1. Overarching /ˌəʊvərˈɑːtʃɪŋ/
We also need to have a strategic vision to deliver real outcomes with overarching and far-reaching significance.
First, we should stick to the overarching goal of common development and build an Asian community of shared interests.
The overarching goal is to improve and develop the socialist system with Chinese characteristics, advance the modernization of national governance system and capabilities
2. Humanity /hjuːˈmænɪtɪ/
基本意思是人类，也表示“仁慈”、“博爱”。本身不是多么有难度的词，主要是很多中文材料爱用“人类”，“全人类”这种表述，所以它的用法要掌握。此外，这个词的复数形式 The humanities 还表示人文学科。
They face charges of committing crimes against humanity.
Her speech showed great maturity and humanity.
The number of students majoring in the humanities has declined by about half.
3. That being said
That being said, we have also taken note of the claim by some （一些人） that a stronger China is bound to follow the beaten path to seek hegemony and pose a so-called “threat” to other countries.
That being said, the world remains far from tranquil. Traditional and non-traditional security threats are entwined. Financial risks, climate change, food security, cyber security and other global issues are becoming more acute.
基本的意思有“安全的”、“牢固的”，时政汉译英时常用它的“争取到”的意思，表示某种行为产生的结果，常用来翻译 “实现”等意义，替换 obtain/achieve/maitain。
Federal leaders continued their efforts to secure a ceasefire.
The principle of fairness secures a strong foundation, a cooperative approach generates momentum for development
During the past year, China has, overall, achieved a stable performance while at the same time securing progress in its economic and social development.
If China’s economy can grow at this rate for a relatively long time, we will secure a more solid material foundation for modernization.
We continued to make progress in securing fair access to education.
5. As a whole 作为一个整体，常用来翻译“整个（地区\实体\制度）”，在中文递进表达中较为常用。
China will strengthen cooperation with the South Asian countries to jointly advance regional cooperation in South Asia and Asia as a whole.
The development and progress in Tibet is in accord with the rules for the development of human society, and reflects the mutual aspirations of the people of all ethnic groups in Tibet. It is the natural result of the overall development and progress of China as a whole.
Each of these provisions must be understood in the context of the Basic Law and the HKSAR system as a whole.
make even bigger contribution to peace, stability, development and prosperity in Asia as a whole.
6. Daunting 常和困难、挑战、任务搭配使用
Now, six years on, the world economy is yet to emerge from the crisis. It still faces daunting challenges for strong growth.
Since the advent of modern times, Chinese society has been challenged by the daunting task of comprehensive transition to modernization.
Africa is the continent with the largest number of developing countries. Despite the economic take-off in many African countries, daunting challenges remain, such as weak infrastructure, underemployment and poverty.
7. Interdependent 相互依存的， 互相依赖的
As China and Europe become increasingly interdependent, we also face a growing number of common challenges.
countries are now increasingly interconnected and interdependent.
It has turned the world into a global village and made the international community a highly interdependent community of common destiny.
8. Momentum /məʊˈmɛntəm/ 势头，趋势
This campaign is really gaining momentum.
investment in fixed assets has rebounded, the housing market has picked up, and the economy as a whole has regained its momentum of growth.
strengthen new momentum to drive development.
Since the inception of our diplomatic ties in 1971, the China-Iran relationship has stood the test of international changes and maintained a momentum of sound and steady development.
9. Put in place 用来表示建立
We should put in place a national catalogue of basic public services.
We will put in place a housing system which encourages both renting and purchasing and, over time, enable eligible non-registered urban residents to apply for public rental housing.
10. Speed up 各种加快
We will help speed up negotiations on the establishment of the China-Japan-RoK free trade area.
11. Give top priority to / give priority to 表示对···重视
First, give top priority to development
To build a contingent of highly competent rule of law professionals, we need to give top priority to strengthening their political integrity
12. Standards 重要是注意这个词常用复数
We need to ensure that continuous progress is made in raising living standards, and see that everyone shares in the fruits of development.
We need to ensure that all schools providing compulsory education comply with educational standards, that everyone has access to secondary education
13. See to it that 常用的固定表达，表示“务必，必定 ”，很多时候和 ensure that 可以替换。可以用在多数表示计划、表示决心的句子里。个人感觉这个词没有太大的实际意义，但是可以酌情“强行使用”。
This year, we will see to it that six million housing units are rebuilt in rundown urban areas and that more people displaced by the rebuilding of such areas receive monetary housing compensation rather than housing.
In particular, we should strive for major progress in the control and prevention of air pollution and see to it that the air quality of cities at and above the prefectural level is good or excellent for 80% of the year.
see to it that the relationship between the central government and HKSAR is indeed brought onto a legal and institutionalized orbit.
14. All-round 全面的，有时候勉强可以用来表示“综合”、“整体”和各种“全”。
We strengthened all-round efforts to maintain law and order and cracked down on crimes in accordance with the law to safeguard public security.
Over the past year, China’s all-round diplomacy has delivered fruitful outcomes.
establish pilot reform zones for all-round innovation
in accordance with the overall plan for promoting all-round economic, political, cultural, social, and ecological progress and the Four-Pronged Comprehensive Strategy
We will launch a new round of national pilot projects for all-round service sector reform
15. Access 常用短语 have access to，有时也用 gain access to，表示有······的机会。通常用来化被动为主动，可以结合例句体会。
We need to ensure that all schools providing compulsory education comply with educational standards, that everyone has access to secondary education
ensure that every resident has access to safe, effective, convenient and affordable basic medical and health services
undertook the restoration project of the 340-kilometer national highway network destroyed in the flood-stricken areas, enabling 150 million people to have access to the traffic network
16. Momentous 看着很面熟，但是意思是“重大的”
If you refer to a decision, event, or change as momentous, you mean that it is very important, often because of the effects that it will have in the future. 重大的
Upholding international rule of law is a momentous choice China has made based on its own experience.
2014 年 5 月 CATTI 英语三级笔译实务也考到了这个词：
This could be momentous for Greenland, which has long relied on half a billion dollars a year in welfare payments from Denmark, its parent state.
17. Uphold 维护，常用来表示“坚持”
We will remain committed to our major policies on Taiwan, uphold the 1992 Consensus as the political foundation, resolutely oppose separatist activities for the independence of Taiwan
We must deepen reform across the board, uphold and improve the basic economic system
18. Encroach on 侵犯
If one thing encroaches on another, the first thing spreads or becomes stronger, and slowly begins to restrict the power, range, or effectiveness of the second thing. 逐步侵犯
The new institutions do not encroach on political power.
Still less should they encroach on the rights and interests of other countries under the pretext of “the rule of law” in total disregard of objectivity and fairness.
Some of these problems involve an array of departmental interests, for some it will be difficult to reach consensus, and some will encroach on certain people’s interests.
19. Mount，本身表示加大，常用分词形式，延伸出来的增加、拓展、集聚等词都可以用 mount 来译。
Downward pressure on China’s economy has continued to mount
mounting downward pressure on the economy of countries in the region
To the emerging markets and developing world in general, risks and challenges continue to mount
20. Era 本身是时代，汉译英时常用来翻译“新形势”、“新时期”、“新纪元”等词。
decided on guiding principles for the work in Tibet in the new era and issued favorable policies for Tibet’s development
The founding of the People’s Republic of China and the independence of Arab countries created a new era for China-Arab friendly exchanges.
21. Decide on，主要替换“制定”等词。
If you decide on something or decide upon something, you choose it from two or more possibilities. 作出决定
Denikin held a staff meeting to decide on the next strategic objective.
22. Pool，常取其“汇”之意，有时用法和 channel 接近
They pooled their money to buy a house.
Second, we will help people to pool their ideas and talents through a synergy of business startups, innovation, and the Internet Plus.
We will draw on the Chinese Dream and socialism with Chinese characteristics to build consensus and pool strength, nurture and practice the core socialist values, and make greater efforts to foster patriotism.
23. Stand by ，除了 maintain，pursue 和 uphold 之外，另一个表示“坚持” 的词
If you stand by an earlier decision, promise, or statement, you continue to support it or keep it. 坚持 (原有的决定、承诺或声明)
例：The decision has been made and I have got to stand by it.
We firmly stand by our sovereignty and rights and interests in the South China Sea
China and ASEAN have established a wide-ranging, multi-tiered and comprehensive pattern for good-neighbourliness, friendship and cooperation as well as a community of shared destinies, where we stand by each other in both the good and bad times
24. Enduring ，持久的，长久的，在大国关系和国家政策、个人发展等语境中都会经常用到。
This chance meeting was the start of an enduring friendship.
make the Asian dream of enduring peace and common prosperity come true
A sound fiscal and taxation system is an institutional necessity if we are to optimize the allocation of resources, safeguard a unified market, promote social fairness, and ensure the enduring peace and stability of the country.
To gain a strong foothold in the strong tide of competition, claim the advantage in an ultra-competitive environment in which the weak are left behind, and make a difference through a lifetime of serving the motherland and people, workers must rely on tireless learning and an enduring commitment to work.
25. Sound 除了声音之外还有“健康的，强壮的；正常的；健全的” 等意思，因为这类词都是满满的积极意义，所以时政公文汉译英常会用到。简单来说，可以用 good 的地方有时候都可以用 sound (不绝对).
China’s basic national conditions dictate that development still holds the key to solving all of China’s problems. Based on this realization, we must continue to regard economic development as our central task and make efforts to promote China’ssound and sustainable economic and social development.
Reform requires sound planning and execution.
Progress smoothly and yield sound results
Strengthen nuclear emergency management and ensure that nuclear energy has always maintained a sound safety record.
26. Strength, 既可以表示“力量”，也可以表示“优势”、“强项”
The achievements attained during the period of the 12th Five-Year Plan fully demonstrate the strength of socialism with Chinese characteristics
China has always held that all countries, regardless of their size, strength or level of development, are equal in international relations.
Tact was never Mr. Moore’s strength.
27. Per annum /pər ˈænəm/ 每年
A particular amount per annum means that amount each year. 每年
We will merge the basic medical insurance systems for rural and non-working urban residents and raise government subsidies for the scheme from 380 to 420 yuan per capita per annum.
China’s economy grew at more than 10 percent per annum for 30 years running, and has become the second biggest in the world.
28 Per capita /pə ˈkæpɪtə/ 人均，既可以做形容词也可以做副词
They have the world’s largest per capita income.
Ethiopia has almost the lowest oil consumption per capita in the world.
The per capita disposable income of China’s urban residents has increased from RMB 343 to over RMB 26,900, while the per capita net income of its farmers has risen from RMB 133 to more than RMB 8,800.
29. Represent 本身是代表、象征的意思，英语中经常用来表示“是”这种判断，时政公文英译时用法也非常灵活，类似 feature 和 register。
New York represents everything that’s great about America.
Peace, development and win-win cooperation represent an unstoppable trend of our time.
GDP reached 67.7 trillion yuan, representing an increase of 6.9% over the previous year-a growth rate faster than that of most other major economies.
Today in Asia, peace and stability is the defining trend, and development and prosperity represent the common aspirations of the people.
30. Shape，除了形状之外还表示“塑造”，所以有时候“构建”、“创造”、“改造”之类意义的词也可以用shape 翻译
Shape a comprehensive system for CBM cooperation.
The future is something that you either expect or shape
The discovery of the atom and the subsequent development and utilization of nuclear energy gave a new impetus to the progress of humanity and greatly enhanced mankind’s ability to understand and shape the world.
31. Consensus 共识，属于记住就能用的。
A consensus is general agreement among a group of people. 共识
The consensus among the world’s scientists is that the world is likely to warm up over the next few decades.
Work with other members to implement the consensus of the Shanghai Summit
Your approach to a task, problem, or situation is the way you deal with it or think about it。所以汉译英时各种表示办法的词汇都可以酌情使用 approach。
An innovative approach in international relations
Approach of promoting trust through dialogue, maintaining security through trust and seeking development through security
Develop new approaches to macro regulation
Adopt a unified approach to gathering information on enterprise credit, release such information in accordance with the law, ensure joint punitive action is taken where necessary, and encourage public oversight.
Conscientiously apply rule of law thinking and approaches in their work
33. Bolster 表示“增强”、“提高”、“巩固”
It will also provide technical assistance in industrial planning, project feasibility study, consulting and other areas to help member states bolster capacity-building.
Hopes of an early cut in interest rates bolstered confidence.
The country is free to adopt policies to bolster its economy.
34. Drive 和 Driver，除了开车，还有“驱动”、“推动”、“动力” 的意思
The current flows into electric motors that drive the wheels.
a machine driven by waterpower
We need to move faster and take more concrete actions. We have reached a new departure point. We should, guided by the SCO Development Strategy Towards 2025, make the SCO cross new thresholds and make it an anchor and driver for promoting stability and development of the countries in the region.
The focus of agenda will be on promoting innovation-driven development to strengthen new drivers for economic development
35. Count on 依靠
Don’t count on Lillian.
To succeed, it needs to count on the solidarity, cooperation and synergy of all sides.
36. Lay out 清晰表达，表述，阐释
Maxwell listened closely as Johnson laid out his plan.
Earlier, speaking on behalf of the Chinese government, President Xi Jinping laid out China’s views and proposals on how to put into practice the vision of common, comprehensive, cooperative, and sustainable security and build a security governance model with Asian characteristics.
37. Pursue 有两个大方面的意思，一是执行; 贯彻 ，二是追求; 努力实现，可以对应很多中文词汇
It is closely related to the current situation in Asia and meets the urgent need of all parties to pursue security, stability and development.
Guided by the general strategy for regional development, we should pursue the Three Initiatives to form north-south and east-west intersecting economic belts along the coastline, the Yangtze River, and major transportation routes, and foster new growth poles and city clusters that facilitate the development of surrounding areas.
We pursued prudent monetary policy with an appropriate amount of intensity, making several cuts to interest rates and required reserve ratios, reforming management of the loan-to-deposit ratio, creating new monetary policy tools, and increasing support for the real economy.
We will pursue a more proactive employment policy and encourage business startups that create employment.
Witnesses say the firing was deliberate and sustained.
She deliberated over the decision for a good few years before she finally made up her mind.
We inspected compliance with six laws; heard and deliberated 17 work reports from the State Council, the Supreme People’s Court, and the Supreme People’s Procuratorate
39. Have an important bearing on 替换 important
The fight against terrorism has an important bearing on China’s national security, on the people’s immediate interests, and on the country’s reform, development, and stability.
40. Complaint，本身是“怨言; 投诉” A complaint is a statement in which you express your dissatisfaction with a situation，汉译英时经常用来代指群众反映的问题。
In response to strong public complaints about serious air pollution such as the frequent occurrence of smog, the Standing Committee worked energetically to revise and improve relevant laws while continuing to strengthen oversight.
41. Dereliction /ˌdɛrɪˈlɪkʃən/ 渎职，玩忽职守。这个词并不属于基本词，不过一些材料中出现频率也不低。
He was degraded from office for his dereliction of duty.
tightens legal penalties for the unlawful production and sale of food and for neglect and dereliction of food safety supervision duties
42. Indicator，理解为“是······的体现”。英语中很多类似词汇，可以用来替换汉语动词的意思，例如 driver（动力），producer（生产····），exporter（出口），manufacter（生产），monument （标志着）。英译汉时要把这类词转换成动词，汉译英反之。
Opposition to domestic violence is an important indicator of social progress, and an essential requirement for harmonious families and a stable society.
43. Put into effect 执行，实施，替换 implement或者 carry out 等。
Article 16 These Provisions shall be put into effect as of the date of approval by the State Council.
put into effect the decision made at the Fifth Plenary Session of the 18th CPC Central Committee to comprehensively implement a policy of allowing all couples to have two children