来源: Awakening the ‘Dutch Gene’ of Water Survival
NOORDWIJK, the Netherlands — Along a rugged, wide North Sea beach here on a recent day, children formed teams of eight to 10, taking their places beside mounds of sand carefully cordoned by candy-cane striped tape. They had one hour for their sand castle competition. Some built fishlike structures, complete with scales. Others spent their time on elaborate ditch and dike labyrinths. Each castle was adorned on top with a white flag.
Then they watched the sea invade and devour their work, seeing whose castle could withstand the tide longest. The last standing flag won.
Theirs was no ordinary day at the beach, but a newly minted, state-sanctioned competition for schoolchildren to raise awareness of the dangers of rising sea levels in a country of precarious geography that has provided lessons for the world about water management, but that fears that its next generation will grow complacent.
Fifty-five percent of the Netherlands is either below sea level or heavily flood-prone. Yet thanks to its renowned expertise and large water management budget (about 1.25 percent of gross domestic product), the Netherlands has averted catastrophe since a flooding disaster in 1953.
Experts here say that they now worry that the famed Dutch water management system actually works too well and that citizens will begin to take for granted the nation’s success in staying dry. As global climate change threatens to raise sea levels by as much as four feet by the end of the century, the authorities here are working to make real to children the forecasts that may seem far-off, but that will shape their lives in adulthood and old age.
“Everything works so smoothly that people don’t realize anymore that they are taking a risk in developing urban areas in low-lying areas,” said Raimond Hafkenscheid, the lead organizer of the competition and a water expert with the Foreign Ministry.
Before the competition, the children, ages 6 to 11, were coached by experts in dike building and water management. Volunteers stood by, many of them freshly graduated civil engineers, giving last-minute advice on how best to battle the rising water.
A recently released report by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development on water management in the Netherlands pointed to an “awareness gap” among Dutch citizens. The finding did much to get the sand castle contest off the ground.‘
Early Maori adapted the tropically based east Polynesian culture in line with the challenges associated with a larger and more diverse environment, eventually developing their own distinctive culture.
Even though the majority of the population now lives in cities, much of New Zealand’s art, literature, film and humor has rural themes.
The British and Irish immigrants brought aspects of their own culture to New Zealand and also influenced Maori culture. More recently American, Australian, Asian and other European cultures have exerted influence on New Zealand.
New Zealand music has been influenced by blues, jazz, country, rock and roll and hip hop, with many of these genres given a unique New Zealand interpretation. Māori developed traditional chants and songs from their ancient South-East Asian origins, and after centuries of isolation created a unique “monotonous” and “doleful” sound.
Our vision recognises that our distinctive culture is core to what makes New Zealand a great place to live. Cultural expression, engagement and understanding are fundamental to a vibrant and healthy society and help define what it is to be a New Zealander.
Māori culture makes New Zealand unique in a globalised world and is central to our sense of place, identifying us as a nation. Active participation by Māori in distinct te ao Māori activity, will ensure Māori culture is protected and flourishes.
Manatū Taonga / the Ministry for Culture and Heritage (the Ministry) is the Government’s leading advisor on cultural matters; funds, monitors and supports a range of cultural agencies; and delivers a range of high quality cultural products and services.
The Ministry provides advice to the Government on where to focus its interventions in the cultural sector. The Ministry seeks to ensure that Vote funding is invested as effectively and efficiently as possible, and that the Government’s priorities are met.
The Ministry has a strong track record of delivering high quality publications (including websites), managing our significant heritage and commemorations, and acting as guardian of New Zealand’s culture and kaitiaki of New Zealand’s taonga. Our work prioritises cultural outcomes and supports educational, economic, and social outcomes linking with the work of a range of other government agencies.
Over the past 30 years or more, through reform and opening up, Tibet has been proactively promoting commerce, foreign trade and tourism. It has increased exchanges with other parts of China as well as communication and cooperation with foreign countries. In 1993 Tibet began to develop the socialist market economy with the rest of the country, developing into a new system within the same framework. Reforms have been carried out in the pricing and circulation of goods and materials, grains, and consumer goods, all of which have entered the market system.
Currently Tibet is incorporated into the national market system. Commodities from all over the nation and across the world keep flowing into Tibet, enriching the urban and rural markets as well as the lives of the people. At the same time, well-known and quality products with local characteristics and folk handcrafts are transported to other parts of the country in large quantities.
Economically, Tibet is now more and more closely linked to the world. In 2012 the total volume of its foreign trade reached 3.424 billion U.S. dollars, more than 850 times that of 1953, which stood at 4 million U.S. dollars, with an annual growth rate of 12.1 percent. By the end of 2012 actualized foreign investment in Tibet was 470 million U.S. dollars. Taking advantage of its geographical position, Tibet is strengthening friendly cooperation with India, Nepal and other neighboring countries. To promote border trade, it is building a “commodity passageway” to South Asia via the land route.