfilling its mission of cultivating and guarding the border areas. In March 1975 the Corps was dissolved. The General Administration of Land Reclamation of Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region was founded to take charge of state-run agricultural and stock raising farms in Xinjiang. In December 1981 the central government decided to restore the production and construction corps organizational system. It renamed the Production and Construction Corps of the Xinjiang Military District of the PLA the Xinjiang Production and Construction Corps. The Corps then recommenced its pioneering work. Over the past 30 years or more, the XPCC has introduced reforms by expediting the general contract responsibility system and the enterprise contract responsibility system and setting up workers’ household farms. It has also developed diverse sectors of the economy, promoted industrial development and established new cities and towns. The XPCC has thus scaled new heights of progress in its endeavor to cultivate and guard the border areas.

60年来,兵团以屯垦戍边为使命,遵循“不与民争利”的原则,在天山南北的戈壁荒漠和人烟稀少、环境恶劣的边境沿线,开荒造田,建成了一个个农牧团场,逐步建立起涵盖食品加工、轻工纺织、钢铁、煤炭、建材、电力、化工、机械等门类的工业体系,教育、科技、文化、卫生等各项社会事业取得长足发展。截至2013年底,兵团下辖14个师,176个团,辖区面积7.06万平方公里,耕地1244.77千公顷,总人口270.14万,占新疆总人口的11.9%。

Over the past 60 years, in fulfilling its mission the XPCC has adhered to the principle of “not competing for benefits with the local people.” The XPCC reclaimed farmland and successively built regimental agricultural and stock raising farms in the Gobi desert to the north and south of the Tianshan Mountains, and in the harsh natural environment of the desolate border areas. The XPCC has gradually established a multi-sector industrial system encompassing food processing, light industry, textiles, iron and steel, coal, building materials, electricity, chemicals, and machinery. It has also achieved significant progress in education, science and technology, culture, health, and other public sectors. By the end of 2013, the XPCC had 176 regiments, 14 divisions, an area of 70,600 square kilometers under its administration, including 1,244,770 hectares of farmland, and a population of 2,701,400, accounting for 11.9% of Xinjiang’s total population.

二、职责与体制
II. Responsibilities and Structure

新疆生产建设兵团是新疆维吾尔自治区的重要组成部分。兵团承担着国家赋予的屯垦戍边职责,实行党政军企合一体制,是在自己所辖垦区内,依照国家和新疆维吾尔自治区的法律、法规,自行管理内部行政、司法事务,在国家实行计划单列的特殊社会组织,受中央政府和新疆维吾尔自治区双重领导。

Constituting as it does an important part of the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region, the XPCC assumes the responsibilities entrusted to it by the state of cultivating and guarding the border areas, and operates an administrative system with unified Party, government, military, and enterprise roles. It is a special social organization that handles its own administrative and judicial affairs within the reclamation areas under its administration, in accordance with the laws and regulations of the state and Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region, with economic planning directly supervised by the state. It is subordinated to the dual leadership of the central government and Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region.

屯垦戍边是国家赋予兵团的职责。兵团的“屯垦”,以现代农业开发为基础,同时大力发展第二、第三产业,着重保护和改善生态环境,促进新疆的社会进步与民族团结。兵团的“戍边”,一方面守卫国家边防,另一方面维护国家统一和新疆社会稳定,防范和打击恐怖势力的犯罪破坏活动。20世纪80年代后,分裂势力、宗教极端势力、暴力恐怖势力等“三股势力”及其破坏活动成为影响新疆社会稳定、危害国家统一的严重威胁,兵团戍边的重点转移到防范和打击“三股势力”破坏活动的任务上。

In the course of fulfilling its responsibility to cultivate the border areas, the XPCC has focused on modern agricultural development while expanding secondary and tertiary industries, with emphatic efforts toward protecting and improving the ecological environment and promoting social progress and unity among ethnic groups in Xinjiang. In its endeavor to guard the border areas, the XPCC has strengthened national border defense while maintaining national unity and Xinjiang’s social stability, and guarding against and cracking down on criminal sabotage activities by terrorist forces. Since the 1980s separatist, religious extremist and terrorist forces and their sabotage activities have become a major threat to national unity and to Xinjiang’s social stability. They are hence the focus of the work of the XPCC in guarding the border areas.

1990年中央政府批准兵团在国家实行计划单列。兵团在继续作为新疆维吾尔自治区的重要组成部分、接受自治区领导的同时,逐渐由中央政府有关部门对口管理。这种双重领导体制的建立,是兵团行政隶属关系上的创造性变革,有利于中央与自治区对兵团的协调领导,有利于兵团履行肩负的各项职责,理顺了兵团与国家机关各部门的关系,进一步推动了兵团事业的发展。多年来,中央政府对兵团在公共服务和公共安全、教科文卫、农林水事务等领域给予政策支持和资金投入,为兵团经济社会发展注入了强大的活力和新的生命力。

In 1990 the central government approved the placing of XPCC economic planning under direct state supervision. The XPCC remains an important component of Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region and is subject to its leadership while under the management of relevant departments of the central government. The adoption of such a dual leadership system signifies an innovative reform in the Corps’ administrative subordination, one which facilitates the coordination of leadership over the Corps between the central government and the autonomous region government, and the Corps’ fulfillment of its responsibilities, and betters the relations between the Corps and relevant departments of the central authorities, thus promoting the Corps’ development. Over the years, the central government has granted policy support and funding to the XPCC in the fields of public services, public security, education, science and technology, culture, health, agriculture, forestry, and water conservancy, so injecting great energy and new vitality into the economic and social development of the XPCC.

兵团实行党政军企高度统一的特殊管理体制。兵团各级都建有中国共产党的组织,发挥着对兵团各项事业的领导作用。兵团设有行政机关和政法机关,自行管理内部行政、司法事务。兵团是一个“准军事实体”,设有军事机关和武装机构,沿用兵团、师、团、连等军队建制和司令员、师长、团长、连长等军队职务称谓,涵养着一支以民兵为主的武装力量。兵团也称为“中国新建集团公司”,是集农业、工业、交通、建筑、商业,承担经济建设任务的国有大型企业。兵团的党、政、军、企四套领导机构与四项职能合为一体。

The XPCC operates a special administrative system with unified Party, government, military, and enterprise roles. Party organizations have been set up at each level of the Corps to exercise leadership over all its undertakings. The XPCC has administrative and judicial organs to handle its specific administrative and judicial affairs. The Corps is a paramilitary entity with military organs and armed forces units wherein the militias are the mainstay. It is organized in a military structure of corps, divisions, regiments, and companies, whose commanders have corresponding military titles. The XPCC, also known as the China Xinjian Group, is a large state-owned enterprise engaged in agriculture, industry, transport, building, and commerce, and at the same time assumes state assigned economic tasks. The XPCC’s leadership combines the functions of the Party, government, military, and enterprise.

兵团全面融入新疆社会,所属师、团场及企事业单位分布于新疆维吾尔自治区各地(州)、市、县(市)行政区内,主要由兵团自上而下地实行统一领导和垂直管理。在战略地位重要、团场集中连片、经济基础好、发展潜力大的垦区,设有7个“师市合一”的新疆维吾尔自治区直辖县级市和5个“团(场)镇合一”的建制镇,由兵团实行统一分级管理。“师和市”、“团(场)和镇”党政机构设置均实行“一个机构、两块牌子”。

The XPCC has fully integrated into Xinjiang society. Its division and regimental farms, subordinate enterprises and public institutions, administered by the Corps in a top-down model of leadership and vertical management, are widely distributed in the prefectures, cities, and counties of Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region. In reclamation areas, which feature important strategic positions, concentrated distribution of regimental farms, considerable economic strength, and great development potential, the XPCC has set up seven county-level divisions/cities directly administered by Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region and five regiments/towns, which are administered by the Corps at different levels. Each division/city or regiment/town has Party leadership and government administration functions integrated into one unit.

三、开发与建设
III. Development and Construction

兵团的经济建设是新疆维吾尔自治区经济建设的重要组成部分。长期以来,特别是改革开放后,兵团充分发挥自身优势,积极适应市场经济要求,调整经济结构和转变发展方式,大力推进城镇化、新型工业化和农业现代化建设,着力保护生态环境,改善民生,促进就业,提高公共服务和社会保障水平,各项事业取得显著成就。

The economic development of the XPCC is an important part of the comprehensive economic development of Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region. For a long time, and particularly since the launch of the reform and opening-up policy, the XPCC has vigorously advanced urbanization, new industrialization, and agricultural modernization by exploiting its native advantages to embrace market demands, adjusting the economic structure and transforming the mode of development. It has made great efforts to protect the ecological environment, improve people’s livelihood, boost employment, and raise the level of public services and social security, thus making remarkable achievements in all undertakings.

不断提升综合经济实力。2013年兵团生产总值达1499.87亿元人民币,比兵团成立时的1954年增长了220倍,年均增长9.6%;比1981年兵团恢复时增长了22.9倍,年均增长10.4%。农业基础地位进一步加强,新型工业化进程加快,工业成为主导产业,第三产业在经济发展中的作用日益突出。2013年,三次产业结构比为29.0:41.8: 29.2。

Constantly increase comprehensive economic strength. The total output value of the XPCC in 2013 was RMB 149.987 billion, 220 times that in 1954 when it was established, with an annual growth of 9.6%; and 22.9 times that in 1981 when the XPCC was reinstated, with an annual growth of 10.4%. The position of agriculture as foundation of the economy has strengthened, new industrialization accelerated with industry predominant, and tertiary industry has become growingly prominent in economic development. In 2013 the proportion of the three industries was 29.0:41.8:29.2.

大力推进城镇化建设。在中央和自治区的统一领导和规划下,兵团以人口分布、土地利用空间为重点,统筹产业布局和城镇布局,按照“师市合一、团镇合一”的原则和师建城市、团场建镇的思路,大力推进城镇化进程。截至目前,兵团已建成阿拉尔市、铁门关市、图木舒克市、双河市、五家渠市、石河子市、北屯市等7个县级市和金银川镇、草湖镇、梧桐镇、蔡家湖镇、北泉镇等5个建制镇,初步形成以城市、垦区中心城镇、一般团场城镇、中心连队居住区为发展架构,与新疆城镇职能互补,具有兵团特色的城镇体系,城镇化率已达62.3%。城镇基础设施明显改善,公共服务设施不断完备,城镇规划、建设、管理、服务水平显著提高。兵团城镇已经逐步发展为区域的经济和文化中心,成为人口、资金、产业、人才、文化、教育、医疗卫生等资源的集聚之地,推进了新疆城镇化进程。石河子市2000年被联合国评为人类居住环境改善良好范例城市,2002年被正式命名为国家园林城市。

Vigorously promote urbanization. Under the unified leadership and planning of the central government and Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region, the XPCC, with population distribution and land utilization as the focus, coordinates industry and city/town layouts to promote urbanization under the principle of divisions supporting the construction of cities and regiments supporting the construction of towns. Up to now, the XPCC has built the seven county-level cities of Alar, Tiemenguan, Tumushuke, Shuanghe, Wujiaqu, Shihezi and Beitun, and the five administrative towns of Jinyinchuan, Caohu, Wutong, Caijiahu and Beiquan, so forming an urban layout with cities at the center, surrounded by towns in reclamation areas, towns built on farmland by regiments, and company residence zones. As an urban complex with Corps characteristics, they complement the function of local cities and towns. The XPCC’s urbanization rate has reached 62.3%. Its urban infrastructure has markedly improved, public service facilities have been steadily completed, and urban planning, construction, management, and service levels significantly enhanced. This urban complex has gradually become a regional economic and cultural center, and a population, capital, industry, human resource, culture, education and medical and health resource hub, so boosting Xinjiang’s urbanization process. The UN rated Shihezi in the year 2000 as the Model City for Betterment of Residential Environment and in 2002 the state designated it as a National Garden City.

大力推进新型工业化建设。兵团的工业从农副产品加工业起步,逐步形成以轻工、纺织为主,钢铁、煤炭、建材、电力、化工、机械等多门类的工业体系,为新疆现代工业发展奠定了基础。21世纪初国家实施西部大开发战略以来,兵团立足新疆资源和地缘优势,形成了食品医药、纺织服装、氯碱化工和煤化工、特色矿产资源加工、石油天然气化工、新型建材和装备制造等支柱产业。由兵团生产的节水灌溉器材、番茄制品、棉纺锭等产量和规模名列全国前茅。2013年,兵团实现工业增加值426.61亿元人民币,比上年增长27.8%,占兵团生产总值的28.5%,工业对兵团生产总值的贡献率达45.3%。

Vigorously promote new industrialization. Having started from the processing of farm and sideline products, the XPCC has gradually formed an industrial system that features the dominant role of textiles and light industry but also encompasses iron and steel, coal, building materials, electricity, chemical engineering, and machinery production, so laying a solid foundation for Xinjiang’s modern industrialization. Since the adoption of the Western Development Strategy at the beginning of the 21st century, the XPCC has developed pillar industries, such as food and pharmaceuticals, textiles and garments, chemical industry in chlorine, alkali and coal, special mineral resource processing, petrochemicals, new building materials, and equipment manufacturing. It leads the country in both output and production scale of water-saving irrigation equipment, tomato products, and cotton textile spindles. In 2013 the XPCC’s industrial added value was RMB 42.661 billion, an increase of 27.8% over the previous year, accounting for 28.5% of the Corps’ total output value. The contribution ratio of industry to its total output value stood at 45.3%.

大力推进农业现代化建设。农业是兵团的基础产业和优势产业。兵团始终坚持走农业现代化之路,大规模引进、吸收、研发和推广先进生产技术,持续开展规模化、机械化、现代化国营农场建设,开创了新疆现代农业的先河。2007年以来,兵团大力推进全国节水灌溉示范基地、农业机械化推广基地、现代农业示范基地等“三大基地”建设,在节水灌溉、农业机械和植物育种与栽培、牲畜育种与饲养等先进技术的引进和研发上取得突破,并在全疆大规模推广应用。依靠科技创新和组织化规模化的优势,兵团的农业现代化建设取得显著成效。2013年,兵团高新节水灌溉占有效灌溉面积的74.4%,综合机械化水平达92%,农作物精量半精量播种面积857.20千公顷、测土配方施肥面积超过682.33千公顷。兵团已建成国家重要的优质商品棉和特色林果生产基地。棉花总产量达146.52万吨,分别占新疆及中国棉花总产量的41.6%和23.2%,棉花单产、机械化率、人均占有量连续多年位居全国首位。番茄、红枣、苹果、香梨、葡萄、核桃、薰衣草等特色农产品已形成优势,有91个农产品被评为中国和新疆名牌或驰名商标。

Vigorously promote agricultural modernization. Agriculture is the XPCC’s fundamental and competitive industry. While adhering to the road of agricultural modernization, the XPCC massively introduces, absorbs, studies, and promotes advanced production technologies, and continues to build large-scale, mechanized and modernized state-owned farms, a pioneering effort in Xinjiang’s modern agriculture. Since 2007, the XPCC has proactively promoted the construction of water-saving irrigation demonstration bases, mechanized farming bases, and modern agriculture demonstration bases. It has made breakthroughs in the introduction of and research into water-saving irrigation, agricultural machinery, plant breeding and cultivation, livestock breeding, and feeding technologies, all of which it has popularized and applied in scale across Xinjiang. Thanks to its technological innovation, and strength in well-organized large-scale production, the Corps has made marked progress in agricultural modernization. In 2013 irrigation areas applying high-tech water-saving technologies took up 74.4% of the total, the comprehensive mechanization level reached 92%, the sown area with precise and half-precise drilling skills totaled 857,200 hectares, and soil tested for fertilization formulation exceeded 682,330 hectares. The XPCC has built key national production bases for quality commodity cotton and local fruit. The total output of cotton was 1.4652 million tons, taking up 41.6% of Xinjiang’s and 23.2% of the national total. The per unit yield, mechanization rate, and per capita availability of cotton has been top in the country for years. Cultivation of farm produce such as tomatoes, dates, apples, pears, grapes, walnuts, and lavender has become its advantage, 91 of them recognized as brand products or well-known Xinjiang and China trademarks.

着力加强生态文明建设。兵团多数团场建在沙漠边缘和边境沿线,是抵御风沙袭击、保护新疆绿洲的第一道屏障。多年来,兵团把区域生态环境建设摆在突出位置,通过大规模植树造林、兴修水利、防风固沙、排盐治碱、节水灌溉,对800千公顷的荒漠植被采取封沙育林育草等措施,逐步建起环绕塔克拉玛干和古尔班通古特两大沙漠的绿色生态带,形成乔木、灌木、草场结合的综合防护林体系,在茫茫戈壁荒漠上建成了绿洲生态经济网。通过大力推广喷、滴、微灌等节水技术,年农业节水量超过10亿立方米,增加了向下游河道的下泄水量,一些已经萎缩甚至干涸的湖泊重现生机,改善了沙漠边缘的生态环境,创造了“人进沙退”的奇迹。至2013年,兵团建成近3000千公顷的人工新绿洲,森林覆盖率达20%;绝大多数团场实现了农田林网化,80%以上农田得到林网的有效保护。

Make efforts to enhance ecological conservation. Most of the XPCC’s farms are built along the borders of deserts and frontiers as the first defense against sandstorms to protect Xinjiang’s oases. For years, the XPCC has planted trees and built water conservancy projects to inhibit winds and fix sand, control soil salinization, and develop water-saving irrigation, so prioritizing local eco-environmental construction. Through planting trees and grass to fix sand on 800,000 hectares of desert, the XPCC has gradually built two green ecological zones surrounding the Taklimakan Desert and Gurbantunggut Desert, forming a comprehensive shelterbelt network of trees, shrubs and grassland. An economic network of ecological-friendly oases has been completed on the vast desolate desert. Promoting water-saving technologies such as sprinklers and drip and micro-irrigation systems has saved more than one billion cubic meters of annual irrigation water, thus increasing the volume of water that runs to downstream river way. Shrinking, sometimes dried out lakes begin to show signs of renewal, and the ecological environment bordering the desert has improved, creating a miracle whereby desertification has been prevented through human efforts. By 2013 the XPCC had built a total of nearly three million hectares of artificial oases, with a forest coverage rate of 20%. Most of the farmland has been surrounded by networks of trees, placing more than 80% of farmland under their effective protection.

着力改善民生。兵团始终把保障和改善民生放在优先位置,着力解决好职工群众最关心最直接最现实的利益问题,促进社会公平正义,增进职工群众福祉,实现发展成果更多更公平惠及职工群众。经过多年努力,兵团的居民收入、住房、社会保障、就业等民生水平有了相当程度的提高。2013年,兵团城镇居民人均可支配收入2.31万元人民币、团场农牧工家庭人均纯收入1.43万元人民币、在岗职工平均工资4.40万元人民币,分别比上年增长17.8%、18.2%、17.4%;近几年,兵团累计投入347.8亿元人民币改善民生,开工建设城镇保障性住房14.3万户,实施城镇棚户区改造7.2万户,完成农村安居工程5.5万户。截至目前,已有70%以上的职工群众迁居新房。城镇居民养老保险实现全覆盖,参加基本医疗保险226.48万人,9.4万人享受最低生活保障,20多万人次得到医疗救助。2013年,兵团从业人数达125.34万人,在岗职工71.11万人,全年新增劳动力就业8.57万人,年末城镇登记失业率2.55%。

Make efforts to improve people’s livelihood. The XPCC has always prioritized ensuring and improving people’s livelihood. It has made every effort to address practical problems of the greatest and most direct concern to the people to promote social equality and justice, and to bring welfare to workers, so enabling them to benefit from the development achievements in a fairer way. After years of effort, people’s livelihood, including incomes, housing conditions, social security, and employment level, has significantly improved. In 2013 the per capita disposable income of the XPCC’s urban residents was RMB 23,100, an increase of 17.8% over the previous year; the per capita net income of households engaged in farming and animal husbandry was RMB 14,300, an 18.2% increase over the previous year; and the average salary of employed workers was RMB 44,000, 17.4% higher than the previous year. The XPCC has invested a total of RMB 34.78 billion in recent years in improving people’s livelihood, starting the construction of 143,000 units of indemnificatory housing, transforming urban shanty towns encompassing 72,000 households, and completing rural housing projects benefiting 55,000 households. By now, more than 70% of workers have moved into new housing. The XPCC has achieved full endowment insurance coverage for urban residents. Moreover, it has acted to give 2.2648 million people basic medical insurance cover and more than 200,000 people medical assistance, and designated 94,000 people as entitled to subsistence allowances. Its workforce last year stood at 1.2534 million employees, with 711,100 incumbent workers, and 85,700 new employees in the labor force. The urban unemployment rate at the end of 2013 was 2.55%.

全面发展社会事业。兵团建立了从幼儿教育到大学教育的完整教育体系,实现了基本普及九年制义务教育和基本扫除青壮年文盲。截至2013年,兵团拥有普通和成人高等学校7所、中等职业学校24所、普通中学243所、小学55所,各民族在校生48.13万人。兵团的科技事业不断发展,拥有农垦科学院等科学研究与技术开发机构18个,各类专业技术人员约12万人。建有各类重点实验室14个,企业技术中心40个,工程技术研究中心24个。兵团公共文化服务体系建设步伐加快,建立了影剧院、文化馆、博物(纪念)馆、图书馆(室)、文化广场等一批文化活动场所,拥有专业文艺团体8个、业余文艺团队数百个,广播电视播出机构197座、网站66家,广播、电视综合覆盖率分别达到97%和98.8%,公开出版发行报刊杂志35种,每年出版各类文化图书100多种。兵团不断加大医疗卫生投入,建立了较为完善的公共卫生服务体系,医疗卫生条件不断改善,职工群众健康水平得到明显提高。拥有各类卫生机构1348个,各类卫生技术人员2.48万人,平均每千人拥有执业(助理)医师3.18人、注册护士3.89人、医院床位10张。2013年人口死亡率为4.94‰,婴儿死亡率为7.56‰,人均期望寿命76.79岁。

Comprehensively develop social undertakings. The XPCC has established a complete education system from preschool through to university, implementing basic nine-year compulsory education and eliminating illiteracy among young and middle-aged people. By 2013 this included seven institutions of higher learning, 24 secondary vocational schools, 243 middle schools, and 55 primary schools enrolling 481,300 students of all ethnic groups. The XPCC has made constant progress in science and technology undertakings. It now has 18 science and technology research institutions, such as the academy of land reclamation sciences, employing a total of 120,000 technical staff of various backgrounds. It has also built 14 key labs in different fields, 40 technical centers for enterprises, and 24 engineering research centers. The XPCC has speeded up construction of a public cultural service system, having built a group of cultural facilities that include theaters, cultural centers, museums, memorial halls, libraries, and cultural squares. There are eight professional theater troupes, hundreds of amateur theater troupes, 66 websites, and 197 radio and television broadcasting agencies with coverage rates of 97% and 98.8% respectively. There are also 35 newspapers and magazines, and more than 100 titles of culture-related books are published annually. The XPCC has moreover constantly increased input into public health, having built a relatively complete public health service system to help improve the comprehensive conditions of workers’ healthcare. To date, there are 1,348 health agencies employing 24,800 medical workers, with an average 3.18 practicing (assistant) doctors, 3.89 registered nurses, and 10 hospital beds for every thousand people. In 2013 the mortality rate was 4.94 per thousand, the infant mortality rate 7.56 per thousand, and the average life expectancy was 76.79 years.

不断提升对外开放水平。兵团发挥农业生产及农副产品加工领域的产业特长,大力发展口岸经济和物流产业,积极开拓中亚及欧洲等国际市场,进出口商品的品种和总量逐渐扩大。目前,兵团已拥有5个国家级经济技术开发区和24个自治区、兵团级园区,与160多个国家和地区建立了经贸关系,与20多个国家和地区开展经济技术合作。2013年,兵团进出口总额达115. 91亿美元,其中货物出口额103. 7亿美元,对外承包工程和劳务合作营业额5.42亿美元。

Constantly improve the level of opening up. The XPCC is vigorously developing its port economy and logistics industry and actively expanding its international markets in central Asia and Europe by exploiting its strengths in agricultural industry and processing of farm and sideline products as the variety and volume of its imports and exports gradually increase. Currently, the XPCC has five state-level economic and technological development zones and 24 industrial zones at autonomous region and Corps level. It has established economic and trade relations with more than 160 countries and regions and is carrying out economic and technological cooperation with more than 20 countries and regions. In 2013 the XPCC’s import and export volume totaled US$ 11.591 billion, with exports of US$ 10.37 billion and turnover in overseas contracted projects and labor service cooperation of US$ 542 million.

兵团各项事业取得重大成就,是一代代兵团人实践“热爱祖国、无私奉献、艰苦创业、开拓进取”的兵团精神的结果。60年来,兵团人克服罕见的生存、生产困难,扎根边疆,报效国家,在天山南北、亘古荒原上创造出人类发展奇迹。兵团的发展,也是在中央政府、新疆维吾尔自治区和全国各省市长期支持帮助下实现的。多年来,中央财政对兵团的投入力度逐步加大。2010年中央政府明确提出,对自治区的支持政策,兵团同样适用;对困难地区和对口支援的政策,所在地兵团师团场同样适用。新疆维吾尔自治区向兵团划拨土地、草场和水利资源、矿山资源,拨售机器设备,出台适用于兵团的政策,直接支持兵团的开发与建设,促进兵团与地方经济的融合发展。全国其他各省市也以对口的形式向兵团提供了大量的资金、技术和人才支援,对兵团的经济社会发展起到了重要作用。

The XPCC’s achievements in various undertakings are attributable to its embodiment of the spirit of “loving the motherland, selfless devotion, hard work, and forging ahead with pioneering endeavors.” Over the past six decades, people in the XPCC, in spite of exceptional subsistence and production difficulties, have settled in the borderlands to serve the country. They have created development miracles around the Tianshan Mountains and vast areas of wilderness. The XPCC’s development has also received continuous support from the central government, Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region and other provinces and cities. For years, the central government has stepped up its financial support for the XPCC. In 2010 the central government stated explicitly that policy support for the autonomous region applies also to the Corps, and that policies for poverty-stricken areas and for partner assistance also apply to division and regimental farms in the same areas. Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region allocates land, pasture, water and mineral resources, and machinery and equipment to the Corps. It formulates policies applicable to the Corps, gives direct support to its development and construction, and promotes integrated development of the Corps and the local economy. Other provinces and cities have also provided considerable support to the Corps in capital, technology, and human resources, all of which have been of tremendous help in boosting its economic and social development.

四、维稳戍边与促进民族团结
IV. Safeguard the Frontier, Maintain Stability, and Promote Ethnic Unity

新疆陆地边境线漫长,戍守边防是国家赋予兵团的重要职责。兵团从组建开始,就是一支高度组织化的准军事力量。多年来,兵团坚持亦兵亦民、劳武结合、兵民合一,拥有一支数量足够、素质较高的民兵武装力量和兵团武警部队,一手拿枪,一手拿镐,与军队、武警和各族群众建立起边境安全联防体系,在维护国家统一和新疆社会稳定、打击暴力恐怖犯罪活动中发挥出特殊作用。

Xinjiang has a long border, and safeguarding it is the responsibility the state has entrusted to the XPCC. A highly organized paramilitary force since its founding, the XPCC has for many years shouldered both production and military duties, every member assuming the dual role of soldier and worker. The XPCC has strong militia and armed police forces whose members are capable of both combat and production. Together with the army groups, police force, and local residents of various ethnic groups of Xinjiang, the XPCC has built a strong border joint defense system. It has played a special role in safeguarding the country’s unification and Xinjiang’s social stability and in cracking down on violent terrorist crimes.

兵团的边境团场是戍边的重要力量。兵团对边境团场实行团场包面、连队包片、民兵包点的生产与守边双承包责任制,实行兵团值班民兵连队与当地驻军、武警和地方民兵四位一体的军民联防机制,共同维护国家边防安全。按照国家的战略部署,兵团不断加强边境团场建设的力度。从2000年起,兵团在边境团场实施以危旧房改造、饮水、交通、文化、就医、电视广播、环境卫生等为重点的“金边工程”,发挥区位优势实施沿边对外开放,开展区域对外经贸、文化交流合作,进一步改善了职工群众的生产生活条件,增强了边境团场的凝聚力、吸引力,提升了边境团场戍边的综合实力。

Frontier regimental farms are important forces in border security. The XPCC adopts the production and defense liability system, in which regimental farms take charge of entire areas, companies take charge of subareas, and individual militias are responsible for their own lots. The XPCC also sets up the “four-in-one” joint defense system, wherein stationed troops, armed police, local militias, and XPCC on-duty militias work together to safeguard China’s border security. The XPCC has constantly strengthened frontier regimental farms in accordance with China’s strategic deployment. Since 2000 the XPCC has carried out the “Jinbian Project,” which focuses on improving drinking water, transportation, medical services, broadcast networks, the environment and sanitation, promoting culture, and renovating dilapidated houses. It has made full use of geographical advantages to open up border areas and promote foreign trade and cultural exchanges. It has also improved local residents’ working and living conditions, and increased the solidarity, attractiveness, and overall strength of border regimental farms.

维护新疆稳定是兵团的重要职责,也是实现长治久安的现实需要。20世纪80年代以来,“三股势力”破坏活动对新疆社会稳定的危害日益凸显。针对这种情况,根据统一部署,兵团所属师、团、连和企事业单位建立了应急民兵营、连、排,随时应对各种暴力恐怖突发事件。在反恐维稳斗争中,兵团发挥了特殊作用。尤其是1990年阿克陶县巴仁乡“4·5”事件、1997年伊宁“2·5”事件发生后,兵团民兵发挥熟悉情况、就近就便的优势,快速反应、迅速出击,与武警部队和各族群众携手联动,共同打击暴恐犯罪,维护了社会稳定。2009年乌鲁木齐“7·5”事件发生后,兵团迅速组织民兵担负起执勤、巡逻和对重点目标的守卫任务。当前,兵团正着力建设全国一流民兵队伍,建立融生产、训练、执勤、应急于一体的民兵常态化轮训备勤机制。

The XPCC’s crucial task to maintain Xinjiang’s stability is also a factual need to realize lasting peace and stability. Since the 1980s the threat of the “three forces” – separatists, religious extremists and terrorists – to Xinjiang’s social stability has grown. To confront this threat, divisions, regiments, companies, enterprises, and public institutions under the XPCC have established emergency militia battalions, companies, and platoons that enable it to respond rapidly to outbursts of violent terrorist activities. The XPCC has played crucial roles in fighting terrorism and maintaining stability, especially in the April 5 riot in Barin Township, Akto County of 1990 and the February 5 Yining incident of 1997. Familiar with the situation, and located close to these sites, the XPCC militias struck swiftly and joined hands with armed police and residents of various ethnic groups in cracking down on violent terrorist crimes, so maintaining social stability. In rapid response to the July 5 Urumqi riot of 2009, the XPCC sent militias to patrol the city and guard key districts from possible attacks. At present, the XPCC is focusing its efforts on forging a top militia force in China, and building a system of regular rotation training and standby duty, which combines production, training, duty performance, and emergency response.

新疆是多民族地区,民族团结是国家统一和新疆社会稳定的最长远的根本问题。兵团高度融入新疆社会,长期与地方各民族毗邻而居、和睦相处、守望相助,构成各民族相互交往交流交融的“嵌入式”社会发展模式,做到了边疆同守、资源共享、优势互补、共同繁荣。60年来,兵团坚持为新疆各族人民服务的宗旨,积极支援地方建设,为各族群众办好事、办实事。兵团医疗机构常年组织医疗队深入地方农村、牧区开展巡回医疗,防病治病,送医送药。兵团在修建各种水利、道路等工程时,同时考虑地方各族人民的利益,使兴修的各项工程成为兵地双方受益的“两利工程”。20世纪50年代,为支持新疆工业发展,兵团把已经建设起来的规模较大的一批工交建商企业无偿移交给地方。60年代中期,兵团每年拿出800多万元人民币专项资金帮助地方进行农田规划建设。80年代初兵团恢复后,连续5年投资9000多万元人民币,支援喀什、塔城等地区兴办农田水利建设,并与地方共建文明单位400多个。90年代以来,帮助地方建设“双语”幼儿园和“双语”学校,培训“双语”教师。1999年开始,连续14年在北疆7个师的57个团场,接收来自南疆四地州32个县(市)15批2156名基层少数民族干部挂职锻炼培训。进入21世纪后,兵团与地方大力发展融合经济,建立起经济联合体87个,合作项目200多个。兵团还常年抽调大批科技人员,为地方举办种植、养殖、农机等各类培训班,向各族农牧民传授和推广各类先进技术。兵地相互支援、融合发展,促进了各民族交往交流交融。

Xinjiang is a multi-ethnic region, and ethnic unity has been fundamental to preserving long-term national unification and social stability in the region. Closely integrated with local communities, the XPCC lives in harmony with all ethnic groups, with whom it shares mutual support and assistance. Together they have formed an “embedded-type” social development framework under which all ethnic groups communicate on a regular basis and integrate. They have defended the frontier and the state at large, shared resources, made their respective advantages complementary, and realized common prosperity. Over the past six decades, the XPCC, abiding by the principle of serving all ethnic groups in the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region, has proactively supported local construction, accomplished many good things for local residents, and resolved many problems in a down-to-earth manner. Medical institutions under the XPCC provide touring medical services to local villages and pasturing areas all year round, treating diseases and administering medicines. When building roads and water conservancy projects, the XPCC goes to great lengths to ensure that these projects are of benefit to both itself and the region. In the 1950s, to support industrial development in Xinjiang, the XPCC transferred, at no cost, to local governments a number of large-scale industrial, construction, transport, and commercial enterprises upon which it had embarked. In the mid-1960s the XPCC appropriated a special fund of more than RMB 8 million each year to aid local areas in farmland planning and construction. After its reinstatement in the early 1980s, the XPCC invested more than RMB 90 million over five consecutive years to support Kashgar and Tacheng’s establishment of irrigation and water conservancy projects, and co-built with local governments more than 400 model institutions. Since the 1990s the XPCC has helped local governments to build bilingual kindergartens and schools and train bilingual teachers. Since 1999, 57 regimental farms under seven divisions in northern Xinjiang have provided training sessions and temporary posts to 15 groups of 2,156 grassroots ethnic minority officials from 32 counties (cities) in four prefectures in southern Xinjiang. Since the turn of the century, the XPCC has vigorously promoted “convergenomics,” working together with the local communities in building 87 economic complexes and engaging in more than 200 cooperative projects. Throughout each year it has also assigned scientific and technological personnel to hold various training sessions on farming, animal husbandry, and agricultural machinery, and to promote a broad range of advanced technologies among local farmers and herdsmen of all ethnic groups. Mutual support and integrated development between the XPCC and local governments have promoted contact and exchanges among all ethnic groups.

兵团有汉、维、哈、回、蒙古、锡伯、俄罗斯、塔吉克、满等37个民族,少数民族人口达37.54万人,占总人口的13.9%,有37个少数民族聚居团场。兵团把加快少数民族聚居团场发展作为改善民生的重中之重,加大政策支持和扶贫开发力度。近年来,兵团共实施少数民族聚居团场建设项目114个,总投资10.8亿元人民币,项目涉及城镇基础设施建设、安居工程、设施农业、畜牧养殖业等多个领域。2012年,兵团37个少数民族聚居团场实现生产总值111.03亿元,比上年增长42.8%,比兵团平均水平高出24.4个百分点。

The XPCC is a mosaic of people from 37 ethnic groups, including the Han, Uyghur, Kazak, Hui, Mongolian, Xibe, Russian, Tajik, and Manchu. The population of ethnic minorities has reached 375,400, taking up 13.9% of the Corps’ total. There are 37 regimental farms inhabited predominantly by ethnic minority groups. With accelerating the development of these regimental farms as its top priority, the XPCC has enhanced policy support and poverty relief. In recent years the XPCC has launched 114 construction projects on these farms, with a total investment of RMB 1.08 billion, covering such fields as urban infrastructure, low-income housing projects, facility agriculture, and animal husbandry. In 2012 the total output value of these 37 regimental farms reached RMB 11.103 billion, up 42.8% over the previous year, and 24.4 percentage points higher than the average level in the XPCC.

兵团全面贯彻国家的民族宗教政策,促进宗教和谐,尊重和保护少数民族风俗习惯,倡导民族和谐发展、文化共同繁荣、民俗相互尊重。多民族聚居的状况,使兵团具备了传播先进文化、弘扬中华文化,不断吸纳融合新疆民族文化,在边疆地区促进一体多元中华民族文化发展的基础。在兵团,文化的相互交流进一步增进了各民族成员之间的了解和认同,推进了新疆中华民族先进文化的建设,增强了边疆地区中华民族的凝聚力。

The XPCC fully implements China’s ethnic and religious policies, promotes religious harmony, respects and protects the customs of ethnic minority groups. It advocates harmonious development, common cultural prosperity, and respect for one another’s folkways among all ethnic groups. Being a part of this essential mosaic of people from different ethnic groups enables the XPCC to disseminate advanced culture, develop Chinese culture, constantly absorb Xinjiang ethnic culture and so promote the integration of diverse components of the Chinese culture in the border areas. Cultural exchanges within the XPCC have increased mutual understanding among people of different ethnic groups, facilitated the development of an advanced Chinese culture in Xinjiang, and enhanced cohesion of the Chinese nation in China’s border areas.

斗转星移,兵团走过了不平凡的60年。

The seasons change fast, and 60 eventful years have passed since the founding of the XPCC.

当前,中国各族人民正在为实现中华民族伟大复兴的中国梦而努力奋斗,新疆正处于实现社会稳定和长治久安的关键时期。支持兵团发展壮大是中央政府的一贯方针,发挥好兵团的维稳戍边特殊作用是国家的长远大计。新形势下,兵团建设只能加强不能削弱。

At present, all Chinese people are striving to realize the Chinese Dream of the great rejuvenation of the Chinese nation, and Xinjiang is at a critical stage of achieving lasting social and political stability. It has been a consistent policy of the central government to support the growth of the XPCC, and it has been China’s long-term strategy to give better play to the unique role of the XPCC in maintaining stability and safeguarding the border. Under new conditions, the XPCC should never be allowed to weaken, but rather be strengthened.

兵团正处在新的历史起点上,兵团的发展面临前所未有的机遇。在新的历史时期,兵团要当好安边固疆的稳定器、凝聚各族群众的大熔炉、汇集先进生产力和先进文化的示范区,壮大实力,深化“兵地融合”发展,聚焦新疆社会稳定和长治久安总目标,履行好中央赋予的各项职能。

Standing at a new historical starting point, the XPCC is presented with unprecedented opportunities. In the new historical period, the XPCC must play its part as a stabilizer of frontier security and stability, a melting pot of all ethnic groups, and a demonstration zone for advanced productive forces and culture. It must reinforce itself, further its integration with the local society, be devoted to social stability and lasting peace in Xinjiang, and perform all its functions as entrusted by the central government.

有中央政府的坚强领导和支持,有全国人民的积极支援,有新疆维吾尔自治区和各族人民的大力帮助,有兵团60年发展打下的坚实基础,完全有理由相信,兵团的明天一定会更加美好!

With the strong leadership and support of the central government, proactive assistance from all the people in China, the great help of Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region and all ethnic groups, and the solid foundation laid over the past 60 years of its development, the XPCC is sure to embrace a better tomorrow.

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