①very dirty; covered with dirt.
chimneys black with smoke
②full of anger or hatred
She shot her a black look.
③without hope; very depressing
The future looks pretty black.
④(literary) evil or immoral
black deeds / lies
①complete and total
They met by pure chance.
②[only before noun] concerned with increasing knowledge of the subject rather than with using knowledge in practical ways
technology as opposed to pure science subjects
①(disapproving) showing a lack of effort or care
a lazy piece of work
②(literary) moving slowly
the lazy river
①the front [sing.] (BrE) the road or area of land along the edge of the sea, a lake or a river.
Couples walked hand in hand along the front.
②a particular area of activity
Progress has been made on all fronts.
③[sing.] behaviour that is not genuine, done in order to hide your true feelings or opinions
It’s not always easy to put on a brave front for the family.
④ [C, usually sing.] ~ (for sth) a person or an organization that is used to hide an illegal or secret activity
The travel company is just a front for drug trafficking.
⑤Front [sing.] used in the names of some political organizations
the Animal Liberation Front
⑥[C] the line where a mass of cold air meets a mass of warm air
a cold / warm front
①an activity, a job, an interest, etc. that is thought to be suitable for one particular person or group of people
Football is no longer the preserve of men.
②[C, usually pl., U] a type of jam made by boiling fruit with a large amount of sugar
③[C, usually pl., U] (especially BrE) a type of pickle made by cooking vegetables with salt or vinegar
an area of private land or water where animals and fish are kept for people to hunt
①[VN] (usually used in negative sentences通常用于否定句) to recognize sb / sth and be able to identify them / it
I’ve seen her before but I just can’t place her.
②[VN] ~ sb (in sth) | ~ sb (with sb / sth) to find a suitable home, job, etc. for sb
The children were placed with foster parents.
③used to describe a person, a team or a horse, etc. finishing in a particular position in a race
He was placed fifth in last Saturday’s race.
①(law 律) children of your own
He died without issue.
①[verb](AustralE, NZE) to buy drinks or food for sb in a bar, restaurant, etc.
I’ll shout—what are you drinking?
②[noun](BrE, informal) a person’s turn to buy drinks
What are you drinking? It’s my shout.
①[only before noun] (disapproving) (of a person 人) always unhappy, bad-tempered and unfriendly
- 乖戾的；脾气严峻【SYN】 grumpy :
He was a miserable old devil.
②too small in quantity
- 太少的；少得可怜的【SYN】 paltry :
How can anyone live on such a miserable wage?
①a small group of people standing close together
②a tight, hard feeling in the stomach, throat, etc. caused by nerves, anger, etc.
My stomach was in knots.
③a unit for measuring the speed of boats and aircraft; one nautical mile per hour
①[VN] ~ yourself to behave in a way that is not socially acceptable
I’m forgetting myself. I haven’t offered you a drink yet!
①(of behaviour行为) dishonest or immoral
The whole system is inefficient and corrupt.
②(computing 计) containing changes or faults, and no longer in the original state
The text on the disk seems to be corrupt.
①[C] ~ of sb / sth a large number of people or things
host of possibilities
②[verb]to store a website on a computer connected to the Internet, usually in return for payment
a company that builds and hosts e-commerce sites
①[VN] to make trade, business, etc. less active
The recession has depressed the housing market.
②[VN] (formal) to press or push sth down, especially part of a machine
to depress the clutch pedal (= when driving).
①[U] ~ (of sb) (in sth) the fact of being involved, or of involving sb, in sth, especially a crime
- (被)牵连,牵涉【SYN】involvement :
He resigned after his implication in a sex scandal.
①thin, and usually quite tall
①not ~ sth / doing sth to not be suitable for sth
The joke doesn’t bear repeating (= because it is not funny or may offend people).
②~ sth (against / towards sb) | ~ sb sth to have a feeling, especially a negative feeling
He bears no resentment towards them.
③[VN] (formal) to show sth; to carry sth so that it can be seen
The document bore her signature.
④(formal) to have a particular name
a family that bore an ancient and honoured name
⑤[VN] ~ yourself well, etc. (formal) to move, behave or act in a particular way
He bears himself (= stands, walks, etc.) proudly, like a soldier.
⑥(formal) to give birth to a child
She was not able to bear children.
⑦[VN] (formal) to produce flowers or fruit
⑧[V] ~ (to the) left, north, etc. to go or turn in the direction mentioned
When you get to the fork in the road, bear right.
①~ sb / sth (against / for sth) to protect sb against loss, injury, etc. by insurance
Are you fully covered for fire and theft?
②[VN] ~ yourself (against sth) to take action in order to protect yourself against being blamed for sth
One reason doctors take temperatures is to cover themselves against negligence claims.
③[VN] to aim a gun at a place or person so that nobody can escape or shoot
The police covered the exits to the building.
④[VN] to record a new version of a song that was originally recorded by another band or singer
They’ve covered an old Rolling Stones number.
①[U] strong feelings, especially of anger or excitement
In the heat of the moment she forgot what she wanted to say (= because she was so angry or excited).
②pressure on sb to do or achieve sth
The heat is on now that the election is only a week away.
③[C] one of a series of races or competitions, the winners of which then compete against each other in the next part of the competition
a qualifying heat
①[V +adv. / prep.] to move quickly and / or smoothly, especially in a way that impresses or is intended to impress other people
Without another word she swept out of the room.
①written material that is to be printed in a newspaper, magazine, etc.; news or information that can be used in a newspaper article or advertisement
The subeditors prepare the reporters’ copy for the paper and write the headlines.
①full of very strong feeling
②not carefully planned; not sensible or accurate
He made a wild guess at the answer.
③~ about sb / sth (informal) very enthusiastic about sb / sth
She’s totally wild about him.
④affected by storms and strong winds
- 狂暴的；暴风雨的【SYN】 stormy :
a wild night
①[C] a fixed period of time after which a law or the effect of a law will end
There is a five-year sunset on the new tax.
①[C] any of the main parts that a long piece of music is divided into
the slow movement of the First Concerto
①[U] (BrE, informal) (in questions and negative sentences用于疑问句和否定句) success or satisfaction
We complained about our rooms but got no joy from the manager.
①making sth seem negative and less attractive or good
What are the car’s minus points (= the disadvantages) ?
On the minus side, rented property is expensive and difficult to find.
①(BrE) (NAmE re’port card) a written statement about a student’s work at school, college, etc.
to get a good / bad report
②the sound of an explosion or of a gun being fired
- 爆炸声；射击声【SYN】 bang , blast :
a loud report
①[U] the power to interest people
It’s a well-constructed crime story, told with speed and punch.
①[U] food, clothes and all the other things that a person needs to live; the cost of these things
It’s about time you got a job to earn your keep.
②[C] a large strong tower, built as part of an old castle
①[VN] ~ itself (formal) (of a feeling) to become obvious in a particular way
Their pleasure expressed itself in a burst of applause.
②[VN] to remove air or liquid from sth by pressing it
Coconut milk is expressed from grated coconuts.
①[N](BrE) a place where you can take rubbish / garbage and leave it
②(BrE) to leave rubbish / garbage somewhere outdoors in order to get rid of it
‘No tipping.’ (= for example, on a notice)
③~ sb / sth (as / for sth) to say in advance that sb / sth will be successful
The band is being tipped for the top.
④[VN] [usually passive] ~ sth (with sth) to cover the end or edge of sth with a colour, a substance, etc.
The wings are tipped with yellow.
①to spoil sth because you do not do it very well
- 糟蹋；毁坏；弄坏【SYN】 butcher :
Critics accused him of murdering the English language (= writing or speaking it very badly).
①[VN] ~ ideas (off sb)/(around) to tell sb your ideas in order to find out what they think about them
He bounced ideas off colleagues everywhere he went.
②[U, C] the energy that a person has
All her old bounce was back.
①(technical 术语) in or towards the front part of a ship or plane
The main cabin is situated forward of (= in front of) the mast.
②behaving towards sb in a manner which is too confident or too informal
I hope you don’t think I’m being too forward.
①(formal) a person who thinks, behaves, dresses, etc. in an unusual way
①[VN] when a snake casts its skin, the skin comes off as part of a natural process
- (蛇)蜕(皮)【SYN】 shed
②[VN] if a horse casts a shoe, the shoe comes off by accident
③[VN] ~ sb (as sth) | ~ sb (in sth) to describe or present sb in a particular way
He cast himself as the innocent victim of a hate campaign.
④[VN] ~ a / your vote / ballot (for sb / sth) to vote for sb / sth
⑤[VN] ~ sth (in sth) to shape hot liquid metal, etc. by pouring it into a hollow container (called a mould )
a statue cast in bronze
⑥[C] an object that is made by pouring hot liquid metal, etc. into a mould (= a specially shaped container)
⑦[C] a shaped container used to make an object
- 模子；铸模【SYN】 mould
⑧[sing.] (BrE, formal) the way that a person or thing is or appears
He has an unusual cast of mind.
①[VN] to injure a muscle, etc. by stretching it too much
a torn ligament
②[V +adv. / prep.] to move somewhere very quickly or in an excited way
He tore off down the street.
③[noun]a hole that has been made in sth by tearing
This sheet has a tear in it.
①thick and almost solid; difficult to stir
Whisk the egg whites until stiff.
②more difficult or severe than usual
It was a stiff climb to the top of the hill.
③(of a person or their behaviour 人或其行为) not friendly or relaxed
The speech he made to welcome them was stiff and formal
④[only before noun] strong; containing a lot of alcohol
①[C] (geology 地) the point at which an earthquake starts to happen
①an upper limit on an amount of money that can be spent or borrowed by a particular institution or in a particular situation
The government has placed a cap on local council spending.
②a small paper container with explosive powder inside it, used especially in toy guns
③[often passive] (especially BrE) to limit the amount of money that can be charged for sth or spent on sth
a capped mortgage
④(especially BrE) to say or do sth that is funnier, more impressive, etc. than sth that has been said or done before
What an amazing story. Can anyone cap that?
⑤[usually passive] to put an artificial covering on a tooth to make it look more attractive
He’s had his front teeth capped.
⑥[usually passive] (BrE) to choose sb to play in their country’s national team for a particular sport
He has been capped more than 30 times for Wales.
①[VN +adv. / prep.] [usually passive] to make sb / sth be in a particular state
The problem was suddenly thrown into sharp focus.
②[VN] (informal) to make sb feel upset, confused, or surprised
The news of her death really threw me.
③[VN] (technical 术语) to make a clay pot, dish, etc.
a hand-thrown vase
④[VN] to send light or shade onto sth
The trees threw long shadows across the lawn.
④[VN] ~ your voice to make your voice sound as if it is coming from another person or place
- 使变音；使嗓音听起来像来自他人(或他处)【SYN】 project
⑤[VN] ~ a punch to hit sb with your fist
⑥[VN] to move a switch, handle, etc. to operate sth
⑦[VN] to have a sudden period of bad-tempered behaviour, violent emotion, etc.
Children often throw tantrums at this age.
⑧[VN] ~ a party (informal) to give a party
⑧[VN] (informal) to deliberately lose a game or contest that you should have won
He was accused of having thrown the game.
⑨the distance which sth is thrown
a javelin throw of 57 metres
⑩a loose cloth cover that can be thrown over a sofa , etc.
①[C, U] an act of putting or spreading sth, such as paint or medical creams, onto sth else
lotion for external application only (= to be put on the skin, not swallowed)
②[U] (formal) determination to work hard at sth; great effort
Success as a writer demands great application.
①~ of breath having difficulty breathing, for example because of illness
②[not before noun] ~ (with sb) (of a person人) speaking to sb using few words in a way that seems rude
I’m sorry I was short with you earlier—I had other things on my mind.
③not as far as you need or expect
All too often you pitch the ball short.
③before the time expected or arranged; before the natural time
a career tragically cut short by illness
①[C] a job that is available
- 空缺的职位【SYN】 vacancy :
There are several openings in the sales department
②[C] a good opportunity for sb
Winning the competition was the opening she needed for her career.
①without interest or variety; making you feel sad
Life seems grey and pointless without him.
②(disapproving) not interesting or attractive
The company was full of faceless grey men who all looked the same.
③[only before noun] connected with old people
the grey vote
④[Noun][C] a grey or white horse
She’s riding the grey.
①~ the best, nicest, etc. without doubt; definitely
It’s easily the best play I’ve seen this year.
②very probably; very likely
Are you sure you locked the gate? You could easily have forgotten.
①(BrE) [U] a type of hard sweet / candy made in long sticks, often sold in places where people go on holiday / vacation by the sea / ocean
②[C, usually pl.] (NAmE, informal) a precious stone , especially a diamond
③[C, usually sing.] a person who is emotionally strong and who you can rely on
He is my rock.
④[Verb] (slang) sth rocks used to say that sth is very good
Her new movie rocks!
①(also port ‘wine) [U] a strong sweet wine, usually dark red, that is made in Portugal. It is usually drunk at the end of a meal.
②[U] the side of a ship or aircraft that is on the left when you are facing forward
the port side
③[C] (computing 计) a place on a computer where you can attach another piece of equipment, often using a cable
the modem port
④verb [VN] (computing计) to copy software from one system or machine to another
①[V] ~ (to sb / sth) (formal) to pay attention to what sb is saying or to what you are doing
She hadn’t been attending during the lesson.
②[VN] (formal) to happen at the same time as sth
She dislikes the loss of privacy that attends TV celebrity.
①[V to inf] (formal) to behave in a way that shows a lack of respect by doing sth that you have no right to do
I wouldn’t presume to tell you how to run your own business.
①(formal) a person or thing that has an important effect on a situation
The charity has been an agent for social change.
②(technical 术语) a chemical or a substance that produces an effect or a change or is used for a particular purpose
cleaning / oxidizing agents
③ = secret agent :
an enemy agent
①[C, U] a legal process to stop a person or company from doing sth, or to make them pay for a mistake, etc.
A libel action is being brought against the magazine that published the article.
②[U] fighting in a battle or war
soldiers killed in action
③[U] the events in a story, play, etc.
The action takes place in France.
④[U] exciting events
New York is where the action is.
⑤[U, C] (technical 术语) the way a part of the body moves or functions
a study of the action of the liver
①[adj](of people 人) very accurate and careful about details
②If something exacts a high price, it has a bad effect on a person or situation.
The strain of a violent ground campaign will exact a toll on troops.
③If someone exacts revenge on a person, they have their revenge on them.
She uses the media to help her exact a terrible revenge.
①[V] ~ in / on / for sth | ~ as sth to have an official position as sth or as a member of sth
He was sitting as a temporary judge.
②[V] (of a parliament, committee, court of law, etc. 议会、委员会、法庭等) to meet in order to do official business
Parliament sits for less than one months of the year.
③(BrE, rather formal) to do an exam
Candidates will sit the examinations in June.
④[V] ~ (for sb) = babysit :
Who’s sitting for you?
①[VN] to make an idea, a story, etc. clearer by explaining it further
- 详尽阐述；阐明【SYN】 elaborate on :
She develops the theme more fully in her later books.
②[VN] to treat film which has been used to take photographs with chemicals so that the pictures can be seen
I had the film developed yesterday.
③If a piece of equipment develops a fault, it starts to have the fault.
The aircraft made an unscheduled landing after developing an electrical fault.
①[C, usually sing.] a share of the profits of sth
He gets a percentage for every car sold.
①difficult to manage with because there is not enough
We have a very tight budget.
②looking or sounding anxious, upset, angry, etc.
‘I’m sorry,’ she said, with a tight smile.
③feeling painful or uncomfortable because of illness or emotion
- (由于疾病或情感)疼痛的,不适的,憋气的【SYN】 constricted :
He complained of having a tight chest.
④having a close relationship with sb else or with other people
It was a tight community and newcomers were not welcome.
⑤curving suddenly rather than gradually
The driver slowed down at a tight bend in the road.
⑥with runners, teams, etc. that seem to be equally good
- 势均力敌的；不相上下的；旗鼓相当的【SYN】 close :
a tight race
⑦(informal, disapproving) not wanting to spend much money; not generous
- 小气的；吝啬的；不大方的【SYN】 mean :
He’s very tight with his money.
⑧[not usually before noun] (old-fashioned, informal) drunk
- 喝醉；醉醺醺【SYN】 tipsy
⑧(in compounds 构成复合词) not allowing the substance mentioned to enter
measures to make your home weathertight
①(of a society, club, place, etc. 社团、俱乐部、地方等) used by people who have a lot of money or a high social position
- 有钱、有社会地位的人使用的【SYN】 exclusive :
They live in a very select area.
②[only before noun] carefully chosen as the best out of a larger group of people or things
Only a select few (= a small number of people) have been invited to the wedding.
①~ A (from / out of B) | ~ B (into A) to make or shape sth, especially with your hands
She fashioned a pot from the clay.
①[V] (especially NAmE) ~ (with sb / sth) (informal) to hit sb / sth
The blow connected and she felt a surge of pain.
②[V] ~ (with sb) (especially NAmE) to form a good relationship with sb so that you like and understand each other
They met a couple of times but they didn’t really connect.
①[noun]a particular type of person, thing, organization, etc.
She’s not a political animal.
②[adj]relating to the physical needs and basic feelings of people
animal magnetism (= a quality in sb that other people find attractive, usually in a sexual way)
①[usually passive] to make models, toys, etc. seem to move in a film / movie by rapidly showing slightly different pictures of them in a series, one after another
[U] (physics 物) the way in which light meets a surface
the angle of incidence
①~ sb (as sth) to give sb a particular impression
She strikes me as a very efficient person.
It strikes me that nobody is really in favour of the changes.
②[VN] to fall on a surface
The windows sparkled as the sun struck the glass.
③[VN-ADJ] [usually passive] to put sb suddenly into a particular state
to be struck dumb / deaf / blind
④[VN] to produce a musical note, sound, etc. by pressing a key or hitting sth
to strike a chord on the piano
⑤[VN] to discover gold, oil, etc. by digging or drilling
They had struck oil!
⑤[V +adv. / prep.] ~ (off / out) to go somewhere with great energy or purpose
We left the road and struck off across the fields.
⑥[V] ~ (for sth) to refuse to work as a protest
The union has voted to strike for a pay increase of 6%.
⑦to rub sth such as a match against a surface so that it produces a flame; to produce a flame when rubbed against a rough surface
to strike a match on a wall
⑧to show the time by making a ringing noise, etc.
- 敲；鸣；报时【SYN】 chime :
Did you hear the clock strike?
⑨[usually sing.] a sudden discovery of sth valuable, especially oil
⑩(NAmE) ~ (against sb / sth) a bad thing or action that damages sb / sth’s reputation
The amount of fuel that this car uses is a big strike against it.
①unpleasant or unkind and rather obvious
I was tired of his cheap jokes at my expense.
②(disapproving) having a low status and therefore not deserving respect
His treatment of her made her feel cheap (= ashamed, because she had lost her respect for herself).
③(NAmE) (BrE mean) (informal, disapproving) not liking to spend money
Don’t be so cheap!
①(formal) including many or most things
to have catholic tastes (= to like many different things)
①full of excitement; making people excited
- 充满刺激的；令人激动的【SYN】 electrifying :
The atmosphere was electric
①[VN] to buy or sell sth
- 买；卖【SYN】 deal in :
They were arrested for handling stolen goods.
①(literary) clear, like water
- 清澈的；明亮的；晶莹的【SYN】 limpid :
liquid blue eyes
②(literary) (of sounds 声音) clear, pure and flowing
the liquid song of a blackbird
①[sing.] ~ of sth a very slight amount of sth that is left behind or that you are not sure really exists
There was a ghost of a smile on his face.
②[sing.] a second image on a television screen that is not as clear as the first, caused by a fault
③[V ] (literary) to move without making a sound
They ghosted up the smooth waters of the river.
①the power or weapons that a country has for war or for military action
Britain’s nuclear / military capability
①[C, usually sing.] the official position or function that sb has
- 职位；职责【SYN】 role :
We are simply involved in an advisory capacity on the project.
①~ sb’s attention / imagination / interest to make sb interested in sth
They use puppets to capture the imagination of younger audiences.
②to succeed in accurately expressing a feeling, an atmosphere, etc. in a picture, piece of writing, film / movie, etc.
- (用图画、文章、电影等准确地)表达,刻画,描述【SYN】 catch :
The article captured the mood of the nation.
③[often passive] ~ sb / sth on film / tape / canvas, etc. to film / record / paint, etc. sb / sth
The attack was captured on film by security cameras.
④to put sth into a computer in a form it can use
①If someone receives stolen goods, they buy or are given things that have been stolen.
He went to prison for receiving stolen scrap iron…
①(also of7ficial re’ceiver) (law 律) a person who is chosen by a court to be in charge of a company that is bankrupt
to call in the receivers
[usually sing.] (finance 财) an amount of money that you lend to sb or invest to earn interest
the person who has the most important part in a play, an opera , etc.
(technical 术语) a person that you are representing, especially in business or law
①[usually before noun] (BrE) not permanent; not done, or doing sth regularly
Students sometimes do casual work in the tourist trade.
②[usually before noun] without deep affection
a casual acquaintance
④[only before noun] happening by chance; doing sth by chance
a casual encounter / meeting
①[VN] to order sth to happen; to announce that sth will happen
to call a meeting / an election / a strike
②to say which side of a coin you think will face upwards after it is thrown
to call heads / tails
③[sing.] ~ (of sth) (literary) a strong feeling of attraction that a particular place has for you
the call of the sea / your homeland
④[C] (informal) a decision
That’s a tough call.
⑤[C] a decision made by the umpire
There was a disputed call in the second set.
①[VN] ~ sth (on sb) | ~ sb with sth (law 律) to give or send sb an official document, especially one that orders them to appear in court
to serve a writ / summons on sb
②(in tennis , etc. 网球等) to start playing by throwing the ball into the air and hitting it
She served an ace.
①[V] ~ (away / off) to slope downwards
The land falls away sharply towards the river.
②[V] to be defeated or captured
The coup failed but the government fell shortly afterwards
③[V] (literary) to die in battle; to be shot
a memorial to those who fell in the two world wars
①proceedings [pl.] the official written report of a meeting, etc.
①[C, usually sing.] (BrE) (NAmE de∙duct∙ible) the part of an insurance claim that a person has to pay while the insurance company pays the rest
There is an excess of £100 on each claim under this policy.
②excesses [pl.] extreme behaviour that is unacceptable, illegal or immoral
We need a free press to curb government excesses.
①[C, usually pl.] (BrE) a reduction in an amount of money that has to be paid; a ticket that is sold at a reduced price to a particular group of people
②[C] a right or an advantage that is given to a group of people, an organization, etc., especially by a government or an employer
The Bolivian government has granted logging concessions covering 22 million hectares.
③[C] the right to sell sth in a particular place; the place where you sell it, sometimes an area which is part of a larger building or store
the burger concessions at the stadium
①[C] something that is important to a person, an organization, etc.
The government’s primary concern is to reduce crime
②[C, usually sing.] (formal) something that is your responsibility or that you have a right to know about
This matter is their concern.
③[C] a company or business
a major publishing concern
④[VN to inf] be concerned to do sth (formal) to think it is important to do sth
She was concerned to write about situations that everybody could identify with.
⑤[VN] ~ yourself with / about sth to take an interest in sth
He didn’t concern himself with the details.
①[VN] to get or take sb’s attention
A most unwelcome event claimed his attention.
②[VN] to gain, win or achieve sth
She has finally claimed a place on the team.
③[VN] (of a disaster, an accident, etc. 灾难、事故等) to cause sb’s death
The car crash claimed seven lives.
④Noun.[C, U] ~ (on / to sth) a right that sb believes they have to sth, especially property, land, etc.
They had no claim on the land.
①[adj]of a high quality and expensive and therefore not often bought or used by most people
an exclusive hotel
②[Noun] an item of news or a story about famous people that is published in only one newspaper or magazine
①a musical instrument in the shape of a pipe that you blow into, with holes that you cover with your fingers
②a judge in a court in some parts of Britain and the US
③a person who keeps a record of events or facts
①(BrE) [U, C] a sweet drink that does not contain alcohol, made from fruit juice. It is drunk with water added.
②[U, C] (NAmE) = liqueur(BrE): a strong sweet alcoholic drink, sometimes flavoured with fruit. It is usually drunk in very small glasses after a meal.
②to give sb a particular rank or title
He was created a baronet in 1715.
②(often Creation) [U] the world and all the living things in it
①to affect sb suddenly and strongly
Memories of her childhood came flooding back.
②to spread suddenly into sth; to cover sth
She drew the curtains and the sunlight flooded in.
③[Noun][C] ~ (of sth) a very large number of things or people that appear at the same time
The child was in floods of tears (= crying a lot).
①[verb][VN] ~ yourself with sth (formal) to show that you support or agree with sth
May I associate myself with the Prime Minister’s remarks? (= I agree with them)
②[adj](often in titles 常用于头衔) of a lower rank, having fewer rights in a particular profession or organization
associate membership of the European Union
③a person that you work with, do business with or spend a lot of time with
④(also Associate) an associate
⑤Associate (US) a person who has an Associate’s degree (= one that is given after completing two years of study at a junior college)
①papers [pl.] official documents that prove your identity, give you permission to do sth, etc.
divorce / identification papers
②[C] (BrE) a set of exam questions on a particular subject; the answers that people write to the questions
The Geography paper was hard.
③[C, U] paper that you use to cover and decorate the walls of a room
The room was damp and the paper was peeling off.
①a wide flat area of sth, covering the surface of sth else
The road was covered with a sheet of ice.
②a large moving mass of fire or water
The rain was coming down in sheets (= very heavily).
③(technical 术语) a rope or chain fastened to the lower corner of a sail to hold it and to control the angle of the sail
①(technical 术语) connected with movement of the body that is produced by muscles; connected with the nerves that control movement
Both motor and sensory functions are affected.
①[V] ~ (on sb) to have an effect on sb / sth, especially a bad one
The strain was beginning to tell on the rescue team.
①a reason that sb gives for not doing sth or not agreeing
With so many ifs and buts, it is easier to wait and see.
①[VN] [often passive] to make sb / sth use all their effort, abilities, supplies, etc.
Jim didn’t really have to extend himself in the exam.
②[VN] ~ sth to sb (formal) to offer or give sth to sb
③The bank refused to extend credit to them (= to lend them money).
. [V +adv. / prep.] to relate to or include sb / sth
His willingness to help did not extend beyond making a few phone calls.
④[VN] to stretch part of your body, especially an arm or a leg, away from yourself
He extended his hand to (= offered to shake hands with) the new employee.
①[C] (informal, especially NAmE) a person who is paid to shoot sb
a hired gun
②[V] (NAmE) (of an engine 发动机) to run very quickly
a line of motorcycles with their engines gunning
③[VN +adv. / prep.] (NAmE) to start driving a vehicle very fast
He gunned the cab through the red light.
①[C] a social event or official ceremony
The hall provided a venue for weddings and other functions
②[C] (mathematics 数) a quantity whose value depends on the varying values of others. In the statement 2x=y, y is a function of x.
(figurative) Salary is a function of age and experience.
③[C] (computing 计) a part of a program, etc. that performs a basic operation
①(sometimes disapproving) to try to get sb’s friendship or support
He purposely tried to cultivate good relations with the press.
②to develop an attitude, a way of talking or behaving, etc.
She cultivated an air of sophistication
①[U] (technical 术语) the growing of plants or breeding of particular animals in order to get a particular substance or crop from them
the culture of silkworms (= for silk)
②[C] (biology 生, medical 医) a group of cells or bacteria, especially one taken from a person or an animal and grown for medical or scientific study, or to produce food; the process of obtaining and growing these cells
Yogurt is made from active cultures.
③verb [VN](biology 生, medical 医) to grow a group of cells or bacteria for medical or scientific study
①to exist or be found somewhere
Sugar occurs naturally in fruit.
①the fact of particular ideas, opinions or feelings being present in a group of people
Ministers are worried by this current of anti-government feeling.
①[verb](literary) (of liquid 液体) to move or flow quickly
②[C, usually sing.] the general direction in which sb’s ideas or actions are moving
The president appears likely to change course on some key issues.
③(also course of action) [C] a way of acting in or dealing with a particular situation
There are various courses open to us.
④[C, usually sing.] the direction a river moves in
The path follows the course of the river.
⑤[C] a continuous layer of bricks, stone, etc. in a wall
A new damp-proof course could cost £1,000 or more.
①to treat food or tobacco with smoke, salt, etc. in order to preserve it
②~ (for sth) something that will solve a problem, improve a bad situation, etc.
a cure for poverty
①[VN] to legally agree to give sb property or goods that are worth the same amount as the money that you have borrowed from them, if you are unable to pay the money back
a loan secured on the house
②[VN] ~ sth (to sth) to attach or fasten sth firmly
She secured the rope firmly to the back of the car.
①involving making fair, careful judgements about the good and bad qualities of sb / sth
Students are encouraged to develop critical thinking instead of accepting opinions without questioning them.
②serious, uncertain and possibly dangerous
The first 24 hours after the operation are the most critical.
③[only before noun] according to the judgement of critics of art, music, literature, etc.
the film director’s greatest critical success
①[U] protection against sth bad that might happen in the future
②[U, C] a valuable item, such as a house, that you agree to give to sb if you are unable to pay back the money that you have borrowed from them
His home and business are being held as security for the loan.
③securities [pl.] (finance 财) documents proving that sb is the owner of shares, etc. in a particular company
①to provide a prostitute for sb
He was accused of procuring under-age girls.
①a complete set or series, for example of movements in a machine
the rinse cycle (= in a washing machine)
①[VN] [usually passive] (formal) to be necessary or recommended
A course of chemotherapy was indicated.
②(BrE) to show that your vehicle is going to change direction, by using lights or your arm
- (用灯光或手臂)打行车转向信号【SYN】 signal :
Always indicate before moving into another lane.
③(of an instrument for measuring things 测量器具) to show a particular measurement
When the temperature gauge indicates 90°F or more, turn off the engine.
④to give information in writing
You are allowed 20kgs of baggage unless indicated otherwise on your ticket.
①(BrE) (NAmE ‘turn signal) (also informal blink∙er NAmE, BrE) a light on a vehicle that flashes to show that the vehicle is going to turn left or right
①to control or influence how sth happens
- 支配；摆布；决定【SYN】 determine :
When we take our vacations is very much dictated by Greg’s work schedule.
② ~ (sth) (to sb) to tell sb what to do, especially in an annoying way
They are in no position to dictate terms (= tell other people what to do).
③[noun](formal) an order or a rule that you must obey
to follow the dictates of fashion
①Doctrine [C] (US) a statement of government policy
Following World War II, the first U.S. commitment to Europe came in the form of the 1947 Truman Doctrine.
①~ sth (into sth) (formal) to put sth into sth
Particles of glass had been introduced into the baby food.
②to formally present a new law so that it can be discussed
to introduce a bill (before Parliament)
③to be the main speaker in a television or radio show, who gives details about the show and who presents the people who are in it; to tell the audience the name of the person who is going to speak or perform
The next programme will be introduced by Mary David.
①[C] (music 音) a short section at the beginning of a piece of music
an eight-bar introduction
②[sing.] ~ (to sth) a person’s first experience of sth
This album was my first introduction to modern jazz.
①offered for a short time only, when a product is first on sale
This introductory offer is for seven days only.
②intended as an introduction to a subject or an activity for people who have never done it before
introductory courses / lectures
①(mathematics 数) a quantity obtained by multiplying one number by another
The product of 21 and 16 is 336.
①~ of sth (formal) resulting in sth or causing sth
a play productive of the strongest emotions
①[VN , V] if you reduce a liquid or a liquid reduces, you boil it so that it becomes less in quantity
②[V] (NAmE, informal) to lose weight by limiting the amount and type of food that you eat
a reducing plan
③[VN] (chemistry 化) to add one or more electrons to a substance or to remove oxygen from a substance
①[C] an amount of money by which sth is made cheaper
There are reductions for children sharing a room with two adults.
②[C] a copy of a photograph, map, picture, etc. that is made smaller than the original one
- (照片、地图、图片等的)缩图,缩版【OPP】 enlargement
③(chemistry 化) the fact of adding one or more electrons to a substance or of removing oxygen from a substance
①[U, C] the act of making a pregnant woman start to give birth, using artificial means such as a special drug
②[U] (technical 术语) a method of discovering general rules and principles from particular facts and examples
③K[U] (physics 物) the process by which electricity or magnetism passes from one object to another without them touching
①[C, usually sing.] a problem or situation in which several things must be considered and dealt with
When children enter the equation, further tensions may arise within a marriage.
①[sing., U] ~ (for sth) a natural ability to learn or do sth easily
She has a facility for languages
②[C] a special feature of a machine, service, etc. that makes it possible to do sth extra
a bank account with an overdraft facility
①[U] (medical 医) a substance in the blood that helps the clotting process. There are several types of this substance
Haemophiliacs have no factor 8 in their blood.
②[C] a particular level on a scale of measurement
a suntan lotion with a protection factor of 10
③[C] the amount by which sth increases or decreases
The real wage of the average worker has increased by a factor of over ten in the last 70 years.
④[C] (mathematics 数) a number that divides into another number exactly
1, 2, 3, 4, 6 and 12 are the factors of 12.
①effects [pl.] (formal) your personal possessions
- (个人)财产,所有物,财物【SYN】 belongings :
The insurance policy covers all baggage and personal effects.
①(of people 人) not easy to please; not helpful
- 难以讨好的；难以取悦的；不愿帮助的【SYN】 awkward :
a difficult child / customer / boss
①[U, C] an important position of authority, especially in government; the work and duties connected with this
She held office as a cabinet minister for ten years.
The present government took office in 2005.
to stand for office
to seek / run for office
①(especially NAmE) a group of sports teams that play against each other in a league
Southeast Conference football champions
①[C] (abbr. ref.) a number, word or symbol that shows where sth is on a map, or where you can find a piece of information
Please quote your reference number when making an enquiry.
②[C] a letter written by sb who knows you, giving information about your character and abilities, especially to a new employer
We will take up references after the interview.
③[C] a person who agrees to write a reference for you, for example when you are applying for a job
- 推荐人；介绍人【SYN】 referee :
My previous boss will act as a reference for me.
①[C] (especially BrE) (NAmE usually decal) a picture or design that can be removed from a piece of paper and stuck onto a surface, for example by being pressed or heated
②[U] (psychology 心) the process of using behaviour which has already been learned in one situation in a new situation
①to be in a particular state or position at the end of a race or a competition
The dollar finished the day slightly down.
②[VN] ~ sb (off) (informal) to make sb so tired or impatient that they cannot do any more
Climbing that hill really finished me off.
③[C, U] the last covering of paint, polish, etc. that is put onto the surface of sth; the condition of the surface
a gloss / matt finish
④[C, U] the final details that are added to sth to make it complete
The bows will give a feminine finish to the curtains.
①very thin or narrow
fine blond hair
②[usually before noun] difficult to see or describe
- 难以看出的；很难描述的【SYN】 subtle :
There’s a fine line between love and hate (= it is easy for one to become the other).
③made of very small grains
④sounding important and impressive but unlikely to have any effect
His speech was full of fine words which meant nothing.
⑤(technical 术语) containing only a particular metal and no other substances that reduce the quality
①[U, C] (formal or old-fashioned) the time when a woman gives birth to a baby
the expected date of confinement
①[U] the quality of being clear and easy to see
The definition of the digital TV pictures is excellent.
①[usually before noun] considered to be the best of its kind and almost impossible to improve
the definitive biography of Einstein
①[VN] to have an influence on the way that sth develops
- 对…的发展有影响【SYN】 mould :
Positive and negative experiences form a child’s character.
②[U] (BrE) how fit and healthy sb is; the state of being fit and healthy
After one months’ training the whole team is in superb form.
③[U] how well sb / sth is performing; the fact that sb / sth is performing well
On current / present form the party is heading for another election victory.
④[U, C] (especially BrE) the usual way of doing sth
What’s the form when you apply for a research grant?
⑤[U] good / bad ~ (old-fashioned, BrE) the way of doing things that is socially acceptable / not socially acceptable
⑥(BrE, old-fashioned) a class in a school
Who’s your form teacher?
⑦-former (in compounds 构成复合词) (BrE, old-fashioned) a student in the form mentioned at school
①the particular shape of something
②[U, C] a particular arrangement or pattern
aircraft flying in formation
①(of a garden, room or building 花园、房间、建筑物) arranged in a regular manner, according to a clear, exact plan
delightful formal gardens, with terraced lawns and an avenue of trees
① [VN] (formal) to have an influence on sth
Religion informs every aspect of their lives.
①[C] ~ (for sth / for doing sth) a particular method of doing or achieving sth
They’re trying to work out a peace formula acceptable to both sides in the dispute.
②[C] a fixed form of words used in a particular situation
①[C] (usually after a noun 通常置于名词后) a particular activity that a group of people organize in order to achieve sth
②[C] the result of an attempt to do sth
I’m afraid this essay is a poor effort.
①having enough money to buy what you want without worrying about the cost
They’re not millionaires, but they’re certainly very comfortable.
②quite large; allowing you to win easily
The party won with a comfortable majority.
①the force [sing.] (BrE) the police force
He joined the force twenty years ago.
②the forces [pl.] (BrE) the army, navy and air force
③[C + sing. / pl. v.] a group of people who have been organized for a particular purpose
a member of the sales force
①[U] waste material that has been thrown away
- 废弃物；垃圾【SYN】 rubbish / garbage :
the city refuse dump
①(NAmE also fuze) a device that makes a bomb explode when it hits sth or at a particular time
He set the fuse to three minutes.
①(also nuclear fusion) [U] (physics 物) the act or process of combining the nuclei (= central parts) of atoms to form a heavier nucleus , with energy being released
①to prove sb / sth wrong
She confounded her critics and proved she could do the job.
②(old-fashioned) to defeat an enemy
①[C, usually sing.] a slight amount or sign of sth
- 微量；些微；迹象【SYN】 trace :
She looked at me with just a suggestion of a smile.
①needing a lot of effort, money or time to succeed
the government’s ambitious plans for social reform
①[U] (NAmE) the system of buses, trains, etc. which people use to travel from one place to another
the city’s mass / public transit system
①~ sb (into sth) to explain sth to sb and / or make them experience it for the first time
Many of them had been initiated into drug use at an early age.
①An injection of money or resources into an organization is the act of providing it with more money or resources, to help it become more efficient or profitable.
The company is hoping to obtain a £50 million cash injection from the government
①[usually passive] to estimate what the size, cost or amount of sth will be in the future based on what is happening now
- 预测；预计；推想【SYN】 forecast :
A growth rate of 4% is projected for next year.
②[V +adv. / prep.] to stick out beyond an edge or a surface
- 突出；外伸；伸出【SYN】 protrude :
a building with balconies projecting out over the street
③[VN] ~ (yourself) to present sb / sth / yourself to other people in a particular way, especially one that gives a good impression
He projected himself as a man worth listening to.
④[VN] to send or throw sth up or away from yourself
Actors must learn to project their voices.
⑤[noun] (NAmE) = housing project : a group of houses or flats / apartments built for poor families, usually with government money
Going into the projects alone is dangerous.
①something that cannot be used or sold because there is sth wrong with it
②a person who has not been accepted as a member of a team, society, etc.
one of society’s rejects
③to fail to give a person or an animal enough care or affection
The lioness rejected the smallest cub, which died.
①[VN] (technical 术语) to arrange lines of printed text so that one or both edges are straight
Click on this icon to align or justify text
①to receive sth; to win sth
to collect a prize / a medal
②[VN] to obtain the money, etc. that sb owes, for example by going to their house to get it
to collect rent / debts / tax
③[adj. , adv.]• (NAmE) (of a telephone call 电话) paid for by the person who receives the call
to make a collect call
①used after nouns to show that sb has been chosen for a job, but is not yet doing that job
the president elect
①(of a plan or an idea 计划或想法) clever but simple
an elegant solution to the problem
①(BrE, informal) a pub near where you live
I called in at my local on the way home.
②(NAmE) a branch of a trade / labor union
③ (NAmE) a bus or train that stops at all places on the route
①[C, U] a place outside a film studio where scenes of a film / movie are made
The movie was shot entirely on location in Italy.
①(of a look or movement 表情或动作) able to express a feeling
His eyes were eloquent.
①(technical 术语) to move a person’s bones or joints into the correct position
①[only before noun] next to or very close to a particular place or time
The prospects for the immediate future are good.
②[only before noun] nearest in relationship or rank
The funeral was attended by her immediate family (= her parents, children, brothers and sisters) only.
③[only before noun] having a direct effect
The immediate cause of death is unknown.
①(biology 生) a substance that sth exists or grows in or that it travels through
The bacteria were growing in a sugar medium.
②(pl. me∙diums) a person who claims to be able to communicate with the spirits of dead people
①[VN] [usually passive] (formal or technical 术语) to influence sth and / or make it possible for it to happen
Educational success is mediated by economic factors.
①[C] each of the 60 equal parts of a degree, used in measuring angles
37 degrees 30 minutes (37° 30″)
②the minutes [pl.] a summary or record of what is said or decided at a formal meeting
Who is going to take the minutes (= write them) ?
③[C] a short note on a subject, especially one that recommends a course of action
④[ verb ]to write down sth that is said at a meeting in the official record (= the minutes )
I’d like that last remark to be minuted.
[U] (law 律) the state of being under the age at which you are legally an adult
①a person, lower in rank than an ambassador , whose job is to represent their government in a foreign country
②[verb]minister to sb / sth (formal)
- to care for sb, especially sb who is sick or old, and make sure that they have everything they need
- 照料,服侍(年老或体弱者等)【SYN】 tend
①[often passive] ~ sth (to sb) (formal) to give drugs, medicine, etc. to sb
The dose was administered to the child intravenously.
②~ a kick, a punch, etc. (to sb / sth) (formal) to kick or to hit sb / sth
He administered a severe blow to his opponent’s head.
①(often Administration) [C] the government of a country, especially the US
the Bush administration
①[U] the amount of money that you pay to go into a building or to an event
①[VN] ~ yourself (to sth) to give an opinion or make a decision openly so that it is then difficult to change it
You don’t have to commit yourself now, just think about it.
②[V] ~ (to sb / sth) to be completely loyal to one person, organization, etc. or give all your time and effort to your work, an activity, etc.
Why are so many men scared to commit? (= say they will be loyal to one person)
③[VN] to spend money or time on sth / sb
The council has committed large amounts of money to housing projects.
④[VN] [often passive] ~ sb to sth to order sb to be sent to a hospital, prison, etc.
he was committed to a psychiatric hospital.
⑤[VN] to send sb for trial in court
⑥[VN] ~ sth to memory to learn sth well enough to remember it exactly
She committed the instructions to memory.
⑦[VN] ~ sth to paper / writing to write sth down
①[U, C] an amount of money that is paid to sb for selling goods and which increases with the amount of goods that are sold
You get a 10% commission on everything you sell.
②[U] an amount of money that is charged by a bank, etc. for providing a particular service
1% commission is charged for cashing traveller’s cheques.
③[C] a formal request to sb to design or make a piece of work such as a building or a painting
④[C] an officer’s position in the armed forces
⑤to officially ask sb to write, make or create sth or to do a task for you
⑤[usually passive] ~ sb (as) sth to choose sb as an officer in one of the armed forces
He has just been commissioned (as a) pilot officer.
①[V that] (law 律 or formal) to say or suggest sth
Counsel for the defence submitted that the evidence was inadmissible.
①[U, C] the system in a vehicle by which power is passed from the engine to the wheels
②[C] a radio or television message or broadcast
a live transmission from Sydney
①[only before noun] (formal) lasting until death
- 至死方休的；不共戴天的【SYN】 deadly :
They were locked in mortal combat (= a fight that will only end with the death of one of them).
②[only before noun] (formal) (of fear, etc. 恐惧等) extreme
We lived in mortal dread of him discovering our secret.
①(formal) to suggest sth formally so that it can be discussed and decided
- (正式地)提出,提议【SYN】 put forward :
The Opposition moved an amendment to the Bill.
②[V] to take action; to do sth
The police moved quickly to dispel the rumours.
①noun [C, usually pl.]• (law 律) a thing that can be moved from one house, etc. to another; a personal possession
①(formal) an amount by which two things are separated
Charlotte seemed to be living at one remove from reality.
①a decoration made from wire, etc. that is hung from the ceiling and that has small objects hanging from it which move when the air around them moves
①[only before noun] (of parents or their children 父母或其子女) related by blood
His natural mother was unable to care for him so he was raised by an aunt.
②[only before noun] (old use or formal) (of a son or daughter 儿女) born to parents who are not married
- 非婚生的；私生的【SYN】 illegitimate :
She was a natural daughter of King James II.
③~ (for sth) a person who is very good at sth without having to learn how to do it, or who is perfectly suited for a particular job
He’s a natural for the role.
①(BrE) a sports competition involving teams from two countries
the France-Scotland rugby international
②(BrE) a player who takes part in a sports competition against another country
a former swimming international
①[C] (technical 术语) an official letter from the representative of one government to another
an exchange of diplomatic notes
①[U] a formal letter or statement saying that you will or must leave your job or house at the end of a particular period of time
He has handed in his notice
②[C] a short article in a newspaper or magazine, giving an opinion about a book, play, etc.
① [C, usually pl.] (disapproving or humorous) a social class
the lower orders
②[C] a group into which animals, plants, etc. that have similar characteristics are divided, smaller than a class and larger than a family
the order of primates
③[C + sing. / pl. v.] a group of people living in a religious community, especially monks or nuns
④[C + sing. / pl. v.] a group of people who have been given a special honour by a queen, king, president, etc.
The Order of the Garter is an ancient order of chivalry.
⑤[C] a badge or ribbon worn by members of an order who have been given a special honour
⑥[C + sing. / pl. v.] a secret society whose members meet for special ceremonies
the Ancient Order of Druids
①[only before noun] (formal) (of a meeting, etc. 会议等) arranged for a special purpose and happening in addition to what normally or regularly happens
An extraordinary meeting was held to discuss the problem.
② (following nouns 紧接名词之后) (technical 术语) (of an official 官员) employed for a special purpose in addition to the usual staff
an envoy extraordinary
①[C] either of two numbers or letters used to fix the position of a point on a map or graph
the x, y coordinates of any point on a line
②coordinates [pl.] (used in shops / stores etc. 商店等用) pieces of clothing that can be worn together because, for example, the colours look good together
①~ (about / over sth) very definite about what you like and careful about what you choose
- 讲究；挑剔:【SYN】 fussy
She’s very particular about her clothes.
[sing.] (formal) a state of being very angry
- 盛怒；激愤【SYN】 rage :
She flies into a passion if anyone even mentions his name.
①that makes you pay attention to it because it is so interesting and exciting
The programme made compulsive viewing.
①pulses [pl.] the seeds of some plants that are eaten as food, such as peas and lentils
②~ (with sth) to be full of a feeling such as excitement or energy
- 洋溢着；充满(激情等)【SYN】 buzz :
The auditorium pulsed with excitement.
①(also de∙pend∙ency) the state of being addicted to sth (= unable to stop taking or using it)
drug / alcohol dependence
②~ of A and B (technical 术语) the fact of one thing being affected by another
the close dependence of soil and landforms
①done or given by sb who is not involved in a situation and so is able to judge it fairly
an independent inquiry / witness
②supported by private money rather than government money
independent television / schools
③not representing or belonging to a particular political party
an independent candidate
①[U, C] the system by which a vehicle is supported on its wheels and which makes it more comfortable to ride in when the road surface is not even
②[C, U] (technical 术语) a liquid with very small pieces of solid matter floating in it; the state of such a liquid
①[U] (law 律) the power that a court, an organization or a person has to deal with sth
The judge has to act within the competence of the court.
①the competition [sing. + sing. / pl. v.] the people who are competing against sb
We’ll be able to assess the competition at the conference.
①the complete number or quantity needed or allowed
We’ve taken our full complement of trainees this year.
①~ with sth [not before noun] including sth as an extra part or feature
The furniture comes complete with tools and instructions for assembly
②to write all the information you are asked for on a form
- 填写(表格)【SYN】 fill in / out :
2 000 shoppers completed our questionnaire.
①[noun](formal) a situation in which there is a large supply of food, money, etc.
Everyone is happier in times of plenty.
①[VN] ~ sth (to sth) to put or spread sth such as paint, cream, etc. onto a surface
Apply the cream sparingly to your face and neck.
②[VN] ~ yourself (to sth / to doing sth) to work at sth or study sth very hard
You would pass your exams if you applied yourself.
③[VN] to press on sth hard with your hand, foot, etc. to make sth work or have an effect on sth
to apply the brakes (of a vehicle)
①~ (in sth) forming part of sth (although perhaps not directly expressed)
The ability to listen is implicit in the teacher’s role.
②complete and not doubted
- 完全的；无疑问的【SYN】 absolute :
She had the implicit trust of her staff.
①(biology 生) to reproduce in large numbers; to make sth do this
Rabbits multiply rapidly.
①[C, usually pl.] (medical 医) a new problem or illness that makes treatment of a previous one more complicated or difficult
She developed complications after the surgery.
①[U] (art 美术) the arrangement of people or objects in a painting or photograph
①[U] the fact of being discussed or mentioned on television, in newspapers, etc.
- (在电视、报纸等上的)亮相,被报道【SYN】 publicity :
Her new movie has had a lot of exposure in the media.
②[U] a medical condition caused by being out in very cold weather for too long without protection
Two climbers were brought in suffering from exposure.
③[C] a length of film in a camera that is used to take a photograph
There are three exposures left on this roll of film.
④[C] the length of time for which light is allowed to reach the film when taking a photograph
I used a long exposure for this one.
①[prep.]acting in a film / movie or play as the partner of sb
She starred opposite Tom Hanks.
①a thing that you intend to do; a problem or task to be dealt with
- 欲做的事；待处理的问题；任务【SYN】 matter :
Getting a work permit in the UK is not always a simple proposition.
②(also Proposition) (in the US) a suggested change to the law that people can vote on
How did you vote on Proposition 8?
③(mathematics 数) a statement of a theorem , and an explanation of how it can be proved
④[verb]to say in a direct way to sb that you would like to have sex with the
She was propositioned by a strange man in the bar.
①[U] (formal) importance
matters of great import
②the ~ (of sth) [sing.] (formal) the meaning of sth, especially when it is not immediately clear
It is difficult to understand the full import of this statement.
①[U] a band or singer who performs in a pop concert before the main performer
The support (act) has yet to be confirmed.
②[verb](of a pop band or singer 流行乐队或歌手) to perform in a pop concert before the main performer
①[noun]transports [pl.] ~ of sth (literary) strong feelings and emotions
to be in transports of delight
②to make sb feel that they are in a different place, time or situation
The book transports you to another world.
③(in the past) to send sb to a far away place as a punishment
British convicts were transported to Australia for life.
①[VN] to have or wear sth in a proud way
- 得意地穿戴；夸示；故意显示【SYN】 wear :
She was sporting a T-shirt with the company’s logo on it.
②[V +adv. / prep.] (literary) to play in a happy and lively way
③[C] (AustralE, NZE, informal) used as a friendly way of addressing sb, especially a man
Good on you, sport!
④[U] (formal) enjoyment or fun
The comments were only made in sport.
to make sport of (= to joke about) sb / sth
⑤[C] (biology 生) a plant or an animal that is different in a noticeable way from its usual type
①[C] (especially in compounds 尤用于构成复合词) a piece of equipment that is used for creating pressure on things, to make them flat or to get liquid from them
a garlic press
②[sing.] a large number of people or things competing for space or movement
- 拥挤的人群(或大批事物)【SYN】 throng :
the press of bodies all moving the same way
③[C] (IrishE, ScotE) a large cupboard, usually with shelves, for holding clothes, books, etc.
④[VN] to squeeze sb’s hand or arm, especially as a sign of affection
⑤[V +adv. / prep.] (of people in a crowd 人群) to move in the direction mentioned by pushing
The photographers pressed around the royal visitors.
⑥[VN] to express or repeat sth with force
I don’t want to press the point, but you do owe me $200.
⑦[VN] to squeeze the juice out of fruit or vegetables by using force or weight
⑧[VN] to make sth from a material, using pressure
The car bodies are pressed out of sheets of metal.
①[adj]difficult to refuse or to ignore
a pressing invitation
②[noun]an object, especially a record, made by using pressure or weight to shape a piece of metal, plastic, etc.; a number of such objects that are made at one time
The initial pressing of the group’s album has already sold out.
①[C] a group of signs that represent an idea or a quantity
This forms the basis for our mathematical expression for the electric field.
①~ (on sb) the effect that an experience or a person has on sb / sth
His trip to India made a strong impression on him.
②a drawing showing what a person looks like or what a place or a building will look like in the future
This is an artist’s impression of the new stadium.
③~ (of sb) an amusing copy of the way a person acts or speaks
- (对某人举止言谈的)滑稽模仿【SYN】 impersonation :
He did his impression of Tom Hanks.
④an appearance that may be false
Clever lighting creates an impression of space in a room.
⑤a mark that is left when an object is pressed hard into a surface
⑥all the copies of a book that are printed at one time, with few or no changes to the contents since the last time the book was printed
①(of the weather 天气) extremely hot and unpleasant and lacking fresh air
- 闷热的；令人窒息的【SYN】 stifling :
②making you feel unhappy and anxious
an oppressive relationship
①[C] (formal) a part of a surface that is lower than the parts around it
- 洼地；凹地；坑【SYN】 hollow :
Rainwater collects in shallow depressions on the ground.
②[C] (technical 术语) a weather condition in which the pressure of the air becomes lower, often causing rain
①if bread proves, it increases in size before it is baked because of the yeast it contains
- 发酵【SYN】 rise
①if you buy goods, or if goods are sold on approval, you can use them for a time without paying, until you decide if you want to buy them or not
①having an even shape
a face with regular features
②[only before noun] (especially NAmE) ordinary; without any special or extra features
Do you want regular or diet cola?
③[only before noun] belonging to or connected with the permanent armed forces or police force of a country
a regular army / soldier
④(informal) used for emphasis to show that sb / sth is an exact or clear example of the thing mentioned
The whole thing was a regular disaster.
①taking care to speak or behave in a way that follows the accepted standards or rules
He is always very correct in his speech.
①[VN] ~ sth to… (formal) to send a letter, etc. to a particular place or to a particular person
Direct any complaints to the Customer Services department.
②[adj][only before noun] related through parents and children rather than brothers, sisters, aunts, etc.
a direct descendant of the country’s first president
①[C] (formal) a structure or building, especially a large one
①[C, usually sing.] the form of a word or phrase that has become changed from its original form in some way
The word ‘holiday’ is a corruption of ‘holy day’.
①~ (in / into sth) to suddenly express your feelings very strongly, especially by shouting loudly
When Davis scored for the third time the crowd erupted.
①~ (of sth) (formal, disapproving) completely lacking in anything that has value
a government bankrupt of new ideas
①[VN] (formal or technical 术语) to make a movement which has a particular shape; to form a particular shape
The shark described a circle around the shoal of fish.
His pass described a perfect arc through the leaden sky.
①[C] of some, all, every, etc. ~ of some, etc. type
Their money came from trade of some description.
①[C] ~ (for sth) (formal) a plan or a suggestion for making sth happen or for improving it
a prescription for happiness
①(technical 术语) (of rights and institutions 权利和风俗) made legal or acceptable because they have existed for a long time
①[C] a separate group within a larger group of people
an issue that will affect large sections of the population
②[C] (NAmE) a measure of land, equal to one square mile
③[C, U] (medical 医) the act of cutting or separating sth in an operation
The surgeon performed a section (= made a cut) on the vein.
④[C] (medical 医, biology 生) a very thin flat piece cut from body tissue to be looked at under a microscope
to examine a section from the kidney
⑤(medical 医) to divide body tissue by cutting
⑥(biology 生) to cut animal or plant tissue into thin slices in order to look at it under a microscope
⑦[often passive] (BrE) to officially order a mentally ill person to go and receive treatment in a psychiatric hospital, using a law that can force them to stay there until they are successfully treated
①(of clothes, etc. 服装等) useful rather than fashionable
②(formal or literary) aware of sth
I am sensible of the fact that mathematics is not a popular subject.
①[C] a part of a film / movie that deals with one subject or topic or consists of one scene
The best sequence in the film occurs when Roth stops at a house he used to live in.
②(biology 生) to identify the order in which a set of genes or parts of molecules are arranged
The human genome has now been sequenced.
①(formal) to successfully perform a skilful action or movement
The pilot executed a perfect landing.
②(formal) to make or produce a work of art
Picasso also executed several landscapes at Horta de San Juan.
①the executive [sing. + sing. / pl. v.] the part of a government responsible for putting laws into effect
②[adj]expensive; for the use of sb who is considered important
an executive suite (= in a hotel)
an executive lounge (= at an airport)
①[VN] (formal) to continue taking part in or doing sth
They had overwhelming public support to prosecute the war.
①[U, C] (especially NAmE) the period of time when a doctor working in a hospital receives special advanced training
①a doctor working in a hospital in the US who is receiving special advanced training
①a school or university year
②an occasion when people meet to play music, especially Irish music, in a pub / bar
①[VN to inf] (used in negative sentences and questions 用于否定句和疑问句) to make sb do sth that seems strange or unreasonable
What possessed him to say such a thing?
①[U] the state of having illegal drugs or weapons with you at a particular time
She was charged with possession
②[C] (formal) a country that is controlled or governed by another country
③[U] the situation when sb’s mind is believed to be controlled by the Devil or by an evil spirit
①[C] an amount that has been calculated and that must be paid
a tax assessment
①[C] (informal) = star sign :
What sign are you?
a signal honour
①[C, usually sing.] a particular quality that makes sth different from other similar things and makes it easy to recognize
Bright colours are his signature.
①~ sth to sth to say that sth has a particular value or function, or happens at a particular time or place
The painting cannot be assigned an exact date.
①[C] an arrangement of lines and shapes as a decoration
- 装饰图案；花纹【SYN】 pattern :
The tiles come in a huge range of colours and designs.
①[U] patient willingness to accept a difficult or unpleasant situation that you cannot change
They accepted their defeat with resignation.
①(often the Resistance) [sing. + sing. / pl. v.] a secret organization that resists the authorities, especially in a country that an enemy has control of
①[C] a way of living especially when this is difficult or boring
The family endured a miserable existence in a cramped apartment.
①~ mother / father / parent used to describe sb who is going to have a baby soon or become a father
①[V] ~ (for sth) to search an area for gold, minerals, oil, etc.
Thousands moved to the area to prospect for gold.
②[C] (formal) a wide view of an area of land, etc.
a delightful prospect of the lake
③[C] ~ (for sth) a person who is likely to be successful in a competition
She is one of Canada’s best prospects for a gold medal
①[sing.] ~ of sth (formal) a small amount of sth
- 少许；一点儿【SYN】 hint :
His mouth quivered in the suspicion of a smile.
①[noun]something that is not usually available but is provided for a particular purpose or on one occasion
an election-night special on television
②[noun](informal, especially NAmE) a price for a particular product in a shop / store or restaurant that is lower than usual
There’s a special on coffee this week.
③[only before noun] better or more than usual
As an only child she got special attention.
①[C] (always with an adjective 总是与形容词连用) a person of the type mentioned
a brave spirit
②[U] courage, determination or energy
Show a little fighting spirit.
③[U, sing.] loyal feelings towards a group, team or society
There’s not much community spirit around here.
④[sing.] a state of mind or mood; an attitude
We approached the situation in the wrong spirit.
⑤[U] the real or intended meaning or purpose of sth
Obey the spirit, not the letter (= the narrow meaning of the words) of the law.
⑥[C] the soul thought of as separate from the body and believed to live on after death; a ghost
It was believed that people could be possessed by evil spirits.
⑦[C] (old-fashioned) an imaginary creature with magic powers, for example, a fairy or an elf
⑧[U] a special type of alcohol used in industry or medicine
⑨[verb]to take sb / sth away in a quick, secret or mysterious way
After the concert, the band was spirited away before their fans could get near them.
①connected with religion
a spiritual leader
①[noun]advances [pl.] attempts to start a sexual relationship with sb
He had made advances to one of his students.
②[VN] (formal) to suggest an idea, a theory, or a plan for other people to discuss
- 提出(想法、理论、计划)【SYN】 put forward :
The article advances a new theory to explain changes in the climate
③[adj] ~ party / team a group of people who go somewhere first, before the main group
①mysterious; hidden and not known about
There are no dark secrets in our family.
①(often the stage) [sing.] the theatre and the world of acting as a form of entertainment
His parents didn’t want him to go on the stage (= to be an actor).
②to make sth happen
The dollar staged a recovery earlier today.
①[VN] to celebrate or officially remember an event that you consider to be important
a ceremony to mark the 50th anniversary of the end of the war
②[VN] [usually passive] ~ sb / sth (as sth) (formal) to give sb / sth a particular quality or character
- 赋予特征；给…确定性质【SYN】 characterize :
He was marked as an enemy of the poor.
③(old-fashioned) used to tell sb to pay careful attention to sth
There’ll be trouble over this, mark my words.
④[VN] (in a team game 成队比赛) to stay close to an opponent in order to prevent them from getting the ball
Our defence had him closely marked.
⑤a level or point that sth reaches that is thought to be important
Unemployment has passed the four million mark.
⑥Mark (followed by a number 后接数词) a particular type or model of a machine or vehicle
the Mark II engine
⑦Mark (BrE) (followed by a number 后接数词) a particular level of temperature in a gas oven
Preheat the oven to gas Mark 6.
⑧a cross made on a document instead of a signature by sb who is not able to write their name
⑨(formal) a target
Of the blows delivered, barely half found their mark.
⑩= Deutschmark: the former unit of money in Germany (replaced in 2002 by the euro)
- 德国马克(德国货币单位,于 2002 年为欧元所取代)
①(especially BrE) (NAmE usually watch) [VN] to take care of sb / sth
- 关心,照看(人或物)【SYN】 look after :
Who’s minding the children this evening?
②(NAmE, IrishE) [VN] to pay attention to what sb says, and obey them
And the moral of the story is: always mind your mother!
③[C] a person who is very intelligent
She was one of the greatest minds of her generation.
①[C] the condition of a person’s body and how healthy it is
to have a healthy / strong / weak constitution
①[VN] to tell the tax authorities how much money you have earned
All income must be declared.
②[VN] to tell customs officers (= at the border of a country) that you are carrying goods on which you should pay tax
Do you have anything to declare?
③[V] (in cricket 板球) to decide to end your innings (= the period during which your team is batting ) before all your players have batted
①[C, U] (formal) a principle that you believe in that influences how you behave; a way in which you usually behave
She is following her usual policy of ignoring all offers of help.
②[C] a written statement of a contract of insurance
Check the terms of the policy before you sign.
①[U] items used in a performance
The band played all new material at the gig.
② ~ (to sth) (formal or law 律) important and needing to be considered
She omitted information that was material to the case.
①[C] (abbr. Soc.) (especially in names 尤用于名称) a group of people who join together for a particular purpose
a member of the drama society
②[U] the group of people in a country who are fashionable, rich and powerful
a society wedding
③[U] (formal) the state of being with other people
- 相伴；交往【SYN】 company :
He was a solitary man who avoided the society of others.
①~ against sb / sth | ~ to do sth (of events 事件) to seem to work together to make sth bad happen
Circumstances had conspired against them.
Everything conspired to make her life a misery.
①[U] the formal ceremonies connected with high levels of government or with kings and queens
The president was driven in state through the streets.
②the States [pl.] (informal) the United States of America
I’ve never been to the States
③[VN] [usually passive] to fix or announce the details of sth, especially on a written document
Do not exceed the stated dose (= of medicine).
①(old-fashioned or formal) your social position
She was definitely getting ideas above her station.
②(usually in compounds 通常构成复合词) a large sheep or cattle farm in Australia or New Zealand
③a small base for the army or navy; the people living in it
a naval station
①a rope or wire that supports a ship’s mast , a pole, etc.
①(approving) the quality of being faithful
- 忠诚；忠实；忠贞【SYN】 fidelity :
He admired her courage and constancy
①[C] (often in compounds 常构成复合词) an object that is used to support or hold sth
an armrest (= for example on a seat or chair)
②[C, U] a period of silence between notes; a sign that shows a rest between notes
①to keep your feelings under control
- 控制,克制,抑制(感情)【SYN】 restrain :
I was so furious I just couldn’t contain myself (= I had to express my feelings).
②to prevent sth harmful from spreading or getting worse
Government forces have failed to contain the rebellion.
①[V] (not used in the progressive tenses 不用于进行时) (formal) (of rules, systems, customs, etc. 规则、制度、习俗等) to exist
- 存在；流行；沿袭【SYN】 apply :
These conditions no longer obtain.
①(law 律) if a member of the public retains sb such as a lawyer, he or she pays money regularly or in advance so the lawyer, etc. will do work for him or her
a retaining fee
①[C] ~ (to sth) (BrE) (NAmE add∙ition) a new room or rooms that are added to a house
②[C] a part of a college or university that offers courses to students who are not studying full-time ; a programme of study for these students
③the set of seven letters that are placed after a dot at the end of the name of a file and that show what type of file it is
- 扩展名； 副档名
④[C] (BrE) = extension lead: an extra length of electric wire, used when the wire on an electrical device is not long enough
- 接长线路, 延长线 (电器上的电线加长部份)
①[C + sing. / pl. v.] (BrE) a group within a larger political group, whose views are more extreme than those of the rest of the group
①[U] of… extraction (formal) having a particular family origin
an American of Hungarian extraction
②[C] (technical 术语) the removal of a tooth
①[C] (old-fashioned) a marriage
Their union was blessed with one children.
①[U] (in art, etc. 艺术等) the state of looking or being complete in a natural and pleasing way
The design lacks unity.
②[C] (in literature and theatre 文学、戏剧) any of the principles of classical or neoclassical theatre that restrict the action of a play to a single story, day and place
the unities of action, time and place
③[U] (mathematics 数) the number one
①a group of people who work or live together, especially for a particular purpose
army / military / police units
②a department, especially in a hospital, that provides a particular type of care or treatment
the intensive care unit
③any whole number from 0 to 9
a column for the tens and a column for the units
①~ (for sth) near to a particular place; easy to get to
The house is very convenient for several schools.
①[noun]~ (from sth) (to sth) a person who has changed their religion, beliefs or opinions
converts from other faiths
②[VN] (in rugby and American football 橄榄球和美式足球) to score extra points after a try , or a touchdown
①a car with a roof that can be folded down or taken off
①[C] (in rugby and American football 橄榄球和美式足球) a way of scoring extra points after scoring a try or a touchdown
②[C] barn / loft ~ a building or room that has been changed so that it can be used for a different purpose, especially for living in
①[VN] to change a previous decision, law, etc. to the opposite one
- 撤销,废除(决定、法律等)【SYN】 revoke :
The Court of Appeal reversed the decision.
②[VN] ~ yourself (on sth) (NAmE) to admit you were wrong or to stop having a particular position in an argument
He has reversed himself on a dozen issues.
③(especially BrE) when a vehicle or its driver reverses or the driver reverses a vehicle, the vehicle goes backwards
Now reverse the car.
④[VN] ~ (the) charges (BrE) to make a telephone call that will be paid for by the person you are calling, not by you
I want to reverse the charges, please.
⑤[C] (formal) a loss or defeat; a change from success to failure
- 损失；失败；倒退【SYN】 setback :
Property values have suffered another reverse.
⑥(also re7verse ‘gear) [U] the machinery in a vehicle used to make it move backwards
Put the car in / into reverse.
①[sing.] a set of experiences of a particular type
the moral universe
①(formal) to entertain people
Children are easily diverted.
①[C] (BrE) (NAmE de∙tour) a road or route that is used when the usual one is closed
Diversions will be signposted
①[U, C] ~ for sb / sth preparations that you make for sth that might or will happen in the future
He had already made provisions for (= planned for the financial future of) his wife and children before the accident.
①[C + sing. / pl. v.] (abbr. Div.) a large and important unit or section of an organization
the company’s sales division
②[C + sing. / pl. v.] (abbr. Div.) (in Britain) one of the group of teams that a sport competition is divided into, especially in football ( soccer )
the first division / division one
③[C + sing. / pl. v.] (abbr. Div.) a unit of an army, consisting of several brigades or regiments
the Guards Armoured Division
④[C] a line that divides sth
A hedge forms the division between their land and ours.
⑤[C] (technical 术语) the separation of members of the British parliament into groups to vote for or against sth
The Bill was read without a division.
①[C] ~ (of / from sb / sth) (formal) an unexpected appearance of sth, for example a ghost
②[C] ~ (of sth) (formal) a disaster that is believed to be a punishment from God
a visitation of plague
①[C] a ~ (of sth) (literary) a person of great beauty or who shows the quality mentioned
She was a vision in white lace.
①(of light, colours, etc. 光、颜色等) very bright
vivid blue eyes
②(of sb’s imagination 人的想像) able to form pictures of ideas, situations, etc. easily in the mind
①a person who defends sb in court
①telling people your opinions or protesting about sth loudly and with confidence
He has been very vocal in his criticism of the government’s policy.
②the part of a piece of music that is sung, rather than played on a musical instrument
In this recording Armstrong himself is on vocals
①[C, U] a belief that you have been chosen by God to be a priest or nun
a vocation to the priesthood
②[C, U] ~ (for sth) a belief that a particular type of work or way of life is especially suitable for you
He has a vocation for teaching.
①[U, C] ~ (in / with sth) the act of giving a lot of time and attention to sth you care about
her growing involvement with contemporary music
②[C, U] ~ (with sb) a romantic or sexual relationship with sb that you are not married to
He spoke openly about his involvement with the actress.
①[sing.] a special importance that is given to sth
- 着重点；强调【SYN】 emphasis :
In all our products the accent is on quality.
②[C] the emphasis that you should give to part of a word when saying it
- 重音【SYN】 stress :
In ‘today’ the accent is on the second syllable.
③[C] a mark on a letter to show that it should be pronounced in a particular way
Canapé has an accent on the ‘e’.
④[VN] to emphasize a part of sth
①(BrE also ‘credit account) (NAmE also ‘charge account) an arrangement with a shop / store or business to pay bills for goods or services at a later time, for example in regular amounts every month
Put it on my account please.
②(business 商) a regular customer
The agency has lost several of its most important accounts.
①an idea or a principle that is believed to be true or valid in any circumstances
Right and wrong are, for her, moral absolutes.
①[C] a sexual relationship between two people, usually when one or both of them is married to sb else
She is having an affair with her boss.
②[C] (old-fashioned) (with an adjective 与形容词连用) an object that is unusual or difficult to describe
Her hat was an amazing affair with feathers and a huge brim.
①[C] a subject that a student can choose to study, but that they do not have to do
The course offers options in design and computing.
②[C] ~ (on sth) | ~ (to do sth) the right to buy or sell sth at some time in the future
He has promised me first option on his car (= the opportunity to buy it before anyone else).
share options (= the right to buy shares in a company)
①a particular type or kind of sth
an unorthodox brand of humour
②a mark made with a piece of hot metal, especially on farm animals to show who owns them
③~ sb (as) sth to describe sb as being sth bad or unpleasant, especially unfairly
They were branded as liars and cheats.
④[VN] ~ sth (with sth) to mark an animal with a brand n. (3)to show who owns it
①not very great
- 细微的；微小的【SYN】 slight :
There is still a remote chance that they will find her alive.
I don’t have the remotest idea what you’re talking about.
②(of people or their behaviour) not very friendly or interested in other people
- 不很友好的；冷漠的【SYN】 aloof , distant
③~ (from sth) very different from sth
His theories are somewhat remote from reality.
①a person who is employed to play a very small part in a film / movie, usually as a member of a crowd
①[VN] to hit a high ball downwards and very hard over the net
②[C] a way of hitting the ball downwards and very hard
③(also smash ‘hit) [C] a song, film / movie or play that is very popular
her latest chart smash
①noun [usually pl.]a brave, exciting or interesting act
the daring exploits of Roman heroes
②~ sth (for sth) to develop or use sth for business or industry
countries exploiting the rainforests for hardwood
①not quick to learn; finding things hard to understand
He’s the slowest in the class.
②not very busy; containing little action
- 不忙碌的；清淡的；冷清的【SYN】 sluggish :
Sales are slow (= not many goods are being sold).
③slow film is not very sensitive to light
①[noun](informal) a person’s bottom. People often say ‘behind’ to avoid saying ‘bottom’.
- (义同 bottom,委婉说法,即屁股)【SYN】 backside :
The dog bit him on his behind.
②[adv]~ (with / in sth) late in paying money or completing work
She’s fallen behind with the payments.
③[prep]used to say that sth is in sb’s past
She has ten years’ useful experience behind her.
①[C] a firework that goes high into the air and then explodes with coloured lights
②[U] (BrE) (NAmE aru∙gula) a plant with long green leaves that have a strong flavour and are eaten raw in salads
③[V +adv. / prep.] to move very fast
The car rocketed out of a side street.
④[VN] to attack a place with rockets
⑤to achieve or to make sb / sth achieve a successful position very quickly
The band rocketed to stardom with their first single.
①[C] a glass of strong alcoholic drink containing twice the usual amount
Two Scotches, please—and make those doubles, will you?
②[C] a person or thing that looks exactly like another
She’s the double of her mother.
③[C] an actor who replaces another actor in a film / movie to do dangerous or other special things
④[C] = double room :
Is that a single or a double you want?
⑤doubles [U + sing. / pl. v.] a game, especially of tennis , in which one pair plays another
mixed doubles (= in which each pair consists of a man and a woman)
⑥the double [sing.] the fact of winning two important competitions or beating the same player or team twice, in the same season or year
①[VN] to end a restriction on sb / sth
to raise a blockade / a ban / an embargo / a siege
②[VN] to contact sb and speak to them by radio or telephone
We managed to raise him on his mobile phone.
③[VN] ~ sb (from sth) to make sb who has died come to life again
- 使起死回生；使复活【SYN】 resurrect :
Christians believe that God raised Jesus from the dead.
④[VNN] to make a higher bet than another player in a card game
I’ll raise you another hundred dollars.
⑤[VN] to multiply an amount by itself a particular number of times
3 raised to the power of 3 is 27 (= 3 × 3 × 3).
①[VN] (of a dog 狗) to attack animals, especially sheep, by chasing and / or biting them
①[sing.] (slang) a thing that causes problems or difficulties
Life’s a bitch.
②[sing.] ~ (about sb / sth) (informal) a complaint about sb / sth or a conversation in which you complain about them
We’ve been having a bitch about our boss.
③~ (about sb / sth) (informal) to make unkind and critical remarks about sb / sth, especially when they are not there
①(humorous) a large family of children
①one of the bars on the long thin part of a guitar , etc. Frets show you where to press the strings with your fingers to produce particular sounds.
②(also ‘sea fret) (NEngE) mist or fog that comes in from the sea
①[C, U] ~ (between A and B) a situation in which the fact that there are different needs or interests causes difficulties
There is often a tension between the aims of the company and the wishes of the employees.
②[U] the state of being stretched tight; the extent to which sth is stretched tight
①[VN]to take sth, sb’s ideas, etc. for your own use, especially illegally or without permission
He was accused of appropriating club funds.
②[VN]~ sth (for sth) to take or give sth, especially money for a particular purpose
Five million dollars has been appropriated for research into the disease.
①(especially NAmE) likely to become angry or violent
That’s a mean-looking dog.
②(informal, especially NAmE) very good and skilful
He’s a mean tennis player.
③(formal) (of a person’s understanding or ability 人的理解力或能力) not very great
This should be clear even to the meanest intelligence.
④(literary) poor and dirty in appearance
mean houses / streets
⑤(old-fashioned) born into or coming from a low social class
⑥[only before noun] (technical 术语) average; between the highest and the lowest, etc.
the mean temperature
①[sing.] a person who is dirty or whose clothes and hair are not tidy
You’re a mess!
②[sing.] (informal) a person who has serious problems and is in a bad mental condition
③[U, C] (informal) the excrement (= solid waste matter) of an animal, usually a dog or cat
④[sing.] a ~ of sth (NAmE, informal) a lot of sth
There’s a mess of fish down there, so get your lines in the water.
⑤[C] (also ‘mess hall especially in NAmE) a building or room in which members of the armed forces have their meals
the officers’ mess
⑥[V] to empty its bowels somewhere that it should not
①a radio or television programme that is about a particular topic
a regional news magazine on TV
②the part of a gun that holds the bullets before they are fired
③a room or building where weapons, explosives and bullets are stored
①[U] opposition to social or political progress or change
The forces of reaction made change difficult.
①[C] (especially in compounds 尤用于构成复合词) a deep hole in the ground from which minerals are dug out
a chalk / gravel pit
②[C] = coal mine :a place underground where coal is dug
③a small shallow hole in the surface of sth, especially a mark left on the surface of the skin by some disease, such as chickenpox
④(especially NAmE) = stone (especially BrE) a hard shell containing the nut or seed in the middle of some types of fruit
a peach pit
⑤the pits [pl.] (BrE) (NAmE the pit [C]) a place near the track where cars can stop for fuel, new tyres, etc. during a race
⑥(NAmE, informal) = armpit: the part of the body under the arm where it joins the shoulder
⑦(NAmE) the area of a stock exchange where a particular product is traded
the corn pit
①[V] to become worse
His school work is suffering because of family problems.
①(of colours, patterns, etc. 颜色、图案等) too bright and lacking good taste
- 俗艳的；花哨的【SYN】 gaudy , garish
①[sing.] a particular amount of sth, especially a fairly large amount
- (一定的)量,程度 【SYN】 degree :
She achieved some measure of success with her first book.
②[C] (especially of alcohol 尤指酒) a standard quantity
a generous measure of whisky
①[C] a person or thing being used to study sth, especially in an experiment
We need male subjects between the ages of 18 and 25 for the experiment
②a person who has the right to belong to a particular country, especially one with a king or queen
a British subject
①[U] (BrE, informal) = make-up : substances used especially by women to make their faces look more attractive, or used by actors to change their appearance
②[adv]straight, and with great force
Storming out of her room, she went slap into Luke.
Their apartment is slap bang in the middle of town.
①[C] a metal or plastic container for holding or carrying liquids
an oil can
②[C] a metal container in which liquids are kept under pressure and let out in a fine spray when you press a button on the lid
a can of hairspray
③the can [sing.] (NAmE, slang) prison
④the can [sing.] (NAmE, slang) the toilet
①[noun](BrE, old-fashioned) a male teacher at a school, especially a private school
the physics master
②[noun](often used as an adjective 常用作形容词) a version of a record, tape, film / movie, etc. from which copies are made
the master copy
③[adj]the largest and / or most important
the master bedroom
①to make sth less boring, especially by introducing sth different
We played cards to relieve the boredom of the long wait.
②~ yourself a polite way of referring to going to the toilet
I had to relieve myself behind a bush.
③to replace sb who is on duty
You’ll be relieved at one o’clock.
①(formal) to provide sb with sth
The programme affords young people the chance to gain work experience.
①[C, U] an animal’s skin, especially when it is bought or sold or used for leather
boots made from buffalo hide
②[sing.] (informal, especially NAmE) used to refer to sb’s life or safety when they are in a difficult situation
All he’s worried about is his own hide (= himself).
She’d do anything to save her own hide.
①[sing.] a ~ of sth (disapproving) a large amount of a restricted range of activities
Children today are brought up on a diet of television cartoons and soap operas.
①[C] a short sharp explosive sound
The cork came out of the bottle with a loud pop.
②[U] (old-fashioned, BrE, informal) a sweet fizzy drink (= with bubbles) that is not alcoholic
③to make a short explosive sound; to cause sth to make this sound
the sound of corks popping
④to burst, or make sth burst, with a short explosive sound
She jumped as someone popped a balloon behind her.
⑤[V +adv. / prep.] (BrE, informal) to go somewhere quickly, suddenly or for a short time
Why don’t you pop in (= visit us) for a drink next time you’re in the area?
⑥[VN +adv. / prep.] (informal, especially BrE) to put sth somewhere quickly, suddenly or for a short time
He popped his head around the door and said hello.
⑦[V +adv. / prep.] to suddenly appear, especially when not expected
The window opened and a dog’s head popped out.
⑧[V] if your ears pop when you are going up or down in a plane, etc., the pressure in them suddenly changes
⑨[V] if your eyes pop or pop out, they suddenly open fully because you are surprised or excited
Her eyes nearly popped out of her head when she saw them.
⑩[VN] (informal) to take a lot of a drug, regularly
She’s been popping pills for months.
①a person who suffers because of a particular action, decision, etc.
The real losers in all of this are the students.
①used to describe activities that have no real purpose
There were several young people sitting around looking bored.
②present in a place; available
There was more money around in those days.
I knocked but there was no one around.
③active and well known in a sport, profession, etc.
a new tennis champion who could be around for a long time
④(especially NAmE) (BrE usually round) in a circle or curve to face another way or the opposite way
She turned the car around and drove off.
⑤to fit in with particular people, ideas, etc.
I can’t arrange everything around your timetable!
①[C] a confined area in which animals or people perform or compete, with seats around the outside for the audience
a boxing ring
②[C] (especially BrE) a small flat place on a cooker / stove that is heated by gas or electricity and is used for cooking on
- 炉口；灶盘【SYN】 burner :
to turn off the gas ring
③[C] a group of people who are working together, especially in secret or illegally
a drugs ring
④[sing.] a loud clear sound
the ring of horse’s hooves on the cobblestones
⑤[sing.] ~ (of sth) a particular quality that words, sounds, etc. have
His explanation has a ring of truth about it.
Her protestation of innocence had a hollow ring to it (= did not sound
The story had a familiar ring to it (= as if I had heard it before).
⑥[often passive] ~ sb / sth (with sth) to surround sb / sth
Thousands of demonstrators ringed the building.
⑦[V] to be full of a particular quality
His words rang with pride.
⑧[V] to be uncomfortable and be unable to hear clearly, usually because you have heard a loud noise, etc.
The music was so loud it made my ears ring.
⑨(especially BrE) to draw a circle around sth
- 绕…画圆；把…圈起来【SYN】 circle :
Ring the correct answer in pencil.
①[C, usually sing.] the first or main part of a substance to which other things are added
Put some moisturizer on as a base before applying your make-up.
②[C] a chemical substance, for example an alkali , that can combine with an acid to form a salt
- 硷； 盐基
③[C, usually sing.] a number on which a system of counting and expressing numbers is built up, for example 10 in the decimal system and 2 in the binary system
- 基数(如十进制的 10 和二进制的 2)
④[C] one of the five positions that a player must reach in order to score points
⑤[Adj](baser, bas∙est) (formal) not having moral principles or rules
He acted from base motives.
①[sing.] (BrE, informal) a small amount of liquid that you add to a drink
coffee with just a splash of milk
②[sing.] an article in a newspaper, etc. that is intended to attract a lot of attention
①(of land 土地) that cannot produce enough good crops to make a profit
②(politics 政) (especially BrE) won or lost by a very small number of votes and therefore very important or interesting as an indication of public opinion
a marginal seat / constituency
③[Noun](BrE) a seat in a parliament, on a local council, etc. that was won by a very small number of votes
a Labour marginal
①[C + sing. / pl. v.] the teachers and / or students of a college
②[C] (especially in names, in Britain and some other countries) a secondary school , especially one where you must pay
③[C] (usually in names 通常用于名称) an organized group of professional people with special interests, duties or powers
the Royal College of Physicians
①[VN] to try to sell things by going from place to place asking people to buy them
- 沿街叫卖【SYN】 peddle
②[V VN] to get phlegm in your mouth when you cough
①[VN] ~ yourself to sth (informal, disapproving) to take sth without permission
- 擅自拿走；窃取【SYN】 steal :
He’d been helping himself to the money in the cash register.
②the help [U + sing. / pl. v.] (especially NAmE) the person or people who are employed by sb to clean their house, etc.
①[VN] to be the most important or noticeable feature of sth
The train crash dominated the news.
②[VN] to be the largest, highest or most obvious thing in a place
The cathedral dominates the city.
①(NAmE) an official warning that sth bad is going to happen
a tornado advisory
①[C] an area of too much fat on your body, especially around your waist
Rolls of fat hung over his belt.
②[C] an official list of names
The chairman called / took the roll (= called out the names on a list to check that everyone was present).
③[C] ~ (of sth) a deep continuous sound
the distant roll of thunder
④[C] ~ (of sth) (NAmE) a paper tube wrapped around sweets / candy, etc.
a roll of mints
⑤[VN] to make sth flat by pushing sth heavy over it
Roll the pastry on a floured surface.
⑥to move or make sth move from side to side
He walked with a rolling gait.
⑦to make a long continuous sound
⑧when a machine rolls or sb rolls it, it operates
They had to repeat the scene because the cameras weren’t rolling.
①[VN] to remove sth such as a dirty mark
- 去除(污迹等)【SYN】 get rid of :
a detergent that shifts even the most stubborn stains
②[VN] to sell goods, especially goods that are difficult to sell
They cut prices drastically to try and shift stock.
③[V] (NAmE) to change the gears when you are driving a vehicle
to shift into second gear
④[C] a woman’s simple straight dress
⑤[C] a simple straight piece of clothing worn by women in the past as underwear
①used to emphasize that you are determined not to do sth
She swore that she wouldn’t apologize—she’d die first!
②[C, usually sing.] an achievement, event, etc., never done or experienced before
We went on a cruise, a first for both of us.
③(also 7first ‘gear) [U] the lowest gear on a car, bicycle, etc. that you use when you are moving slowly
He stuck the car in first and revved.
④[C] ~ (in sth) the highest level of university degree at British universities
She got a first in maths at Exeter.
①(BrE, informal) used with an adjective to describe sb in a particular way
Aren’t you dressed yet, you lazy beggar?
②to make sb / sth very poor
Why should I beggar myself for you?
①~ (of sth) the continuous production or supply of sth
the flow of goods and services to remote areas
②continuous talk by sb
You’ve interrupted my flow—I can’t remember what I was saying.
As usual, Tom was in full flow.
③~ of sth the way that words and ideas are linked together in speech or writing
Too many examples can interrupt the smooth flow of the text
④to develop or be produced in an easy and natural way
Conversation flowed freely throughout the meal.
⑤to be available easily and in large amounts
It was obvious that money flowed freely in their family.
⑥[+adv. / prep.] to be felt strongly by sb
Fear and excitement suddenly flowed over me.
⑦~ (down / over sth) to hang loosely and freely
Her hair flowed down over her shoulders.
⑧(of the tide in the sea / ocean 海潮) to come in towards the land
①waters [pl.] murky, uncharted, stormy, dangerous, etc. ~ used to describe a situation, usually one that is difficult, dangerous or not familiar
The conversation got into the murky waters of jealousy and relationships.
①(BrE) (NAmE gas) [U] air that you swallow with food or drink; gas that is produced in your stomach or intestines that makes you feel uncomfortable
I can’t eat beans—they give me wind.
②[U] breath that you need when you do exercise or blow into a musical instrument
I need time to get my wind back after that run.
③[U + sing. / pl. v.] the group of musical instruments in an orchestra that produce sounds when you blow into them; the musicians who play those instruments
music for wind and strings
④[usually passive] to make sb unable to breathe easily for a short time
He was momentarily winded by the blow to his stomach.
⑤(BrE) to gently hit or rub a baby’s back to make it burp (= release gas from its stomach through its mouth)
- (给婴儿轻轻拍抚后背)使嗳气【SYN】 burp
⑥[VN] to turn a handle several times
You operate the trapdoor by winding this handle.
⑦~ (sth) forward / back to operate a tape, film, etc. so that it moves nearer to its ending or starting position
He wound the tape back to the beginning.
⑧~ (sth) (up) to make a clock or other piece of machinery work by turning a knob , handle, etc. several times; to be able to be made to work in this way
He had forgotten to wind his watch.
①[C, usually sing.] (informal, disapproving) an unpleasant place to live or be in
- 糟糕的住所(或处所)【SYN】 dump :
I am not going to bring up my child in this hole.
②[C, usually pl.] a fault or weakness in sth such as a plan, law or story
He was found not guilty because of holes in the prosecution case.
③~ (out) to hit a golf ball into the hole
She holed a 25 foot putt.
①[C + sing. / pl. v.] a group of people who do sth together or who have the same ideas
a band of outlaws
②(also wave∙band) [C] a range of radio waves
Short-wave radio uses the 20-50 metre band.
③[C] a range of numbers, ages, prices, etc. within which people or things are counted or measured
the 25-35 age band
④[verb]to put a band of a different colour or material around sth
Many insects are banded black and yellow.
⑤[verb](BrE) to be organized into bands of price, income, etc.
Tax is banded according to income.
①[C] the sharp part of a blade, knife or sword that is used for cutting
Be careful—it has a sharp edge.
②[sing.] ~ (on / over sb / sth) a slight advantage over sb / sth
The company needs to improve its competitive edge.
③[sing.] a strong, often exciting, quality
Her show now has a hard political edge to it.
④[sing.] a sharp tone of voice, often showing anger
He did his best to remain calm, but there was a distinct edge to his voice.
⑤[+adv. / prep.] to move or to move sth slowly and carefully in a particular direction
She edged a little closer to me.
⑥[V +adv. / prep.] to increase or decrease slightly
Prices edged up 2% in the year to December.
①[V] if your voice cracks, it changes in depth, volume, etc. suddenly and in a way that you cannot control
In a voice cracking with emotion, he told us of his son’s death.
②[V] to no longer be able to function normally because of pressure
Things are terrible at work and people are cracking under the strain.
③[VN] to find the solution to a problem, etc. ; to find the way to do sth difficult
to crack the enemy’s code
④[VN] to find a way of stopping or defeating a criminal or an enemy
Police have cracked a major drugs ring.
⑤[VN] ~ (open) a bottle (informal) to open a bottle, especially of wine, and drink it
⑥[VN] ~ a joke (informal) to tell a joke
⑦[C] ~ (at sth) | ~ (at doing sth) (informal) an occasion when you try to do sth
- 尝试；试做【SYN】 attempt :
She hopes to have another crack at the world record this year.
⑧(also 7crack co’caine) [U] a powerful, illegal drug that is a form of cocaine
a crack addict
⑨[C] (informal) a joke, especially a critical one
He made a very unfair crack about her looks.
⑩(also craic) [U, sing.] (IrishE, informal) a good time; friendly, enjoyable talk
Where’s the crack tonight?
①[C, usually sing.] (informal) a person or thing that causes you a lot of problems
Since his injury, Jones has become more of a liability than an asset to the team.
①[sing.] the ~ of sth (NAmE) an important feature of sth, that is responsible for making it what it is
The candidate said that he understood the heartbeat of the Hispanic community in California.
①[only before noun] extreme; complete
I’m in deadly earnest.
②extremely effective, so that no defence is possible
His aim is deadly (= so accurate that he can kill easily).
③(informal) very boring
The lecture was absolutely deadly.
①[adj]used to say that sth is very unlikely
They have only an outside chance of winning.
150 is an outside estimate (= it is very likely to be less).
②[prep]outside of apart from
There was nothing they could do, outside of hoping things would get better.
①[C] (BrE) the version of a magazine, etc. published on a particular day, in a particular month, etc.
- 期；号【SYN】 issue :
the October number of ‘Vogue’
②[C] a song or dance, especially one of several in a performance
They sang a slow romantic number.
③[sing.] (informal) (following one or more adjectives) a thing, such as a dress or a car, that is admired
She was wearing a black velvet number.
①not high at the neck
a dress with a low neckline
②having a reduced amount or not enough of sth
Our supplies are running low (= we only have a little left).
They were low on fuel.
③weak or depressed; with very little energy
- 虚弱的；沮丧的；消沉的；无精打采的【SYN】 down :
I’m feeling really low.
④[usually before noun] not very good
- 不好的；差的【SYN】 poor :
She has a very low opinion of her own abilities.
⑤(of a person 人) not honest
- 不诚实；不正直的【SYN】 disreputable :
He mixes with some pretty low types.
- 暗淡的；微弱的【SYN】 dim :
The lights were low and romance was in the air.
⑦if a vehicle is in low gear, it travels at a slower speed in relation to the speed of the engine
①[C] (BrE) a tall building that contains flats or offices; buildings that form part of a school, hospital, etc. which are used for a particular purpose
a tower block
a block of flats
②[C] (especially NAmE) a large area of land
③[C] (AustralE) an area of land for building a house on
④[C] a quantity of sth or an amount of time that is considered as a single unit
(BrE) The theatre gives discounts for block bookings (= a large number of tickets bought at the same time).
⑤the blocks [pl.] = starting blocks
⑥the block [sing.] (in the past) the piece of wood on which a person’s head was cut off as a punishment
①[U, sing.] a cheerful, lively quality
She walked along with a spring in her step.
②[C] a quick sudden jump upwards or forwards
With a spring, the cat leapt on to the table.
③[VN] ~ sth (on sb) to do sth, ask sth or say sth that sb is not expecting
She sprang a surprise by winning the tournament.
I’m sorry to spring it on you, but I’ve been offered another job.
④[V +adv. / prep.] to appear or come somewhere suddenly
Tears sprang to her eyes.
⑤[VN] (informal) to help a prisoner to escape
Plans to spring the hostages have failed.
①[usually pl.] a small mark or lump on a person’s skin, sometimes with a yellow head to it
The baby’s whole body was covered in small red spots.
(BrE) teenagers worried about their spots
②[usually sing.] ~ of sth (BrE, informal) a small amount of sth
- 少量；一点【SYN】 bit :
He’s in a spot of trouble.
③[usually pl.] ~ (of sth) a small amount of a liquid
I felt a few spots of rain.
④a part of a television, radio, club or theatre show that is given to a particular entertainer or type of entertainment
a guest / solo spot
⑤a position in a competition or an event
two teams battling for top spot
⑥(informal) = spotlight
⑦[VNN] (NAmE) (sport 体) to give your opponent or the other team an advantage
We spotted the opposing team ten goals.
⑧(business 商) connected with a system of trading where goods are delivered and paid for immediately after sale
①~ (sth) (out) | ~ (sth) (to sb) to give cards to each player in a game of cards
Whose turn is it to deal?
②to buy and sell illegal drugs
You can often see people dealing openly on the streets.
③[C, usually sing.] the way that sb / sth is treated
If elected, the party has promised a new deal (= better and fairer treatment) for teachers.
We tried to ensure that everyone got a fair deal.
It was a square deal for everyone.
④[C, usually sing.] the action of giving out cards to the players
It’s your deal.
⑤[U] (especially BrE) the soft pale wood of fir or pine trees, especially when it is cut into boards for making things
a deal table
①[sing.] sb’s ~ the way in which sb plays a game
Hendry raised his game to collect the £40 000 first prize.
②games [pl.] (old-fashioned, BrE) sport as a lesson or an activity at school
I always hated games at school.
③[C] a section of some games, such as tennis , which forms a unit in scoring
two games all (= both players have won two games)
④[C] a type of activity or business
I’m new to this game myself.
Getting dirty was all part of the game to the kids.
⑤[C] (informal) a secret and clever plan; a trick
So that’s his game (= now I know what he has been planning).
⑥[U] wild animals or birds that people hunt for sport or food
⑦[adj] ~ (for sth / to do sth) ready and willing to do sth new, difficult or dangerous
She’s game for anything.
①[VN] ~ your nose to clear your nose by blowing strongly through it into a handkerchief
②[VN VNN] ~ (sb) a kiss to kiss your hand and then pretend to blow the kiss towards sb
③[V VN] if a fuse blows or you blow a fuse , the electricity stops flowing suddenly because the fuse (= a thin wire) has melted because the current was too strong
④[VN] (informal) to make known sth that was secret
One mistake could blow your cover (= make your real name, job, intentions, etc. known).
⑤[VN] ~ sth (on sth) (informal) to spend or waste a lot of money on sth
He inherited over a million dollars and blew it all on drink and gambling.
⑥[VN] (informal) to waste an opportunity
She blew her chances by arriving late for the interview.
⑦[VN] (BrE, informal) used to show that you are annoyed, surprised or do not care about sth
Blow it! We’ve missed the bus.
⑧(NAmE, slang) to leave a place suddenly
Let’s blow this joint.
[Noun]⑨~ (to sb / sth) a sudden event which has damaging effects on sb / sth, causing sadness or disappointment
Losing his job came as a terrible blow to him.
[exclamation ]⑩(old-fashioned, BrE) used to show that you are annoyed about sth
Blow! I completely forgot it.
①[C] a good, bad, etc. ~ a person who shoots a gun in a particular way (well, badly, etc.)
②(also lead ‘shot) [U] a large number of small metal balls that you fire together from a shotgun
③[C] (pl. shot) a large stone or metal ball that was shot from a cannon or large gun in the past
④[C] a remark or an action that is usually one of a series, and is aimed against sb / sth that you are arguing or competing with
This statement was the opening shot in the argument.
⑤[C, usually sing.] ~ (at sth / at doing sth) (informal) the act of trying to do or achieve sth
Just give it your best shot (= try as hard as you can) and you’ll be fine.
I’ve never produced a play before but I’ll have a shot at it.
⑥(often the shot) [sing.] the heavy ball that is used in the sports competition called the shot-put
⑦[C] a photograph
I got some good shots of people at the party.
⑧[C] (informal, especially NAmE) a small amount of a drug that is put into your body using a syringe
- 注射【SYN】 injection :
a flu shot (= to protect you against flu)
⑨[C] (informal) a small amount of a drink, especially a strong alcoholic one
a shot of whisky
⑩[sing.] (used with numbers 与数字连用) a horse, dog, etc. that has the particular chance of winning a race that is mentioned
The horse is a 10–1 shot.
①~ (with sth) (of cloth, hair, etc. 织物、毛发等) having another colour showing through or mixed with the main colour
②[not before noun] (informal) in a very bad condition; destroyed
The brakes on this car are shot.
After the accident his nerves were shot to pieces.
①a structure that horses must jump over in a race or a competition
②(informal) a criminal who buys and sells stolen goods
③[V] to take part in the sport of fencing
④[V] ~ (with sb) to speak to sb in a clever way in order to gain an advantage in the conversation
①[C] used in the name of some organizations
the Welsh Tourist Board (= responsible for giving tourist information)
②boards [pl.] (old-fashioned, US) exams that you take when you apply to go to college in the US
③the boards [pl.] (old-fashioned, informal) the stage in a theatre
His play is on the boards on Broadway.
④the boards [pl.] (NAmE) the low wooden wall surrounding the area where a game of ice hockey is played
The puck went wide, hitting the boards.
①[C] an item or a number of items to be sold, especially at an auction
Lot 46: one chairs
②[C] an area of land used for a particular purpose
a parking lot
③[sing.] a person’s luck or situation in life
- 命运；生活状况【SYN】 destiny :
She was feeling dissatisfied with her lot.
①(BrE, slang) £500
- * 500 英镑
①[VN] ~ sb / yourself to make sb / yourself happy by doing sth special
Why not spoil yourself with a weekend in a top hotel?
②the spoils [pl.] (formal or literary) goods taken from a place by thieves or by an army that has won a battle or war
③spoils [pl.] the profits or advantages that sb gets from being successful
the spoils of high office
④[U] (technical 术语) waste material that is brought up when a hole is dug, etc.
①[V +adv. / prep.] to walk in an angry or proud way
He stalked off without a word.
②to move through a place in an unpleasant or threatening way
The gunmen stalked the building, looking for victims.
①[usually +adv. / prep.] to float or be supported on water or air
We watched the balloon riding high above the fields.
②[VN] (NAmE) to criticize or tease sb in an annoying way
Why is everybody riding me today?
③(NAmE) (BrE lift) [C] a free ride in a car, etc. to a place you want to get to
①[VN] ~ bail / (a) bond (especially NAmE) to pay money to a court so that a person accused of a crime can go free until their trial
She was released after posting $100 cash bond and her driver’s license.
②the post [sing.] the place where a race finishes, especially in horse racing
③[C, usually sing.] = goalpost :
The ball hit the post and bounced in.
①sb can stick sth (informal) ▪ [VN]
- used to say in a rude and angry way that you are not interested in what sb has, offers, does, etc.
I got sick of my boss’s moaning and told him he could stick the job.
②(BrE, informal) (usually used in negative sentences and questions 通常用于否定句和疑问句) to accept a difficult or unpleasant situation or person
- 容忍；忍受【SYN】 stand :
I don’t know how you stick that job.
③[V] to become accepted
The police couldn’t make the charges stick (= show them to be true).
His friends called him Bart and the name has stuck (= has become the
name that everyone calls him).
④[V] to not take any more cards
⑤[U] (BrE, informal) criticism or severe words
The referee got a lot of stick from the home fans.
⑥the sticks [pl.] (informal) country areas, a long way from cities
We live out in the sticks.
⑦[C] (old-fashioned, BrE, informal) a person
He’s not such a bad old stick.
①[sing.] (informal, especially BrE) an act that involves a lot of effort or trouble, sometimes when it is not necessary
- (不必要的)麻烦,忙乱【SYN】 carry-on :
It’s such a performance getting the children off to school in the morning.
①[C] (law 律) a case that goes to court
①[sing.] the ~ of sth the idea or impression that you get of sb / sth from what sb says or what you read
They had a wonderful time by the sound of it.
From the sound of things you were lucky to find him.
They’re consulting a lawyer? I don’t like the sound of that.
②[C] (often in place names 常用于地名) a narrow passage of water that joins two larger areas of water
③[VN V] (technical 术语) to measure the depth of the sea or a lake by using a line with a weight attached, or an electronic instrument
⑤[adj][only before noun] good and thorough
He has a sound grasp of the issues.
①[C] the top part of a grain plant, such as wheat , that contains the seeds
ears of corn
①[V] (informal) to disappear; to be taken away
Lock up any valuables. Things tend to walk here (= be stolen).
②[V] (literary) (of a ghost 鬼魂) to appear
①[VN] [usually passive] to obtain sth by losing sth else of great value
Her fame was bought at the expense of her marriage.
②[VN] (informal) to believe that sth is true, especially sth that is not very likely
You could say you were ill but I don’t think they’d buy it (= accept the explanation).
①[V] (of time or an event 时间或活动) to pass very slowly
Time dragged terribly.
②[VN] ~ sth (for sb / sth) to search the bottom of a river, lake, etc. with nets or hooks
They dragged the canal for the missing children.
③[sing.] (informal) a boring person or thing; sth that is annoying
He’s such a drag.
④[sing.] a ~ on sb / sth (informal) a person or thing that makes progress difficult
He came to be seen as a drag on his own party’s prospects.
⑤[C] (informal) an act of breathing in smoke from a cigarette, etc.
- 抽一口；吸一口【SYN】 draw :
She took a long drag on her cigarette.
⑥[U] (informal) clothes that are usually worn by the opposite sex (usually women’s clothes worn by men)
a drag queen (= a man who dresses in women’s clothes, usually in order to entertain people)
⑦[U] the force of the air that acts against the movement of an aircraft or other vehicle
①[VN] ~ sth (into sth) to make a material into a particular shape or form by pressing, stretching, hitting it, etc.
to work clay
②[V] ~ (in / with sth) (of an artist, etc. 艺术家等) to use a particular material to produce a picture or other item
an artist working in oils
③[V] (formal) to move violently
He stared at me in horror, his mouth working.
④to move or pass to a particular place or state, usually gradually
The screw had worked loose.
He worked his way to the top of his profession.
⑤works [pl.] (often in compounds 常构成复合词) activities involving building or repairing sth
⑥works (pl. works) [C + sing. / pl. v.] (often in compounds 常构成复合词) a place where things are made or industrial processes take place
an engineering works
⑦the works [pl.] the moving parts of a machine, etc.
- (机器等的)活动部件【SYN】 mechanism
⑧the works [pl.] (informal) everything
We went to the chip shop and had the works: fish, chips, gherkins, mushy peas.
①[U] an elegant quality or a high level of skill that is impressive
She has class all right—she looks like a model.
②[adj][only before noun] (informal) very good
a class player / performer
①[VN] to transport people or things by air
The survivors were lifted to safety by helicopter.
②[VN] to remove or end restrictions
to lift a ban / curfew / blockade
③to become or make sb more cheerful
His heart lifted at the sight of her.
④[V] to rise and disappear
- 消散；消失【SYN】 disperse :
The fog began to lift.
⑤[VN] ~ sth (from sb / sth) (informal) to steal sth
He had been lifting electrical goods from the store where he worked.
⑥[VN] to use sb’s ideas or words without asking permission or without saying where they come from
- 剽窃；盗用；抄袭【SYN】 plagiarize :
She lifted most of the ideas from a book she had been reading.
⑦[VN] to dig up vegetables or plants from the ground
to lift potatoes
①[U, sing.] (technical 术语) a firm hold on sth with the hands or feet, for example when you are climbing
- 握紧；抓牢；蹬稳【SYN】 grip :
»She tried to get a purchase on the slippery rock.
①[VN] (old-fashioned or formal) to affect or concern sb / sth
These are issues that touch us all.
②[VN] (usually in negative sentences 通常用于否定句) to be as good as sb in skill, quality, etc.
No one can touch him when it comes to interior design.
③[VN] to be seen on sb’s face for a short time
A smile touched the corners of his mouth.
④[C, usually sing.] ~ of sth a very small amount
- 一点儿；少许【SYN】 trace :
There was a touch of sarcasm in her voice.
⑤a touch [sing.] slightly; a little
The music was a touch too loud for my liking.
⑥[U] the area outside the lines that mark the sides of the playing field
He kicked the ball into touch.
⑦[sing.] a way or style of doing sth
She prefers to answer any fan mail herself for a more personal touch.
①[U] moving pictures of real events, shown for example on television
- 新闻片【SYN】 footage :
The accident was captured / caught on film.
②[U, C] thin plastic that is sensitive to light, used for taking photographs and making films / movies; a roll of this plastic, used in cameras
a roll of film
③[C, usually sing.] ~ (of sth) a thin layer of sth, usually on the surface of sth else
- 薄薄的一层；薄膜【SYN】 coat , coating , layer :
Everything was covered in a film of dust.
①a ~ of sth [sing.] (BrE) a group of people, animals or things
He’s won a whole clutch of awards.
②clutches [pl.] (informal) power or control
He managed to escape from their clutches.
③[C] a group of eggs that a bird lays at one time; the young birds that come out of a group of eggs at the same time
④[C] (NAmE) = clutch bag: a small, flat bag that women carry in their hands, especially on formal occasions
①[C, usually sing.] a series of people, things or events that follow one another in time
She came from a long line of doctors.
②[C, usually sing.] a series of people in order of importance
to be next in line to the throne
③[C] the words spoken by an actor in a play or film / movie
to learn your lines
④[C] (informal) a remark, especially when sb says it to achieve a particular purpose
(BrE) That’s the worst chat-up line I’ve ever heard.
⑤[C, usually sing.] an attitude or a belief, especially one that sb states publicly
The government is taking a firm line on terrorism.
⑥[C] a method or way of doing or thinking about sth
She decided to try a different line of argument (= way of persuading sb of sth).
⑦[sing.] a type or area of business, activity or interest
My line of work pays pretty well.
⑧[C] a type of product
Some lines sell better than others.
⑨[C] (often used in names 常用于名称) a company that provides transport for people or goods
a shipping / bus line
⑩[C] (slang) an amount of cocaine that is spread out in a thin line, ready to take
①[U] interesting and exciting details or qualities
The old town is full of colour and attractions.
②colours [pl.] (especially BrE) a flag, badge , etc. that represents a team, country, ship, etc.
Most buildings had a flagpole with the national colours flying.
③[V] ~ (at sth) (of a person or their face 人或其面孔) to become red with embarrassment
- (因尴尬而)脸红【SYN】 blush :
She coloured at his remarks.
④[VN] to affect sth, especially in a negative way
This incident coloured her whole life.
①grounds [pl.] the small pieces of solid matter in a liquid that have fallen to the bottom
②(NAmE) (BrE earth) [C, usually sing.] a wire that connects an electric circuit with the ground and makes it safe
③[C] a background that a design is painted or printed on
pink roses on a white ground
④[verb][VN] [usually passive] to punish a child by not allowing them to go out with their friends for a period of time
You’re grounded for a week!
⑤[adj] (of food 食物) cut or crushed into very small pieces or powder
①[U] (NAmE) television programmes that are sent from a central station to other stations in a network; the system of sending out these programmes
②[U] material supplied to a machine
③[C] a pipe, device, etc. which supplies a machine with sth
the cold feed to the water cylinder
①[C] (used especially in newspapers 尤用于报章) strong criticism
Blast for prison governors in judge’s report.
②[sing.] (especially NAmE) a very enjoyable experience that is a lot of fun
The party was a blast.
③[C] a sudden strong movement of air
the wind’s icy blasts
④[VN] (informal) to hit or kick sb / sth with a lot of force
He blasted the ball past the goalie.
⑤[VN] to direct air, water, etc. at sb / sth with a lot of force
Police blasted the demonstrators with water cannons.
⑥[VN] [usually passive] to destroy sth such as a plant with disease, cold, heat, etc.
Their whole crop had been blasted by a late frost.
⑦(exclamation)(informal, especially BrE) people sometimes say Blast! when they are annoyed about sth
Oh blast! The car won’t start.
①[C] a passenger in a taxi
- 出租车乘客； 计程车乘客:
The taxi driver picked up a fare at the station.
②[U] (old-fashioned) or(formal) food that is offered as a meal
The restaurant provides good traditional fare.
③[verb]~ well, badly, better, etc. to be successful / unsuccessful in a particular situation
- 成功(或不成功、更好等)【SYN】 get on :
The party fared very badly in the last election.
①[adj](of a movement or an action 动作或行为) done slowly and carefully
She spoke in a slow and deliberate way.
②[verb]to think very carefully about sth, usually before making a decision
They deliberated on whether to continue with the talks.
①[C] a sweet sticky brown fruit that grows on a tree called a date palm, common in N Africa and W Asia
②[V] to become old-fashioned
She designs classic clothes which do not date.
③[VN] if sth dates you, it shows that you are fairly old or older than the people you are with
I was at the Woodstock festival—that dates me, doesn’t it?
①[C] a person or group of people, especially as a source of help, information or a reaction
The news was greeted with dismay in some quarters.
②[C] a coin of the US and Canada worth 25 cents
- (美国和加拿大的) 25 分硬币
③quarters [pl.] rooms that are provided for soldiers, servants, etc. to live in
We were moved to more comfortable living quarters.
④[C] the period of time twice a month when we can see a quarter of the moon
The moon is in its first quarter.
⑤[C] a unit for measuring weight, 28 pounds in the UK or 25 pounds in the US; a quarter of a hundredweight
- 夸特(重量单位,英国为 28 磅,美国为 25 磅；四分之一英担)
⑥[U] (old-fashioned or literary) pity that sb shows towards an enemy or opponent who is in their power
- (对掌控中的敌人或对手的)慈悲,同情【SYN】 mercy :
His rivals knew that they could expect no quarter from such a ruthless adversary.
①[C, usually pl.] the liquid in the stomach that helps you to digest food
digestive / gastric juices
②[U] (informal, especially BrE) petrol / gas
③[U] (NAmE, informal) electricity
①to have a bad effect on sb / sth
The tax increases will certainly hit the poor.
②[VN] to reach a place
The President hits town tomorrow.
③[VN] (informal) to experience sth difficult or unpleasant
We seem to have hit a problem.
④[VN] (informal) to come suddenly into your mind
I couldn’t remember where I’d seen him before, and then it suddenly hit me.
⑤[VN] (informal) to press sth such as a button to operate a machine, etc.
Hit the brakes
⑥a person or thing that is very popular
The duo were a real hit in last year’s show.
⑦a successful pop song or record
They are about to release an album of their greatest hits.
⑧(slang) an amount of an illegal drug that is taken at one time
⑨(slang, especially NAmE) a violent crime or murder
⑩a result of a search on a computer, for example on the Internet
①[V] (of prices, a business, shares, etc. 价格、业务、股票等) to lose value or fail suddenly and quickly
Share prices crashed to an all-time low yesterday.
②if a computer crashes or you crash a computer, it stops working suddenly
Files can be lost if the system suddenly crashes.
③[V , usually +adv. / prep.] (especially BrE) to lose very badly in a sports game
The team crashed to their worst defeat this season.
④[V] ~ (out) (informal) to fall asleep; to sleep somewhere you do not usually sleep
I was so tired I crashed out on the sofa.
⑤[V] if sb crashes, their heart stops beating
①[adv]in or into an unconscious state
He felt himself going under.
①[VN] ~ A for B | ~ B as A to replace one word, etc. with another when correcting a text
For ‘madam’ in line 3 read ‘madman’.
②[adj](used after an adverb 用于副词后) (of a person 人) having knowledge that has been gained from reading books, etc.
She’s very widely read in law.
①[VN] ~ sb (with sth) | ~ sb (as sth) (formal) to give sb power or authority, especially as part of their job
The new position invested her with a good deal of responsibility.
②If you say that someone or something is invested with a particular quality, you mean that they seem to have that quality.
The buildings are invested with a nation’s history
①[U] the strength of a colour
Strong light will affect the depth of colour of your carpets and curtains.
②[U] (technical 术语) the quality in a work of art or a photograph which makes it appear not to be flat
①~ sth (against / on sb / sth) to begin and continue a war, a battle, etc.
The rebels have waged a guerrilla war since 2001.
①[C] (computing 计) a series of connected messages on a message board on the Internet which have been sent by different people
②[C] the raised line that runs around the length of a screw and that allows it to be fixed in place by twisting
③threads [pl.] (old-fashioned, NAmE, slang) clothes
①[U] (BrE, informal) a feeling that you are better than other people
There was no side to him at all.
②[C] a ~ of beef / bacon, etc. one of the two halves of an animal that has been killed for meat
③[C] (old-fashioned, BrE, informal) a television channel
What’s on the other side?
①(in golf 高尔夫球) a club with a wooden head
①[VN] ~ sth (for sth) to put a special device somewhere in order to listen secretly to other people’s conversations
- 给…安装窃听器【SYN】 bug :
The room had been wired for sound.
①[VN] to avoid sth
We were up and off early to beat the heat.
②[noun][C] the area which a police officer walks around regularly and which he or she is responsible for
More police officers out on the beat may help to cut crime.
③[adj][not before noun] (informal) = dead beat: very tired
①[only before noun] (formal or law 律) (of a crime, etc. 罪行等) very obvious and unacceptable
gross indecency / negligence / misconduct
②(informal) very unpleasant
- 令人不快的；令人恶心的；使人厌恶的【SYN】 disgusting :
‘He ate it with mustard.’ ‘Oh, gross!’
- 粗鲁的；不雅的【SYN】 crude :
④very fat and ugly
She’s not just fat, she’s positively gross!
⑤[noun] (pl. gross) a group of 144 things
- 一罗(144 个):
two gross of apples
①[usually pl.] the pieces of metal or plastic at the front and back of a vehicle with numbers and letters on it
②[C] a photograph that is used as a picture in a book, especially one that is printed on a separate page on high quality paper
The book includes 55 colour plates.
③[C] a sheet of metal, plastic, etc. that has been treated so that words or pictures can be printed from it
a printing plate
①[VN] to make use of a lot of your money, supplies, time, etc.
The influx of refugees has stretched the country’s resources to the limit.
②[VN] to make use of all sb’s skill, intelligence, etc.
I need a job that will stretch me.
③[VN] to use sth in a way that would not normally be considered fair, acceptable, etc.
He admitted that he had maybe stretched the truth a little (= not been completely honest).
④[C] a continuous period of time
- (连续的)一段时间【SYN】 spell :
She used to read for hours at a stretch (= without stopping).
⑤[C, usually sing.] (informal) a period of time that sb spends in prison
He did a ten-year stretch for fraud
⑥[C, usually sing.] a straight part at the end of a racing track
- (终点)直道【SYN】 straight :
the finishing / home stretch
①[VN] ~ sth (for sb / sth) to have sth, usually sth bad, as a result; to mean sth, usually sth bad
The crop failure spelt disaster for many farmers.
②[VN] (NAmE, informal) to replace for a short time sb who is doing a particular activity so that they can rest
Carter will be here in an hour to spell you.
③[C] a short period of time during which sth lasts
a cold / hot / wet / bright, etc. spell
①[U, C] official permission that is given to sb before they can work somewhere, have particular information, or do sth they want to do
I’m waiting for clearance from headquarters.
②[C] a clearance in football ( soccer ) and some other sports is when a player kicks or hits the ball away from the goal of his or her own team
①[C] (old-fashioned) (often used in the title of a piece of music 常用于乐曲名) a tune
Bach’s Air on a G string
②[sing.] the particular feeling or impression that is given by sb / sth; the way sb does sth
The room had an air of luxury.
③airs [pl.] (disapproving) a way of behaving that shows that sb thinks that they are more important, etc. than they really are
I hate the way she puts on airs.
④[VN] to express your opinions publicly
- 公开发表【SYN】 voice :
The weekly meeting enables employees to air their grievances.
⑤(especially NAmE) to broadcast a programme on the radio or on television; to be broadcast
The show will be aired next Tuesday night.
①~ new (sometimes ironic) new in an impressive way
a vision of a brave new Britain
①[VN] to get sb’s attention
Glasgow’s drugs problem has grabbed the headlines tonight (= been published as an important story in the newspapers).
②[VN] to have or take sth quickly, especially because you are in a hurry
Let’s grab a sandwich before we go.
③(computing 计) a picture taken from a television or video film, stored as an image on a computer
a screen grab from Wednesday’s programme
①[C] (informal) an opportunity to do sth, usually to get sth that you want or to achieve success
I got my lucky break when I won a ‘Young Journalist of the Year’ competition.
②(also break of ‘serve) [C] a win in a game in which your opponent is serving
It was her second break in the set.
③[C] a series of successful shots by one player; the number of points scored in a series of successful shots
He’s put together a magnificent break.
①(BrE) (of a person 人) (informal, disapproving) lacking a strong character
- 窝囊的；没有骨气的【SYN】 feeble , wimpish :
‘Don’t be so wet,’ she laughed.
②the wet [sing.] wet weather; rain
Come in out of the wet.
③[C] (BrE, disapproving) a conservative politician who supports moderate policies rather than extreme ones
④[C] (BrE, informal, disapproving) a person who lacks a strong character
- 窝囊废；软骨头【SYN】 wimp
①a short performance or piece of entertainment such as a song, etc.
Everyone got up on stage to do a turn.
②(old-fashioned) a short walk
We took a turn around the park.
③(old-fashioned) a feeling of illness
a funny turn (= a feeling that you may faint)
①[VN] (old-fashioned, slang) to approve of or like sth very much
②~ (at sb / sth) a remark that is intended to annoy or upset sb
to have a dig at sb / sth
③an occasion when an organized group of people dig in the ground to discover old buildings or objects, in order to find out more about their history
- 考古发掘 【SYN】 excavation
to go on a dig
①[VN] to control sth; to stop sth from increasing or getting worse
The government is determined to check the growth of public spending.
②[VN] to stop yourself from saying or doing sth or from showing a particular emotion
to check your anger / laughter / tears
③[VN] (NAmE) to leave coats, bags, etc. in an official place (called a checkroom ) while you are visiting a club, restaurant, etc.
Do you want to check your coats?
④[VN] (NAmE) to leave bags or cases with an official so that they can be put on a plane or train
⑤[VN] (NAmE)(BrE tick)to put a mark (√) next to an item on a list, an answer, etc.
Check the box next to the right answer.
⑥checks [pl.] (formal) rules that are designed to control the amount of power, especially political power, that one person or group has
⑦[C, U] a pattern of squares, usually of two colours
Do you prefer checks or stripes?
⑧[C] (NAmE) coat ~ a place in a club, restaurant, etc. where you can leave your coat or bag
⑨[C] (NAmE) a ticket that you get when you leave your coat, bag, etc. in, for example, a restaurant or theatre
①(formal) to begin fighting with sb
to engage the enemy
①[usually sing.] (informal) a thing that is very easy to do or cheap to buy
Their second goal was an absolute gift.
①(of flames 火焰) to touch sth lightly
Flames were soon licking the curtains.
②[VN] (informal) to easily defeat sb or deal with sth
We thought we had them licked.
③[sing.] a ~ of paint (informal) a small amount of paint, used to make a place look better
What this room needs is a lick of paint.
④[C] (informal) a short piece of music which is part of a song and is played on a guitar
a guitar / blues lick
①[C] any of the thin plates of hard material that cover the skin of many fish and reptiles
②(BrE also fur) [U] a hard greyish-white substance that is sometimes left inside water pipes and containers for heating water
③[U] a hard substance that forms on teeth, especially when they are not cleaned regularly
①(disapproving) (especially of people and their behaviour 尤指人或行为) very formal, exaggerated and not natural in what you say and do
- 道貌岸然的；矫揉造作的【SYN】 affected
②[Adv](informal) ~ little / few: used to emphasize the fact that there is very little of sth or that there are very few of sth
There’s precious little to do in this town.
①not easy to find
The police followed the robbers to the airport but then the trail went cold.
②used in children’s games to say that the person playing is not close to finding a person or thing, or to guessing the correct answer
③out ~ [not before noun] (informal) unconscious
He was knocked out cold in the second round.
④the ~ facts / truth facts with nothing added to make them more interesting or pleasant
⑤(NAmE) suddenly and completely
His final request stopped her cold.
I can’t just walk in there cold and give a speech.
①[VN] ~ a living to make enough money to live on, but with difficulty
②~ (sb / sth) (from sth) to decide that sth cannot happen or sb / sth cannot take part in sth, before it starts
to scratch a rocket launch
①the movement of messages and signals through an electronic communication system
the computer servers that manage global Internet traffic
②~ (in sth) illegal trade in sth
the traffic in firearms
①a scene or part of a film / movie that is filmed at one time without stopping the camera
We managed to get it right in just ten takes.
②[usually sing.] (informal) an amount of money that sb receives, especially the money that is earned by a business during a particular period of time
- 收入额；进项【SYN】 takings :
How much is my share of the take?
③~ on sth (informal) the particular opinion or idea that sb has about sth
What’s his take on the plan?
①[C] one of the single photographs that a film or video is made of
②[C] a single picture in a comic strip
③[C] one of the separate areas on an Internet page that you can scroll through (= read by using the mouse to move the text up or down)
④[C] a single section of play in the game of snooker , etc., or in bowling
①[U] the large machinery that is used in industrial processes
The company has been investing in new plant and equipment.
②[C, usually sing.] (informal) something that sb has deliberately placed among another person’s clothes or possessions in order to make them appear guilty of a crime
③[C] a person who joins a group of criminals or enemies in order to get and secretly report information about their activities
④[+adv. / prep.] to place sth or yourself firmly in a particular place or position
⑤to hide sth such as a bomb in a place where it will not be found
⑥~ sth (on sb) to hide sth, especially sth illegal, in sb’s clothing, possessions, etc. so that when it is found it will look as though they committed a crime
He claims that the drugs were planted on him.
⑦~ sb (in sth) to send sb to join a group, etc., especially in order to make secret reports on its members
①(BrE) (NAmE meas∙ure) [C] one of the short sections of equal length that a piece of music is divided into, and the notes that are in it
four beats to the bar
②the Bar [sing.] (BrE) the profession of barrister (= a lawyer in a higher court)
to be called to the Bar (= allowed to work as a qualified barrister )
③the Bar [sing.] (NAmE) the profession of any kind of lawyer
④a unit for measuring the pressure of the atmosphere, equal to a hundred thousand newtons per square metre
- 巴(气压单位,等于 100 000 牛顿/平方米)
⑤[prep] except for sb / sth
It’s the best result we’ve ever had, bar none (= none was better).
①[sing.] (BrE also loads [pl.]) ~ (of sth) (informal) a large number or amount of sb / sth; plenty
She’s got loads of friends.
②[sing.] ~ of rubbish, garbage, nonsense, etc. (informal, especially BrE) used to emphasize that sth is wrong, stupid, bad, etc.
You’re talking a load of rubbish.
③[C, usually sing.] a feeling of responsibility or worry that is difficult to deal with
- (责任或忧虑的)沉重感【SYN】 burden :
She thought she would not be able to bear the load of bringing up her family alone.
④[VN] to give sb a lot of things, especially things they have to carry
They loaded her with gifts.
①[sing.] an act or a statement that may offend or annoy sb, especially because it is done without permission or does not show respect
He took the liberty of reading my files while I was away.
①[C] an area of knowledge; a subject that people study or are taught, especially in a university
②[VN] ~ sb (for sth) to punish sb for sth they have done
The officers were disciplined for using racist language.
①[C] a particular type of plant or animal, or of a disease caused by bacteria, etc.
a new strain of mosquitoes resistant to the poison
②[C, U] an injury to a part of your body, such as a muscle, that is caused by using it too much or by twisting it
a calf / groin / leg strain
③[C, usually sing.] a particular tendency in the character of a person or group, or a quality in their manner
- 个性特点；性格倾向；禀性【SYN】 streak :
He had a definite strain of snobbery in him.
④[C, usually pl.] (formal) the sound of music being played or sung
She could hear the strains of Mozart through the window.
⑤[VN] ~ sth (off) to pour food, etc. through sth with very small holes in it, for example a sieve , in order to separate the solid part from the liquid part
Use a colander to strain the vegetables.
⑥[VN] to try to make sth do more than it is able to do
The sudden influx of visitors is straining hotels in the town to the limit.
①~ (in…) (informal) popular with the public; successful
Orange is the big colour this year.
② ~ of sb (usually ironic) kind or generous
He gave me an extra five pounds for two hours’ work. I thought ‘That’s big of you’.
①[VN] [usually passive] ~ sb (up) before sb / sth to make sb appear in court in order to be judged
He was hauled up before the local magistrates for dangerous driving.
②a large amount of sth that has been stolen or that is illegal
a haul of weapons
③(especially in sport 尤用于体育运动) a large number of points, goals, etc.
His haul of 40 goals in a season is a record.
④[usually sing.] the distance covered in a particular journey
They began the long slow haul to the summit.
⑤a quantity of fish caught at one time
①[U] (approving) strong personal qualities such as the ability to deal with difficult or dangerous situations
Everyone admires her strength of character and determination.
②[C, U] (formal) the opinion that people have of you, particularly of whether you can be trusted or relied on
She was a victim of character assassination (= an unfair attack on the good opinion people had of her).
③[C] (informal) (used with an adjective 与形容词连用) a person, particularly an unpleasant or strange one
There were some really strange characters hanging around the bar.
④[C] (informal) an interesting or unusual person
She’s a character!
①[only before noun] (informal) used about a sum of money to emphasize how large it is
The car cost a cool thirty thousand.
①(NAmE, informal) to carry a gun
to pack a gun
②[VN] to have sth
A storm packing 75 mph winds swept across the area last night.
③[C + sing. / pl. v.] all the people who are behind the leaders in a race, competition, etc.
measures aimed at keeping the company ahead of the pack
④[C + sing. / pl. v.] an organized group of Cubs / Cub Scouts or Brownies
to join a Brownie pack
⑤[C] a hot or cold piece of soft material that absorbs liquid, used for treating a wound
①[noun] (pl. dos or do’s / du:z / ) (BrE, informal) a party; a social event
Are you having a big do for your birthday?
②[VN] [usually passive] (BrE, informal) to cheat sb
This isn’t a genuine antique—you’ve been done.
③[VN] (BrE) ~ sb (for sth) (informal) to punish sb
They did him for tax evasion.
④[VN] (informal) to steal from a place
The gang did a warehouse and a supermarket.
①the floor [sing.] the part of a building where discussions or debates are held, especially in a parliament; the people who attend a discussion or debate
Opposition politicians registered their protest on the floor of the House.
②[C, usually sing.] an area in a building that is used for a particular activity
on the floor of the Stock Exchange (= where trading takes place)
③to surprise or confuse sb so that they are not sure what to say or do
④[usually passive] to make sb fall down by hitting them, especially in a sport
①the ranks [pl.] the position of ordinary soldiers rather than officers
He served in the ranks for most of the war.
②the ranks [pl.] the members of a particular group or organization
We have a number of international players in our ranks.
③having a strong unpleasant smell
The house was full of the rank smell of urine.
④[only before noun] used to emphasize a particular quality, state, etc.
an example of rank stupidity
⑤(of plants, etc. 植物) growing too thickly
①[C] a large piece of equipment that can burn various fuels and is kept hot all the time, used for cooking, especially in the past
②the range [sing.] (NAmE) a large open area for keeping cows, etc.
①(informal) (especially of humour 尤指幽默) dealing with suffering, disease or death in a cruel way that some people think is offensive
a sick joke
②[U] (BrE, informal) food that you bring back up from your stomach through your mouth
- 呕吐物【SYN】 vomit
①(of a wire or device 电线或装置) connected to a source of electrical power
That terminal is live.
②still able to explode or light; ready for use
③live coals are burning or are still hot and red
④live yogurt still contains the bacteria needed to turn milk into yogurt
⑤of interest or importance at the present time
Pollution is still very much a live issue.
⑥(of an electronic link 电子链接) functioning correctly, so that it is connected to another document or page on the Internet
Here are some live links to other aviation-related web pages.
①[Noun]~ (of sth) (formal or literary) the most important feature of sth; something that sth else is based on or is made from
Parades and marches were the very stuff of politics in the region
②[VN] [usually passive] to fill the dead body of an animal with material and preserve it, so that it keeps its original shape and appearance
They had had their pet dog stuffed.
①[adj][only before noun] (of negative things 否定的事情) complete and total
a blank refusal / denial
②[C] (also blank ‘cartridge) a cartridge in a gun that contains an explosive but no bullet
The troops fired blanks in the air.
①[VN] to reach a particular time or speed
He clocked 10.09 seconds in the 100 metres final.
②~ sb / sth (at sth) to measure the speed at which sb / sth is travelling
The police clocked her doing over 100 miles an hour.
③(BrE, informal) to notice or recognize sb
I clocked her in the driving mirror.
④[VN] (BrE, informal) to illegally reduce the number of miles shown on a vehicle’s milometer (= instrument that measures the number of miles it has travelled) in order to make the vehicle appear to have travelled fewer miles than it really has
①(informal) very successful
I think this band is going to be huge.
①[C] (informal) a complaint
What’s his latest beef?
②[V]• ~ (about sb / sth) (informal) to complain a lot about sb / sth
①[U] (slang) marijuana
②[C] (BrE, informal, usually disapproving) a person, usually a criminal, who tells the police about sb’s criminal activities and plans
③[V]~ (on sb) (also 7grass sb ‘up) (both BrE, informal) to tell the police about sb’s criminal activities
①(of a person or part of the body 人或身体部份) large and round. ‘Full’ is sometimes used to avoid saying ‘fat’.
- 丰满的；圆鼓鼓的(有时用 full 以避免用 fat):
②made with plenty of cloth; fitting loosely
a full skirt
③deep, strong and rich
He draws a unique full sound from the instrument.
①honours honors [pl.] if you pass an exam or graduate from a university or school with honours, you receive a special mark / grade for having achieved a very high standard
②[C, usually pl.] the cards that have the highest value
①[C] ~ (of sth) a supply of things or money that is shared by a group of people and can be used when needed
a pool of cars used by the firm’s sales force
②[C] ~ (of sth) a group of people available for work when needed
a pool of cheap labour
③[V]to collect money, information, etc. from different people so that it can be used by all of them
The students work individually, then pool their ideas in groups of one.
①~ sth (into sth) to direct money, feelings, ideas, etc. towards a particular thing or purpose
He channels his aggression into sport.
②~ sth (through sth) to send money, help, etc. using a particular route
Money for the project will be channelled through local government.
①[C, usually pl., U] (formal) a feeling of worry or anxiety; something that causes problems or anxiety
Sam looked as if he didn’t have a care in the world.
②[V to inf] to make the effort to do sth
I’ve done this job more times than I care to remember.
①(BrE) an examination of the condition of a house, etc., usually done for sb who is thinking of buying it
②a general study, view or description of sth
a comprehensive survey of modern music
①[VN] (formal) to begin to have a particular quality or appearance
- 呈现(外观、样子)；显露(特征)【SYN】 take on :
This matter has assumed considerable importance.
①[VN] be delivered of a baby (formal) to give birth to a baby
She was delivered of a healthy boy.
②[VN] to throw or aim sth
He delivered the blow (= hit sb hard) with all his force.
③[VN] ~ sb (from sth) (old use) to rescue sb from sth bad
①red and painful because the skin has been damaged
There were raw patches on her feet where the shoes had rubbed.
a raw north wind
③honest, direct and sometimes shocking
a raw portrayal of working-class life
①straits [pl.] a very difficult situation especially because of lack of money
The factory is in dire straits.
①[VN +adv. / prep.] (informal) to make sth move somewhere very fast
Figo thundered the ball past the goalie.
②(literary) to shout, complain, etc. very loudly and angrily
He thundered against the evils of television.
①(of a liquid mixture 液体混合物) without any lumps
Mix the flour with the milk to form a smooth paste.
②(often disapproving) (of people, especially men, and their behaviour 人(尤指男人)及行为) very polite and pleasant, but in a way that is often not very sincere
- 圆通的；八面玲珑的【SYN】 smarmy :
I don’t like him. He’s far too smooth for me.
③pleasant and not bitter
This coffee has a smooth, rich taste.
④nice to hear, and without any rough or unpleasant sounds
①(especially BrE) connected with fashionable rich people
②(of a movement, etc. 动作等) quick and usually done with force
- 快速的；敏捷的；迅速而有力的【SYN】 brisk :
He was struck with a smart crack on the head.
③~ (from sth) to feel a sharp stinging pain in a part of your body
His eyes were smarting from the smoke.
④~ (from / over sth) to feel upset about a criticism, failure, etc.
They are still smarting from the 4–0 defeat last week.
①[C] a large number of fish or other sea animals, swimming together
a school of dolphins
①[only before noun] used to describe the middle or the most attractive part of a period of time
②(of meat, cheese, etc. 肉、奶酪等) beginning to go bad and having a strong smell
③[not before noun] ~ (on sth) (informal) behaving in an excited way because of the effects of alcohol or drugs
④[noun]the highest temperature reached during a particular day, week, etc.
Highs today will be in the region of 25°C.
①a serve that lands in the correct part of the court but must be taken again because it has touched the top of the net
②(BrE) an act of renting a home, etc.
a long-term / short-term let
①[V to inf] not ~ to make no attempt to do sth or have no chance of doing sth
I can’t begin to thank you enough.
①[C, usually pl.] (sport 体) a race or competition that sb has taken part in
She has been beaten only once in one starts.
②[C, usually sing.] an act of moving your body quickly and suddenly because you are surprised, afraid, etc.
She woke from the dream with a start.
①[only before noun] great in number, amount or degree
There’s a good chance (= it is likely) that I won’t be here next year.
②not less than; rather more than
We waited for a good hour.
③[only before noun] thorough; complete
We had a good laugh about it afterwards.
④[usually before noun] amusing
a good story / joke
⑤~ for sth having enough energy, health, strength, etc. to last for a particular length of time or distance
You’re good for (= you will live) a few years yet.
⑥~ for sth valid for sth
The ticket is good for three months.
⑦~ for sth likely to provide sth
He’s always good for a laugh.
①(often in names 常用于名称) [C + sing. / pl. v.] a group of people who work or perform together
a theatre / dance, etc. company
②[U] (formal) guests in your house
I didn’t realize you had company.
③[C + sing. / pl. v.] a group of soldiers that is part of a battalion
①[only before noun] (BrE, informal, especially disapproving) used to emphasize sth bad
You made a right mess of that!
①[VN +adv. / prep.] to deal with a situation in the way mentioned
He played the situation carefully for maximum advantage.
②[V +adv. / prep.] to move or appear quickly and lightly, often changing direction or shape
Sunlight played on the surface of the lake.
③[V] when a fountain plays, it produces a steady stream of water
④[U] the possibility of free and easy movement
We need more play in the rope.
⑤[U] the activity or operation of sth; the influence of sth on sth else
the free play of market forces
⑥[U] (literary) a light, quick movement that keeps changing
the play of sunlight on water
①the ~ of the / sb’s back [sing.] the lower part of the back where it curves in
②smalls [pl.] (old-fashioned, BrE, informal) small items of clothing, especially underwear
①[VN] to put mortar between the bricks of a wall
②points [pl.] (BrE) (NAmE switch [C]) a piece of track at a place where a railway / railroad line divides that can be moved to allow a train to change tracks
③[C] (BrE) a place in a wall, etc. where a piece of equipment can be connected to electricity
a power / shaver / telephone point
④points [pl.] = pointe: the hard tops of the toes of a kind of shoe that a ballet dancer balances on
①[C] the part of a ship or plane where the goods being carried are stored
②[C] a place where you can put your hands or feet when climbing
①[VN to inf] ~ yourself to do sth to force yourself to do sth
She could not bring herself to tell him the news.
①[V] to work correctly or in the way mentioned
This pen won’t write.
①[V] to be talked about by many people
②(formal) to escape from sb / sth
Both suspects have flown the country.
③[V] (NAmE) to be successful
It remains to be seen whether his project will fly.
④[noun][C] a piece of material that covers the entrance to a tent
①(informal) something that sb says which is not true
She knew the child had been telling stories again.
①[sing.] ~ (in sth) (formal) a perfect example of sth
His face was a study in concentration.
②(BrE)[C] a piece of music designed to give a player practice in technical skills
③[C] a drawing or painting of sth, especially one done for practice or before doing a larger picture
a study of Chartres Cathedral
④[C] a room, especially in sb’s home, used for reading and writing
①books [pl.] the written records of the financial affairs of a business
- (企业的)账簿【SYN】 accounts :
to do the books (= to check the accounts)
②[C] a section of a large written work
the books of the Bible
③[C] (BrE) a record of bets made on whether sth will happen, sb will win a race, etc.
①(informal) a crime, especially stealing
an inside job (= done by sb in the organization where the crime happens)
②(informal) a particular kind of thing
It’s real wood—not one of those plastic jobs.
①[sing.] (usually with an adjective 通常与形容词连用) a matter, an event or a situation
That plane crash was a terrible business.
②[U] (especially NAmE)(also custom BrE) the fact of a person or people buying goods or services at a shop / store or business
We’re grateful for your business.
①a ~ of steam [sing.] the pressure produced by steam in a confined space
②[C] the part of a tape recorder or video recorder that touches the tape and changes the electrical signals into sounds and / or pictures
③[C] the part of a spot on your skin that contains a thick yellowish liquid (= pus )
④[sing.] the mass of small bubbles on the top of a glass of beer
①in contrast to sth
It was pleasantly cool in the house after the sticky heat outside.
②as a result of or because of sth that has happened
I’ll never forgive him after what he said.
③about sb / sth
She asked after you (= how you were).
①[U] (law 律) the formal giving of an official document, etc. to sb
the service of a demand for payment
②[U] (old-fashioned) the state or position of being a servant
to be in / go into service (= to be / become a servant)
③[C] a complete set of plates, dishes, etc. that match each other
a tea service (= cups, saucers , a teapot and plates, for serving tea)
④[C] an act of hitting the ball in order to start playing; the way that you hit it
- 发球；发球方式【SYN】 serve :
It’s your service (= your turn to start playing).
①[C, usually sing.] the number of times that an amount is to be multiplied by itself
②[U] the amount by which a lens can make objects appear larger
the power of a microscope / telescope
①(BrE) a small piece that is left after sth has been used
a cigarette end
②one of the two halves of a sports field
The teams changed ends at half-time.
③[usually sing.] a part of an activity with which sb is concerned, especially in business
We need somebody to handle the marketing end of the business.
①[usually before noun] (of parts of the body 身体部位) not healthy; painful
I’ve got a bad back.
②(bad∙der, bad∙dest) (slang, especially NAmE) good; excellent
①[VN] (informal) to be no longer understood by sb
I’m afraid you’ve lost me there.
②[VN] to escape from sb / sth
- 逃避；逃脱【SYN】 evade , shake off :
We managed to lose our pursuers in the darkness.
③if a watch or clock loses or loses time, it goes too slowly or becomes a particular amount of time behind the correct time
This clock loses ten minutes a day.
①(old use or literary) a part of the body, especially an arm or a leg
②Member (in Britain) a Member of Parliament
the Hon. Member for Brent North
①(also rail∙car both NAmE) a separate section of a train
Several cars went off the rails.
①the City [sing.] (BrE) Britain’s financial and business centre, in the oldest part of London
②[U] (informal) used after other nouns to say that a place is full of a particular thing
It’s not exactly fun city here is it?
①a famous person
Some of the biggest names in the art world were at the party.
②[usually sing.] a reputation that sb / sth has; the opinion that people have about sb / sth
She first made her name as a writer of children’s books.
①whites [pl.] white clothes worn for playing some sports
cricket / tennis whites
①[C] a young goat
②[U] soft leather made from the skin of a young goat
③[verb]~ sb / yourself to allow sb / yourself to believe sth that is not true
- 欺骗；哄骗【SYN】 deceive :
They’re kidding themselves if they think it’s going to be easy.
①[C] ~ of sth a large amount or collection of sth
a vast body of evidence / information / research
②[C] (formal) an object
heavenly bodies (= stars, planets, etc.)
③[U] the full strong flavour of alcoholic drinks or the thick healthy quality of sb’s hair
a wine with plenty of body
④[C] (BrE) (NAmE body∙suit) a piece of clothing which fits tightly over a woman’s upper body and bottom, usually fastening between the legs
①~ of sth the particular character of sth
the changing face of Britain
②the front part of a clock or watch
①how successful sth is
the health of your marriage / finances
①~ (to sth) likely to suffer sth such as criticism, injury, etc.
- 易受损害；脆弱【SYN】 vulnerable :
He has laid himself wide open to political attack.
②honest; not keeping thoughts and feelings hidden
- 诚恳；坦诚；直率【SYN】 frank :
She was always open with her parents.
③~ (to sth) not yet finally decided or settled
The race is still wide open (= anyone could win).
④with wide spaces between the threads
an open weave
①[VN] to give money, a present, etc. to sb / sth
My aunt always remembers my birthday (= by sending a card or present).
①[VN] [usually passive] ~ sb (from sth) (to sth) (especially BrE) to send an employee to another department, office, etc. in order to do a different job for a short period of time
Each year two teachers are seconded to industry for six months.
①[VN] (formal) to look carefully at sb / sth
He stood there, considering the painting.
①[V , usually +adv. / prep.] to be published or broadcast
His new book will be appearing in the spring.
①a block of metal with a special shape, or with a pattern cut into it, that is used for shaping other pieces of metal such as coins, or for making patterns on paper or leather
②(especially NAmE) = dice: a small cube of wood, plastic, etc., with a different number of spots on each of its sides, used in games of chance
①[VN] to discover and record sth
equipment that senses the presence of toxic gases
①[V] (of a feeling 感觉) to become gradually stronger
The tension and excitement built gradually all day.
②[U, C, usually sing.]the shape and size of the human body
a man of average build
①[pl.] ~ (for / of sth) (technical 术语) a detailed drawing of a machine, building, etc. that shows its size, shape and measurements
The architect is drawing up plans for the new offices.
②a diagram that shows how sth will be arranged
a seating plan (= showing where each person will sit, for example at a dinner)
①[VN] (informal, especially NAmE) to stay away from a class that you should go to
He’s always cutting class
②[VN] to hurt sb emotionally
His cruel remarks cut her deeply.
③to lift and turn up a pack / deck of playing cards in order to decide who is to play first, etc.
Let’s cut for dealer.
④[VN] (of a line 一条线) to cross another line
The line cuts the circle at two points.
⑤[VN] ~ a tooth to have a new tooth beginning to appear through the gum
When did she cut her first tooth?
⑥[VN] ~ a disc, etc. to make a recording of music on a record, CD, etc.
The Beatles cut their first disc in 1962.
⑦[VN] ~ sth (with sth) to mix an illegal drug such as heroin with another substance
⑧[noun][usually sing.] the shape and style that a piece of clothing has because of the way the cloth is cut
the elegant cut of her dress
①the… experience [sing.] events or knowledge shared by all the members of a particular group in society, that influences the way they think and behave
musical forms like jazz that emerged out of the Black American experience
①[C, usually pl.] a straight section of water between two bends on a river
the upper / lower reaches of the Nile (= the part that is furthest from / nearest to the sea)
②reaches [pl.] the outer, further, etc. ~ of sth the parts of an area or a place that are a long way from the centre
the outer reaches of space
③reaches [pl.] the higher, lower, etc. ~ of sth the higher, etc. sections of an organization, a system, etc.
There are still few women in the upper reaches of the civil service.
①[only before noun] definitely true and based on information that can be proved
Is there any hard evidence either way?
②[only before noun] strongly alcoholic
③containing calcium and other mineral salts that make mixing with soap difficult
a hard water area
①(in cricket and baseball 板球和棒球) [sing. + sing. / pl. v.] the team that is trying to catch the ball rather than hit it
②[sing. + sing. / pl. v.] all the people or animals competing in a particular sports event
The field includes seven world-record holders.
③[sing. + sing. / pl. v.] all the people or products competing in a particular area of business
They lead the field in home entertainment systems.
④[C] part of a record that is a separate item of data
You will need to create separate fields for first name, surname and address.
⑤[VN] to provide a candidate, speaker, team, etc. to represent you in an election, a competition, etc.
Each of the main parties fielded more than 300 candidates.
⑥[VN] to catch the ball and throw it back
He fielded the ball expertly.
⑦[VN] to receive and deal with questions or comments
The BBC had to field more than 300 phone calls after last night’s programme.
①[VN] ~ sth (on sb / sth) to say or state sth, especially officially
The court waited in silence for the judge to pass sentence.
②[VN] to send sth out from the body as or with waste matter
If you’re passing blood you ought to see a doctor.
③[noun]a stage in a process, especially one that involves separating things from a larger group
In the first pass all the addresses are loaded into the database.
①[sing](informal) something that is not as good as it seemed to be
The band only played for about half an hour—it was a real sell.
①[adj][not before noun] (NAmE) serious
Never mind—it’s not major.
②[noun]the majors [pl.] (NAmE) (sport 体) the major leagues
①[VN] to be good, important, etc. enough to be treated in a particular way
- 值得,配得上(某种对待)【SYN】 merit :
The incident didn’t even rate a mention in the press.
①likely to succeed or happen
You’re in a strong position to negotiate a deal.
②great in number
There was a strong police presence at the demonstration.
③used after numbers to show the size of a group
The crowd was 5 000 strong.
④having a lot of flavour
⑤containing a lot of a substance
strong black coffee
⑥(of words or language 言辞或言语) having a lot of force, often causing offence to people
The movie has been criticized for strong language (= swearing).
①[VN] to enter an animal in a competition
②[C, U] a brightly coloured or pleasing sight
- 鲜艳悦目的景象【SYN】 display :
a lovely show of spring flowers
③[sing.] (informal) an event, a business or a situation where sth is being done or organized
She runs the whole show.
①[sing.] an expression in sb’s eyes which shows what they are thinking or feeling
There was a soft light in her eyes as she looked at him.
②[C] (architecture 建) a window or an opening to allow light in
③low in alcohol
a light beer
④(of a meal 一餐饭) small in quantity
a light supper / snack
⑤not containing much fat or not having a strong flavour and therefore easy for the stomach to digest
Stick to a light diet.
⑥containing a lot of air
This pastry is so light
①[C] an injury to a muscle caused by using too much force
②[C, usually sing.] (BrE) a difficult walk up a steep hill
It’s a long pull up to the summit.
③[C] ~ (at / on sth) an act of taking a deep breath of smoke from a cigarette, etc. or a deep drink of sth
She took a long pull on her cigarette.
④[U] (informal) power and influence over other people
people who have a lot of pull with the media
⑤[C, usually sing.] the ~ (of sth) the fact of sth attracting you or having a strong effect on you
The magnetic pull of the city was hard to resist.
⑥[sing.] the ~ (of sth) a strong physical force that makes sth move in a particular direction
the earth’s gravitational pull
①[VN] ~ a verdict to give a decision about sth in court
The jury returned a verdict of not guilty.
②[VN] [usually passive] ~ sb (to sth) | ~ sb (as sth) (BrE) to elect sb to a political position
①[C] (in horse racing 赛马) the numbers that tell you how much money you will receive if the horse that you bet on wins the race
- 投注赔率【SYN】 odds :
Six to one is a good price for that horse.
②[verb]to compare the prices of different types of the same thing
We priced various models before buying this one.
①[VN] [usually passive] to approve of sth by more people voting for it than against it
The resolution was carried by 340 votes to 210.
②[VN] to win the support or sympathy of sb; to persuade people to accept your argument
His moving speech was enough to carry the audience.
③[VN] if a shop / store carries a particular item, it has it for sale
We carry a range of educational software.
④[VN] be carrying sb to be pregnant with sb
She was carrying twins.
⑤[VN +adv. / prep.] to hold or move your head or body in a particular way
to carry yourself well
⑥[VN] to add a number to the next column on the left when adding up numbers, for example when the numbers add up to more than ten
①Drive (abbr. Dr) used in the names of roads
21 Island Heights Drive
②[C] (BrE) a social occasion when a lot of people compete in a game such as whist or bingo
③[C] a long hard hit or kick
She has a strong forehand drive (= in tennis ).
④[U] (approving) a strong desire to do things and achieve sth; great energy
He’ll do very well—he has tremendous drive.
①a long narrow piece of water or land that is joined to a larger area
A small bridge spans the arm of the river.
②[usually sing.] ~ (of sth) a section of a large organization that deals with one particular activity
- 分部；职能部门【SYN】 wing :
the research arm of the company
③[verb][VN] to make a bomb, etc. ready to explode
①~ sth (with sth) to add salt, pepper, etc. to food in order to give it more flavour
Season the lamb with garlic.
①to need a great amount of physical or mental effort
The problem is currently taxing the brains of the nation’s experts (= making them think very hard).
①to make an official or legal statement about sth
The coroner recorded a verdict of accidental death.
①[C] a person or thing that is chosen
She was his pick for best actress.
②[sing.] the ~ of sth the best thing or things in a group
I think we got the pick of the bunch (= the best in the group).
③[C] = pickaxe: a large heavy tool that has a curved metal bar with sharp ends fixed at the centre to a wooden handle. It is used for breaking rocks or hard ground.
④[C] (informal) = plectrum a small piece of metal, plastic, etc. used for plucking the strings of a guitar or similar instrument
①[VN] (usually used in questions and negative sentences 通常用于问句和否定句) (BrE, informal) to accept or allow sth, especially sth that you do not approve of
①[C, usually sing.] (informal) used to show that you feel very grateful for sth that sb has done or that you think they are wonderful
Thanks! You’re a star!
①[noun]a list of sports teams, countries, schools, etc. that shows their position in a competition, etc.
If Arsenal win this game they’ll go to the top of the table.
②[verb](NAmE) to leave an idea, a proposal, etc. to be discussed at a later date
They voted to table the proposal until the following meeting.
①[VN] to try to please sb in order to get sth you want, especially the support of a person, an organization, etc.
- (为有所求,尤指寻求支持而)试图取悦,讨好,争取【SYN】 cultivate :
Both candidates have spent the last month courting the media.
②[VN] (formal) to try to obtain sth
He has never courted popularity.
①(old-fashioned or formal) a job
Situations Vacant (= the title of the section in a newspaper where jobs are advertised)
①only before noun] pleasant and friendly
- 随和的；平易近人的【SYN】 easy-going :
He had a very easy manner.
②[not usually before noun] (informal, disapproving) (of women 女人) willing to have sex with many different people
①[U] (formal) the quality of working hard
We were impressed by their industry.
①[C] a particular shape formed by lines or surfaces
a five-sided figure
②[C] a pattern or series of movements performed on ice
①the picture [sing.] the general situation concerning sb / sth
Just a few years ago the picture was very different.
②the pictures [pl.] (old-fashioned, informal) the cinema / the movies
Shall we go to the pictures tonight?
①[C]A doctor’s or lawyer’s practice is his or her business, often shared with other doctors or lawyers.
My law practice isn’t the most important thing in my life, you know.
①a piece [sing.] (old-fashioned, NAmE, informal) a short distance
She lives down the road a piece from here.
②[C] (NAmE, slang) a gun
③[C] an article in a newspaper or magazine or a broadcast on television or radio
Did you see her piece about the Internet in the paper today?
①(informal) to succeed in getting a job, etc., especially one that a lot of other people want
He’s just landed a starring role in Spielberg’s next movie.
②[VN] to catch a fish and bring it out of the water on to the land
①to change sth in order to trick sb
- 篡改；伪造【SYN】 falsify :
He was accused of doctoring the figures.
②to add sth harmful to food or drink
The wine had been doctored.
③(informal) to remove part of the sex organs of an animal
- 阉割(动物)【SYN】 neuter
①[U] a score of zero (points or games)
①[sing.] (old-fashioned) a person that other people see as a good person to marry, employ, etc.
②[U] a child’s game in which two people throw a ball to each other
③[C, usually sing.] a hidden difficulty or disadvantage
All that money for two hours’ work—what’s the catch?
④[C] a device used for fastening sth
a catch on the door
⑤[C] the total amount of things that are caught
a huge catch of fish
①~ (with / against sb) to finish a game without either team winning
England and France drew.
②(US also drawing) [usually sing.] ~ (for sth) the act of choosing sth, for example the winner of a prize or the teams who play each other in a competition, usually by taking pieces of paper, etc. out of a container without being able to see what is written on them
the draw for the second round of the European Cup
③(especially BrE) a game in which both teams or players finish with the same number of points
The match ended in a two-all draw.
④an act of breathing in the smoke from a cigarette
①[adj](informal, sometimes disapproving) (politics 政) having very left-wing political opinions
②[C] (informal, disapproving) (politics 政) a person with very left-wing political opinions
①a time when there is an opportunity to do sth, although it may not last long
We now have a small window of opportunity in which to make our views known.
①[C] (NAmE) a bill / note that is worth one dollar
①[adj][not before noun] (as) ~ (to do sth) sensible; a good idea
It would be just as well to call and say we might be late.
②[adv]can / could / may / might ~ with good reason
I can’t very well leave now.
①with little or no space in between
over 1 000 pages of close print
②cut very short, near to the skin
a close haircut / shave
③[only before noun] carefully guarded
The donor’s identity is a close secret.
④[not before noun] ~ (about sth) not willing to give personal information about yourself
He was close about his past.
⑤[not before noun] (BrE) not liking to spend money
She’s always been very close with her money.
①a row or series of similar objects, especially machines
a bank of lights / switches / computers
②a mass of cloud, snow, etc., especially one formed by the wind
The sun disappeared behind a bank of clouds.
③a raised area of ground that slopes at the sides, often at the edge of sth or dividing sth
There were low banks of earth between the rice fields.
④a supply of money or things that are used as money in some games, especially those in which gambling is involved
①[C] (abbr. Pte) (BrE) a soldier of the lowest rank in the army
Private (John) Smith
①[C] a series of cards held by one player
②[C] a series of notes sung or played quickly up or down the scale
③[C] (often in compounds 常构成复合词) a confined area in which animals or birds are kept as pets or on a farm
a chicken run
④[sing.] (NAmE) an act of trying to get elected to public office
He made an unsuccessful run for governor in 2005.
⑤[C] a point scored in the game of cricket or baseball
Our team won by five runs.
⑥[C, usually sing.] ~ on a bank a situation when many people suddenly want to take their money out of a bank
⑦[C, usually sing.] ~ on sth a situation when many people suddenly want to buy sth
a run on the band’s latest CD
⑧[C, usually sing.] ~ on the dollar, pound, etc. a situation when many people sell dollars, etc. and the value of the money falls
⑨[C] a period of sth good or bad happening; a series of successes or failures
- 一段(幸运或倒霉的)时光；一系列(成功或失败)【SYN】 spell :
a run of good / bad luck
⑩[C] a series of performances of a play or film / movie
The show had a record-breaking run in the London theatre.
①[C] a child’s toy that spins on a point when it is turned round very quickly by hand or by a string
She was so confused—her mind was spinning like a top.
②[verb]~ yourself (BrE, informal) to kill yourself deliberately
①[VN] to do a job, have a role or position, etc.
He fills the post satisfactorily (= performs his duties well).
②[VN] to appoint sb to a job
The vacancy has already been filled.
③[VN] ~ sth (up) to use up a particular period of time doing sth
How do you fill your day now that you’ve retired?
①[V] to fall down or be no longer able to stand because you are extremely tired
I feel ready to drop.
②[VNN] ~ sb a line / note to send a short letter to sb
Drop me a line when you get there.
③[VN] ~ sb / sth (from sth) to leave sb / sth out by accident or deliberately
He spoke with a cockney accent and dropped his aitches (= did not pronounce the letter ‘h’ at the start of words).
④[VN] to stop seeing sb socially
She’s dropped most of her old friends.
⑤[VN] to stop doing or discussing sth; to not continue with sth
I dropped German (= stopped studying it) when I was 14.
⑥[VN] ~ a hint to say or do sth in order to show sb, in an indirect way, what you are thinking
⑦[VN] ~ a stitch to let a stitch go off the needle
⑧[noun][C] a small round sweet / candy of the type mentioned
①[C] (old-fashioned, BrE) a rich and fashionable man
②[verb](especially BrE) to give sb their first experience of an activity
①[VN] (informal) to put pressure on sb and make them angry or upset
Her parents are very tolerant, but sometimes she pushes them too far.
②[VN] (informal) to try hard to persuade people to accept or agree with a new idea, buy a new product, etc.
The interview gave him a chance to push his latest movie.
③[VN] (informal) to sell illegal drugs
④~ for sth a determined effort to achieve sth
The push for reform started in 1989.
⑤a large and determined military attack
a final push against the enemy
①(NAmE) a student who works as an assistant to a member of the US Congress
②(in the Middle Ages 中世纪) a boy or young man who worked for a knight while training to be a knight himself
③a small boy who helps or follows a bride during a marriage ceremony
④a boy or young man, usually in uniform, employed in a hotel to open doors, deliver messages for people, etc.
⑤to call sb’s name over a public address system in order to find them and give them a message
Why don’t you have him paged at the airport?
⑥to contact sb by sending a message to their pager
Page Dr Green immediately.
①[VN] (formal) to say sth officially so that it can be recorded
to enter a plea of not guilty (= at the beginning of a court case)
①[C] (NAmE)the broad curved blade of a plough
①(BrE, disapproving) typical of sb from a low social class and not having good manners
She thought he was very common and uneducated.
①difficult or dangerous to deal with and making you feel worried or uncomfortable
When things got too hot most journalists left the area.
②[not before noun] ~ at / on sth (informal) very good at doing sth; knowing a lot about sth
Don’t ask me—I’m not too hot on British history.
③if sb has a hot temper they become angry very easily
④containing scenes, statements, etc. that are too shocking or too critical and are likely to cause anger or disapproval
Some of the nude scenes were regarded as too hot for Broadway.
⑤[not before noun] ~ on sth thinking that sth is very important and making sure that it always happens or is done
They’re very hot on punctuality at work.
⑥(of music, especially jazz 音乐,尤指爵士乐) having a strong and exciting rhythm
⑦stolen and difficult to get rid of because they can easily be recognized
I’d never have touched those CDs if I’d known they were hot.
⑧[not before noun] used in children’s games to say that the person playing is very close to finding a person or thing, or to guessing the correct answer
You’re getting hot!
①(informal) finished; not able to be used any more
②outside the playing area
①[C] an area of land that slopes upwards
- 斜坡；小丘；小山【SYN】 slope :
The church was built at the top of a small rise.
②(formal) if your colour rises, your face becomes pink or red with embarrassment
③when bread, cakes, etc. rise, they swell because of the action of yeast or baking powder
①[V] to move suddenly and quickly and be very sharp
The pain shot up her arm.
②[VN] (especially NAmE) to play particular games
to shoot pool
③the part that grows up from the ground when a plant starts to grow; a new part that grows on plants or trees
new green shoots
④(especially BrE) an occasion when a group of people hunt and shoot animals or birds for sport; the land where this happens
⑤(NAmE) used to show that you are annoyed when you do sth stupid or when sth goes wrong (to avoid saying ‘shit’)
- (做了蠢事或事情出了差错感到懊恼,避免说 shit):
Shoot! I’ve forgotten my book!
⑥(especially NAmE) used to tell sb to say what they want to say
You want to tell me something? OK, shoot!
①[C, usually sing.] a loud, angry argument, especially one that happens in public and is embarrassing
She had made a scene in the middle of the party.
②the scene, the … scene [sing.] (informal) a particular area of activity or way of life and the people who are part of it
A newcomer has appeared on the fashion scene.
①[U] of farming, noble, French, etc. ~ having the type of family or ancestors mentioned
- 家族；世系；出身【SYN】 descent
②[U, C] a liquid made by cooking bones, meat, etc. in water, used for making soups and sauces
③stocks [pl.] a wooden structure with holes for the feet, used in the past to lock criminals in as a form of punishment, especially in a public place
④[U] (formal) the degree to which sb is respected or liked by other people
Their stock is high / low.
⑤[C] the part of a gun that you hold against your shoulder when firing it
⑥[U, C] a garden plant with brightly coloured flowers with a sweet smell
⑦(disapproving) a stock excuse, answer, etc. is one that is often used because it is easy and convenient, but that is not very original
‘No comment,’ was the actor’s stock response.
⑧usually available for sale in a shop / store
- (商店里)常备的,通常有的【SYN】 standard :
①(of a person or vehicle 人或车辆) to move forward very quickly, especially in an uncontrolled way
- (尤指失控地)猛冲,疾驰,飞奔【SYN】 hurtle :
The vehicle careered across the road and hit a cyclist.
- 幸运的；成功的【SYN】 fortunate :
By a happy coincidence, we arrived at exactly the same time.
②(formal) (of words, ideas or behaviour 言语、思想或行为) suitable and appropriate for a particular situation
That wasn’t the happiest choice of words
①[sing.] a thing that is like sth else that is mentioned
That’s the nearest approach to an apology you’ll get from him.
①[U] a sticky substance that is used for making material stiff or for preparing walls for wallpaper
②[verb]to cover sth with a sticky substance called size
①[C] a male dog, fox or wolf
②[C] (informal, especially NAmE) a thing of low quality; a failure
Her last movie was an absolute dog.
③[C] (informal) an offensive way of describing a woman who is not considered attractive
④[C] (informal, disapproving) used, especially after an adjective, to describe a man who has done sth bad
You dirty dog!
⑤(of a problem or bad luck 问题或不幸) to cause you trouble for a long time
He had been dogged by bad health all his life.
⑥to follow sb closely
She had the impression that someone was dogging her steps.
①(informal) used to emphasize that there is a large amount of sth
You can earn serious money doing that.
①[only before noun] quick and clever
She has great charm and a ready wit.
①a table or a vertical structure that goods are sold from, especially in the street or at a market
- 货摊；售货亭【SYN】 stall :
a hamburger / newspaper stand
②[usually sing.] the period of time in which two people who are batting (= hitting the ball) play together and score points
Clinch and Harris shared an opening stand of 69.
③~ (of sth) (technical 术语) a group of plants or trees of one kind
a stand of pines
④(SAfrE) a piece of land that you can buy and use for building a house, etc. on
A developer bought the land and divided it into stands.
⑤[V to inf] to be in a situation where you are likely to do sth
You stand to make a lot from this deal.
⑥[V] ~ (on sth) to have a particular attitude or opinion about sth or towards sb
Where do you stand on private education
⑦[no passive] to buy a drink or meal for sb
He stood drinks all round.
⑧[V] (especially BrE) (NAmE usually run) ~ (for / as sth) to be a candidate in an election
He stood for parliament (= tried to get elected as an MP).
①[sing.] the fact of a ship leaning to one side
②[V] (of a ship 船) to lean to one side
①(informal, usually disapproving) a person of a particular type, especially a strange one
So this individual came up and demanded money.
①used before a noun to emphasize that it is exactly that and nothing else
I had to do it for the simple reason that (= because) I couldn’t trust anyone else.
②[not usually before noun] (of a person 人) not very intelligent; not mentally normal
He’s not mad—just a little simple.
①used especially by people trying to sell goods or services to say that sth is of a high quality
We specialize in quality furniture.
②(BrE, slang) very good
‘What was the film like?’ ‘Quality!’
①resources [pl.] personal qualities such as courage and imagination that help you deal with difficult situations
He has no inner resources and hates being alone.
①[VN] (formal) to show clearly that sth exists or is true
These latest developments argue a change in government policy.
①the box [sing.] (informal, especially BrE) the television
What’s on the box tonight?
②[C, U] a small evergreen tree or bush with thick dark leaves, used especially for garden hedges
③(also box∙wood) [U] the hard wood of this bush
①[U, C] the amount of goods or services that you sell
- 营业额；交易量【SYN】 business :
Trade was very good last month.
②[U, C] a job, especially one that involves working with your hands and that requires special training and skills
When she leaves school, she wants to learn a trade.
①(informal) (of a person 人) liking to touch other people a lot
She’s not very physical.
②(informal) violent (used to avoid saying this in a direct way)
Are you going to cooperate or do we have to get physical?
①[VN] to prepare sth in detail
She began to lay her plans for her escape.
②[VN] to prepare a fire by arranging wood, sticks or coal
③not having expert knowledge or professional qualifications in a particular subject
His book explains the theory for the lay public.
④not in an official position in the Church
a lay preacher
⑤(old use) a poem that was written to be sung, usually telling a story
①[C] a flag that is used during official ceremonies, especially one connected with a particular military group
②[C] a song that has been recorded by many different singers
①the hard pointed or curved outer part of a bird’s mouth
②-billed (in adjectives 构成形容词) having the type of bill mentioned
③[VN] [usually passive] ~ sb / sth as sth to advertise or describe sb / sth in a particular way
He was billed as the new Tom Cruise.
④[VN to inf] [usually passive] to advertise that sb / sth will do sth
She was billed to speak on ‘China—Yesterday and Today’.
①messages [pl.] (ScotE) shopping
to do the messages
②[usually sing.] an important moral, social or political idea that a book, speech, etc. is trying to communicate
The campaign is trying to get the message across to young people that drugs are dangerous.
①[V] to not be enough when needed or expected
The rains had failed and the rivers were dry.
②[V] to be unable to continue
Several banks failed during the recession.
③[V] (especially in the progressive tenses 尤用于进行时) to become weak
Her eyesight is failing.
①a person or thing from one place that may be thought to be as good as a famous person or thing from another place
The new theme park will be Britain’s answer to Disneyland.
①[C] a performer or group of musicians
They were one of rock’s most impressive live acts.
②[sing.] a way of behaving that is not sincere but is intended to have a particular effect on others
Don’t take her seriously—it’s all an act.
①[C] (BrE) a person who has played a particular sport for Oxford or Cambridge University; a title given to them
②[C] (AustralE, NZE, informal) a mistake
③[C] (AustralE, NZE, informal) a name for a person with red hair
④[C] (AustralE, NZE, informal) a fight
①[C] ~ (of sth) one part of a journey or race
- 一段路程(或赛程)【SYN】 section , stage
②[C] (BrE) one of a pair of matches played between the same opponents in a sports competition, which together form a single round (= stage) of the competition
①[V] be laughing (informal) used to say that you are in a very good position, especially because you have done sth successfully
If we win the next game we’ll be laughing.
①not likely to change
set ideas / opinions / views on how to teach
②~ for sth | ~ to do sth likely to do sth; ready for sth or to do sth
Interest rates look set to rise again.
③[usually before noun] (of a person’s expression 神情) fixed; not natural
a set smile
④[C] a young plant, shoot etc. for planting
⑤[sing.] an act of arranging hair in a particular style while it is wet
A shampoo and set costs £15.
⑥[sing.] ~ of sth the way in which sb’s face or body is fixed in a particular expression, especially one showing determination
She admired the firm set of his jaw.
⑦[C] (BrE) a group of school students with a similar ability in a particular subject
She’s in the top set for French.
⑧[C] a group of things that have a shared quality
⑨[C] one section of a match in games such as tennis or volleyball
She won in straight sets (= without losing a set).
⑩[C, U] a place where a play is performed or part of a film / movie is filmed
The cast must all be on (the) set by 7 in the morning.
①[C] a large pipe that carries water or gas to a building; a large cable that carries electricity to a building
a leaking gas main
②a large pipe that carries waste / water and sewage (= human waste, etc.) away from a building
③the mains [pl.] (BrE) the place where the supply of water, gas or electricity to a building or an area starts; the system of providing gas, water and electricity to a building or of carrying it away from a building
The house is not yet connected to the mains.
①(informal) suspicious and probably illegal or dishonest
I suspect there may be something funny going on.
②(BrE) humorous in a way that shows a lack of respect for sb
- 嬉皮笑脸的；放肆的【SYN】 cheeky :
Don’t you get funny with me!
③(informal) slightly ill / sick
I feel a bit funny today—I don’t think I’ll go to work.
④(BrE, informal) slightly crazy; not like other people
- 疯疯癫癫的；不很正常的【SYN】 strange , peculiar :
That Dave’s a funny chap, isn’t he?
⑤(informal) not working as it should
My computer keeps going funny.
①(informal) (of a person 人) young and lacking experience
The new trainees are still very green.
②(of a person or their skin 人或其皮肤) being a pale colour, as if the person is going to vomit
It was a rough crossing and most of the passengers looked distinctly green.
③concerned with the protection of the environment; supporting the protection of the environment as a political principle
④[C] (BrE) an area of grass, especially in the middle of a town or village
Children were playing on the village green.
⑤[C] (in golf 高尔夫球) an area of grass cut short around a hole in a golf course
Did the ball land on the green?
⑥the Greens [pl.] the Green Party (= the party whose main aim is the protection of the environment)
⑦to make sb more aware of issues connected with the environment; to make sth appear friendly towards the environment
an attempt to green industry bosses
①[C] (old-fashioned, informal) an unusual or amusing person
②[C] a list of all the races at a particular race meeting (= a series of horse races)
③[C] (technical 术语) a machine or tool used for cleaning and combing wool or cotton before it is spun
④[Verb](technical 术语) to clean wool using a wire instrument
①~ of sth (formal) a place where people are involved in a particular activity, especially a city that has a university or the offices of a government
Washington is the seat of government of the US.
②(also country seat) (both BrE) a large house in the country, that belongs to a member of the upper class
the family seat in Norfolk
③(especially formal) the part of the body on which a person sits
- 臀部【SYN】 buttocks
④the part of a pair of trousers / pants that covers a person’s seat
①a small group of people who work as part of a larger political organization, especially secretly
a terrorist cell
②each of the small sections that together form a larger structure, for example a honeycomb
③a device for producing an electric current, for example by the action of chemicals or light
a photoelectric cell
①(ironic) bad or unpleasant
That’s a nice thing to say!
②(formal) involving a very small detail or difference
- 细微的；精细的【SYN】 subtle :
a nice point of law (= one that is difficult to decide)
①[C] a printed record of money paid, received, etc.
The directors are responsible for preparing the company’s financial statements.
②[C] (in Britain) an official report on a child’s special needs made by a local education authority
a statement of special educational needs.
①[C] a sudden rush or violent attack, for example by soldiers, wild animals or players in some sports
He led the charge down the field.
②[C] the amount of explosive needed to fire a gun or make an explosion
③[sing.] the power to cause strong feelings
the emotional charge of the piano piece
④[sing.] (formal) a task or duty
His charge was to obtain specific information.
⑤[VN] (usually passive 通常用于被动语态) ~ sth (with sth) (literary) to fill sb with an emotion
The room was charged with hatred.
⑥[VN] (BrE, formal) to fill a glass
Please charge your glasses and drink a toast to the bride and groom!
①[C] (technical 术语) a person, thing or group used as a standard of comparison for checking the results of a scientific experiment; an experiment whose result is known, used for checking working methods
One group was treated with the new drug, and the control group was given a sugar pill.
①[C] (informal) a person or thing that is very annoying
She can be a real pain when she’s in a bad mood.
①~ (of sth) far from the point aimed at
Her shot was wide (of the target).
②[noun](sport体) a ball that has been bowled (= thrown) where the batsman or batter cannot reach it
①[C] the position of being in charge of a department in a university
He holds the chair of philosophy at Oxford.
①[V +adv. / prep.] (literary) to walk, run or dance with quick light steps
She said goodbye and tripped off along the road.
②[VN] to release a switch, etc. or to operate sth by doing so
to trip a switch
③[V] (informal) to be under the influence of a drug that makes you hallucinate
①[U] the quality of being elegant and made to a high standard
The hotel has been redecorated but it’s lost a lot of its style.
②(biology 生) the long thin part of a flower that carries the stigma
[VN-N] (formal) to give sb / sth / yourself a particular name or title
He styled himself Major Carter.
①to or from a position far down or across the field
a deep ball from Beckham
②(in adjectives 构成形容词) in the number of rows mentioned, one behind the other
They were standing three-deep at the bar.
③the deep (literary) the sea
①[C] (NAmE) an area of ground at the side of a road where vehicles can stop in an emergency
No shoulder for next 5 miles.
①[C] (informal, humorous) a person who is well known because they have been in a particular place or job for a long time
You must know him—he’s an institution around here!
①(of a person 人) very strict and severe
Don’t be so heavy on her—it wasn’t her fault.
②wet, sticky and difficult to dig or to move over
③dangerous because of big waves, etc.
strong winds and heavy seas
④(usually disapproving) (of a book, programme, style, etc. 书、节目、风格等) serious; difficult to understand or enjoy
We found the play very heavy.
⑤~ on sth (informal) using a lot of sth
Older cars are heavy on gas.
⑥ large in amount or very solid
a heavy lunch / dinner
⑦(of sb / sth’s appearance or structure 人/物的外表或结构) large and solid; not delicate
He was tall and strong, with heavy features.
①bags (of sth) [U, pl.] (BrE, informal) a large amount or a large number of sth
Get in! There’s bags of room.
②bags [pl.] dark circles or loose folds of skin under the eyes, as a result of getting old or lack of sleep
③[C] (informal, especially BrE) an insulting word for an unpleasant or bad-tempered older woman
④[C, usually sing.] all the birds, animals, etc. shot or caught on one occasion
⑤(informal) to score a goal, point, etc.
Dublin bagged ten goals in last night’s win.
⑥(BrE, informal) to claim sth as yours before sb else claims it; to take sth before sb else can get it
Sally had managed to bag the ten best seats.
⑦(AustralE, NZE, informal) to criticize sb / sth
⑧(informal) to catch or kill an animal
①~ (on sb) (informal) unfortunate for sb in a way that seems unfair
It was tough on her being dropped from the team like that.
②[noun](old-fashioned, informal) a person who regularly uses violence against other people
①[V] (informal) to wake up or get up after being asleep
He finally surfaced around noon.
②[VN] to put a surface on a road, path, etc.
①[U] the ability to plan sth and work successfully to achieve it
- 意志；毅力；决心【SYN】 determination :
He has enormous confidence and strength of purpose.
①a group of people that control an organization or part of an organization
the president’s propaganda machine
②(often disapproving) a person who acts automatically, without allowing their feelings to show or to affect their work
①[V](usually used in the progressive tenses 通常用于进行时) (old-fashioned, informal) to talk for a long time about things that are not important
- 闲聊；空谈；瞎扯【SYN】 chat
②[sing.] (especially NAmE) a person or an event that is fun
The party was a real gas.
③(BrE wind) [U] air that you swallow with food or drink; gas that is produced in your stomach or intestines that makes you feel uncomfortable
I can’t eat beans—they give me wind.
④the gas [sing.] (especially NAmE) = gas pedal :
Step on the gas, we’re late.
①(abbr. yd) a unit for measuring length, equal to 3 feet (36 inches) or 0.9144 of a metre
- 码(长度单位,等于 3 英尺或 0.9144 米)
②(technical 术语) a long piece of wood fastened to a mast that supports a sail on a boat or ship
①[VN] (informal, especially NAmE) to damage a car very badly, so that it is not worth repairing it
①~ (of sth) a long narrow piece of bread, cake, land, etc.
a finger of toast
②[verb]~ sb (for sth) | ~ sb (as sth) (informal, especially NAmE) to accuse sb of doing sth illegal and tell the police about it
Who fingered him for the burglaries?
①[only before noun] (informal) complete and definite
- 完全的；绝对的【SYN】 absolute :
He has a positive genius for upsetting people.
②giving clear and definite proof or information
- 证据确凿的；明确的【SYN】 conclusive :
We have no positive evidence that she was involved.
①(used in advertising, etc. 用于广告等) low in price
a budget flight / hotel
①[usually before noun] doing an activity in a careful way
- 谨慎的；小心的【SYN】 careful :
a safe driver
②based on good evidence
a safe verdict
①the top part of a column
②[only before noun] involving punishment by death
a capital offence
③(old-fashioned, BrE) excellent
①the score [sing.] (informal) the real facts about the present situation
What’s the score?
②[C] a cut in a surface, made with a sharp tool
③scores [pl.] very many
There were scores of boxes and crates, all waiting to be checked and loaded.
④[C] the music written for a film / movie or play
an award for best original score
⑤[C] a written or printed version of a piece of music showing what each instrument is to play or what each voice is to sing
an orchestral score
⑥to succeed; to have an advantage
⑦[VN V] (slang) to buy or get illegal drugs
⑧[VN] to make a cut or mark on a surface
Score the card first with a knife.
⑨[VN] [usually passive] ~ sth (for sth) to arrange a piece of music for one or more musical instruments or for voices
The piece is scored for violin, viola and cello.
①very interesting and full of variety
the region’s rich history and culture
②(of colours, sounds, smells and tastes 颜色、声音、气味和味道) strong or deep; very beautiful or pleasing
rich dark reds
③(informal, especially BrE) used to say that a criticism sb makes is surprising and not reasonable, because they have the same fault
Me? Lazy? That’s rich, coming from you!
①[V] (of food, wine, an object, etc. 食物、葡萄酒、物体等) to be still in good condition after a long journey
Some wines do not travel well.
②[V] to go fast
Their car can really travel!
③[V] (in basketball 篮球) to move while you are holding the ball, in a way that is not allowed
①~ (with yourself) to think carefully about sth before making a decision
She debated with herself for a while, and then picked up the phone.
①[noun]an explanation of the symbols used on a map or plan
②[verb] to deliberately damage a car by scratching it with a key
①(of a boat, etc. 船等) firmly fixed and safe
He made the boat fast.
②not likely to change or to come out when washed
The boat was stuck fast (= unable to move) in the mud.
①(old-fashioned, informal) used after an adjective to describe a particular type of person
an awkward customer
①[usually before noun] containing no salt
There is a shortage of fresh water on the island.
②(BrE) quite cold with some wind
It’s fresh this morning, isn’t it?
③(of the wind 风) quite strong and cold
- 凉飕飕的【SYN】 brisk :
a fresh breeze
④looking clear, bright and attractive
He looked fresh and neat in a clean white shirt.
⑤[not usually before noun] full of energy
Regular exercise will help you feel fresher and fitter.
⑥[not before noun] ~ (with sb) (informal) rude and too confident in a way that shows a lack of respect for sb or a sexual interest in sb
Don’t get fresh with me!
①(BrE, slang, sometimes offensive) a way of referring to a young woman
②(informal) a person of a particular type, especially sb who is strange or unusual in some way
She is that rare bird: a politician with a social conscience.
①[C, usually pl.] the act of mentioning sb who worked on a project such as a film / movie or a television programme
She was given a programme credit for her work on the costumes for the play.
②[C, U] (technical 术语) a payment that sb has a right to for a particular reason
a tax credit
③[U] if you or your bank account are in credit, there is money in the account
④[C, U] a sum of money paid into a bank account; a record of the payment
a credit of £50
①a region or an area of a place (sometimes used for one that is far away or difficult to reach)
Students come here from the four corners of the world.
②[usually sing.] a difficult situation
to back / drive / force sb into a corner
③(in sports such as football ( soccer ) and hockey 足球、曲棍球等)’s end of the field
to take a corner
④(in boxing and wrestling 拳击运动和摔跤) any of the four corners of a ring ; the supporters who help in the corner
⑤[VN] to go towards sb in a determined way, because you want to speak to them
I found myself cornered by her on the stairs.
⑥[VN] ~ the market (in sth) to get control of the trade in a particular type of goods
They’ve cornered the market in silver.
①[V] be hurting (for sth) (NAmE) to be in a difficult situation because you need sth, especially money
His campaign is already hurting for money.
①[C] a piece of music or song on a record, tape or CD
a track from their latest album
②[C] a continuous belt of metal plates around the wheels of a large vehicle such as a bulldozer that allows it to move over the ground
③[V +adv. / prep.] to move in relation to the thing that is being filmed
The camera eventually tracked away.
④[VN] (especially NAmE) to leave dirty marks behind you as you walk
Don’t track mud on my clean floor.
①(geometry 几何) any flat or level surface, or an imaginary flat surface through or joining material objects
the horizontal / vertical plane
②a level of thought, existence or development
③a tool with a blade set in a flat surface, used for making the surface of wood smooth by shaving very thin layers off it
④to make a piece of wood smoother or flatter with a plane n. (4)
Plane the surface down first.
⑤[V] (of a boat, etc. 小船等) to move quickly across water, only just touching the surface
①[C, usually sing.] a reduction in the amount of money, jobs, etc. available; a difficult situation caused by this
a squeeze on profits
②[sing.] (informal, especially NAmE) a boyfriend or girlfriend
Who’s his main squeeze ?
①[U] confident, sometimes aggressive behaviour that shows you do not care about other people’s opinions and that you want to do things in an individual way
a band with attitude
②[C] (formal) a position of the body
Her hands were folded in an attitude of prayer.
①[U, C, usually sing.] the period of time or the process of giving birth to a baby
Jane was in labour for two hours.
②[V] to move with difficulty and effort
- 困难吃力地行进【SYN】 struggle :
The horses laboured up the steep slope.
①(NAmE also vaude∙ville) [U] a form of theatre or television entertainment that consists of a series of short performances, such as singing, dancing and funny acts
a variety show / theatre
①[U] (informal) the substance that sometimes forms in the corners of your eyes after you have been sleeping
①(informal) to kill a person or an animal by hitting them very hard on the head
①~ (on sb / sth) (in newspapers, on television, etc.) a special article or programme about sb / sth
a special feature on education
②(old-fashioned) the main film / movie in a cinema programme
③[V] ~ (in sth) to have an important part in sth
olive oil and garlic feature prominently in his recipes.
①[C, usually sing.] ~ of surprise, risk, truth, etc. a small amount of a quality or feeling
We need to preserve the element of surprise.
②[C, usually pl.] a group of people who form a part of a larger group or society
moderate / radical elements within the party
③the elements [pl.] the weather, especially bad weather
Are we going to brave the elements and go for a walk?
④elements [pl.] the basic principles of a subject that you have to learn first
- (学科的)基本原理,基础,纲要【SYN】 basics :
He taught me the elements of map-reading.
⑤[C, usually sing.] a natural or suitable environment, especially for an animal
Water is a fish’s natural element.
⑥[C] the part of a piece of electrical equipment that gives out heat
The kettle needs a new element.
①[U, C, usually sing.] the level of importance that is given to sth
the high status accorded to science in our culture
①to be available to be bought; to make sth available to be bought
The software is due to ship next month.
②[VN] ~ water (of a boat, etc. 船等) to have water coming in over the sides
①[C] (especially BrE) (NAmE usually pit) a hard shell containing the nut or seed in the middle of some types of fruit
cherry / peach stones
②[verb](BrE) (also pit NAmE, BrE) to remove the stone from the inside of a fruit
stoned black olives
①[VN +adv. / prep.] ~ yourself (informal) to sit or stand in a particular place for a period of time
She parked herself on the edge of the bed.
②[VN] (informal) (business 商) to decide to leave an idea or issue to be dealt with or considered at a later meeting
Let’s park that until our next meeting.
③[C] (in Britain) an area of land, usually with fields and trees, attached to a large country house
①~ of sth (informal) a very large amount or number of sth
a mountain of work
①to go too fast
My watch gains ten minutes every 24 hours.
②[VN] (formal) to reach a place, usually after a lot of effort
At last she gained the shelter of the forest.
①clubs [pl., U] one of the four sets of cards (called suits ) in a pack / deck of cards. The clubs have a black design shaped like three black leaves on a short stem .
the five / queen / ace of clubs
②[C] one card from the suit called clubs
I played a club.
①[U, C] (physics 物) the difference in voltage between two points in an electric field or circuit
①[sing.] a group of people, especially soldiers, who have been sent to a place to deal with a particular situation
The government is maintaining a heavy police presence in the area.
②[C, usually sing.] (literary) a person or spirit that you cannot see but that you feel is near
She felt a presence behind her.
③[U] (approving) the quality of making a strong impression on other people by the way you talk or behave
a man of great presence
①[U] the physical condition of sb / sth
What sort of shape was the car in after the accident?
②[U] the particular qualities or characteristics of sth
Will new technology change the shape of broadcasting?
③[V to inf] to prepare to do sth, especially hit or kick sth
She was shaping to hit her second shot.
①an easy book that is intended to help people learn to read their own or a foreign language
a series of graded English readers
②(usually Reader) a senior teacher at a British university just below the rank of a professor
She is Reader in Music at Edinburgh.
①[U] the number of people in a group, a team or an organization
The protesters turned out in strength (= in large numbers).
②[U, C] how strong a particular flavour or substance is
Add more curry powder depending on the strength required.
③[C] a quality or an ability that a person or thing has that gives them an advantage
The ability to keep calm is one of her many strengths.
①(NAmE, informal) to drive around in a vehicle
①[C] a series of steps between two floors or levels
She fell down a flight of stairs / steps and hurt her back.
②[U, sing.] the act of running away from a dangerous or difficult situation
the flight of refugees from the advancing forces
③[C] ~ of fancy / imagination an idea or a statement that shows a lot of imagination but is not practical or sensible
④[C] a group of birds or aircraft flying together
a flight of geese
⑤[usually passive] (BrE) (sport 体) to kick, hit or throw a ball through the air in a skilful way
He equalized with a beautifully flighted shot.
①[V] ~ (from sth) to survive a difficult situation or experience
She emerged from the scandal with her reputation intact.
①the soft, sensitive flesh that is under your nails
She has bitten her nails down to the quick.
①[C] a place where vehicles that have been parked illegally are kept until their owners pay to get them back
②[C] a place where dogs that have been found in the street without their owners are kept until their owners claim them
③[VN] to attack an area with a large number of bombs over a period of time
The area is still being pounded by rebel guns.
④[V] ~ (out) to be played loudly
Rock music was pounding out from the jukebox.
①~ sth | ~ (up) (with sb) to pay the money that you owe
Please settle your bill before leaving the hotel.
②to sink slowly down; to make sth do this
The contents of the package may have settled in transit.
③an old-fashioned piece of furniture with a long wooden seat and a high back and arms, often also with a box for storing things under the seat
①[C] a particular book or magazine
The company publishes twenty new titles a year.
②[C] the position of being the winner of a competition, especially a sports competition
the world heavyweight title
③[U, C] ~ (to sth / to do sth) (law 律) the legal right to own sth, especially land or property; the document that shows you have this right
①[C] a particular religion
the Christian faith
②[U] good ~ the intention to do sth right
They handed over the weapons as a gesture of good faith.
①[C] (BrE) (especially in the past) a position in the Church as a priest and the income and house that go with this
- (尤指旧时)有俸金住房的牧师职位【SYN】 benefice
①(in some European countries) a nobleman of high rank, similar to an earl in Britain
- 伯爵(欧洲一些国家相当于英国 earl 的贵族封号):
②(law 律) a crime that sb is accused of committing
They were found guilty on all counts.
③[usually sing.] (technical 术语) a measurement of the amount of sth contained in a particular substance or area
a raised white blood cell count
①(also work∙shop) [C] (NAmE) a room in a house where tools are kept for making repairs to the house, building things out of wood, etc.
②[VN] ~ sb (to sb) (BrE, informal) to give information to sb, especially to the police, about sb who has committed a crime
He didn’t expect his own mother to shop him to the police.
①a strip around the edge of sth such as a picture or a piece of cloth
a pillowcase with a lace border
②(in a garden 花园) a strip of soil which is planted with flowers, along the edge of the grass
①[V] ~ (about) (from sth to sth) to change suddenly from one subject to another
The story then jumps from her childhood in New York to her first visit to London.
②be jumping (informal) to be very lively
The bar’s jumping tonight.
③~ (on) sb (informal) to attack sb suddenly
The thieves jumped him in a dark alleyway.
①[VN] ~ sth (in) to pull parts of a piece of clothing together in folds and sew them in place
She wore a skirt gathered (in) at the waist.
②[VN +adv. / prep.] to pull sb towards you and put your arms around them
She gathered the child in her arms and held him close.
①(BrE, informal) sexually attractive
②[C] a sudden attack of an illness, such as epilepsy , in which sb becomes unconscious and their body may make violent movements
- (癫痫等的)突发,发作；昏厥；痉挛【SYN】 convulsion :
to have an epileptic fit
③[C] a sudden short period of coughing or of laughing, that you cannot control
- 一阵(忍不住的咳嗽、笑)【SYN】 bout :
He had us all in fits (of laughter) with his jokes.
④[C] a short period of very strong feeling
to act in a fit of anger / rage / temper / pique
①[C] (especially in compounds 尤用于构成复合词) a word or phrase that expresses a group’s beliefs and calls people to action
a battle cry
①COMB in QUANT. Worth combines with time expressions, so you can use worth when you are saying how long an amount of something will last. For example, a week’s worth of food is the amount of food that will last you for a week.
After an hour and a quarter’s-worth of cleansing, toning and pampering, the difference to the way my skin felt was remarkable.
①[not before noun] used to say that sb has almost guessed the answer to sth or that they have almost found sb / sth that has been hidden
Keep guessing—you’re getting warmer.
②(of colours 颜色) containing red, orange or yellow, which creates a pleasant, comfortable and relaxed feeling or atmosphere
The room was decorated in warm shades of red and orange.
③If you warm to a person or an idea, you become fonder of the person or more interested in the idea.
Those who got to know him better warmed to his openness and honesty…
①[C, usually sing.] (formal) the direction in which a building, window, piece of land, etc. faces; the side of a building which faces a particular direction
①(formal) the district or office of a bishop or an archbishop
the Holy See (= the office of the Pope )
②[VN +adv. / prep.] to go with sb to help or protect them
My secretary will see you out (= show you the way out of the building).
③If you see a particular quality in someone, you believe they have that quality. If you ask what someone sees in a particular person or thing, you want to know what they find attractive about that person or thing.
Frankly, I don’t know what Paul sees in her…
④[V that] (not usually used in the progressive tenses 通常不用于进行时) to make sure that you do sth or that sth is done
See that all the doors are locked before you leave.
①[VN] ~ sth (out) (over sth) to separate sth into parts and divide them between different times or different people
Why not pay monthly and spread the cost of your car insurance?
②[C, usually sing.] a range or variety of people or things
a broad spread of opinions
③[C, U] a soft food that you put on bread
Use a low-fat spread instead of butter.
④[C, usually sing.] ~ (of sth) how wide sth is or the area that sth covers
The bird’s wings have a spread of nearly a metre.
⑤[C] an article or advertisement in a newspaper or magazine, especially one that covers two opposite pages
The story continued with a double-page spread on the inside pages.
⑥[C] (informal) a large meal, especially one that is prepared for a special occasion
They had laid on a huge spread for the party.
⑦[C, usually sing.] ~ (of sth) (NAmE) an area of land or water
a vast spread of water
⑧[U] the difference between two rates or prices
①not having sharp angles or hard edges
The moon’s pale light cast soft shadows.
②(informal, disapproving) stupid or crazy
He must be going soft in the head.
③(informal, disapproving) not brave enough; wanting to be safe and comfortable
Stay in a hotel? Don’t be so soft. I want to camp out under the stars.
④(disapproving) not involving much work; too easy and comfortable
They had got too used to the soft life at home.
①[sing.] a particular interest or influence that is very important in your life
For him, football is an absolute religion.
①[C] a measurement of how sensitive film for cameras, etc. is to light
②[C] (especially in compounds 尤用于构成复合词) a gear on a bicycle, in a car, etc.
a four-speed gearbox
③[U] (informal) an illegal amphetamine drug that is taken to give feelings of excitement and energy
④[V] (usually used in the progressive tenses 通常用于进行时) to drive faster than the speed that is legally allowed
The police caught him speeding.
①[VN] to oppose sb or speak against them or their plans or wishes
She’s really nice until you cross her.
②[V] (in football ( soccer ), etc. 足球等) to kick or pass a ball sideways across the field
①[C] if a person’s hair has a wave or waves, it is not straight but curls slightly
②the waves [pl.] (literary) the sea
①if sb has a broad accent, you can hear very easily which area they come from
- 口音重的；乡音浓的【SYN】 strong
②if sb gives a broad hint, they make it very clear what they are thinking or what they want
③(NAmE) dealing with sex in an amusing way
The movie mixes broad humor with romance.
④(old-fashioned, NAmE, slang) an offensive way of referring to a woman
①any of the four sets that form a pack / deck of cards
②[usually pl.] (informal) a person with an important job as a manager in a company or organization, especially one thought of as being mainly concerned with financial matters or as having a lot of influence
①[U] the art of creating an effect of depth and distance in a picture by representing people and things that are far away as being smaller than those that are nearer the front
We learnt how to draw buildings in perspective.
②[C] a view, especially one in which you can see far into the distance
a perspective of the whole valley
①[V] be cooking (informal) to be planned secretly
Everyone is being very secretive—there’s something cooking.
①connections [pl.] people who are your relatives, but not members of your close family
She is British but also has German connections.
②[C, usually pl.] a means of travelling to another place
There are good bus and train connections between the resort and major cities
③[C, usually pl.] a person or an organization that you know and that can help or advise you in your social or professional life
- 有社交或业务关系的人(或机构)【SYN】 contact :
One of my business connections gave them my name.
①[V] to produce light
Lights were burning upstairs, but no one answered the door.
②[V +adv. / prep.] (informal) to move very fast in a particular direction
The car was burning down the road.
③[VN] (NAmE, informal) to make sb very angry
So you did it just to burn me?
④[VN] to put information onto a CD, etc.
⑤the burn [sing.] the feeling that you get in your muscles when you have done a lot of exercise
⑥[C] (ScotE) a small river
- 小河；溪流【SYN】 stream
①(of a feeling or an attitude 感情或态度) definite but not expressed in an obvious way
He had an air of quiet authority.
①[VN] to clean, treat and cover a wound
The nurse will dress that cut for you.
②[VN] to prepare food for cooking or eating
to dress a salad (= put oil or vinegar , etc. on it)
③[VN] (formal) to decorate or arrange sth
to dress a shop window (= arrange a display of clothes or goods in it)
④[VN] to prepare a material such as stone, wood, leather, etc. for use
①(BrE also 7combine ‘harvester) a large farm machine which cuts a crop and separates the grains from the rest of the plant
②a group of people or organizations acting together in business
①(in a crossword 纵横填字游戏) reading from top to bottom, not from side to side
I can’t do 3 down.
②to or in the south of a country
They flew down to Texas.
③having lost the amount of money mentioned
At the end of the day we were £20 down.
④if you pay an amount of money down, you pay that to start with, and the rest later
⑤(informal) used to say how far you have got in a list of things you have to do
Well, I’ve seen six apartments so far. That’s six down and four to go!
⑥[U] the very fine soft feathers of a bird
⑦[U] fine soft hair
⑧[C] (in American football 美式足球) one of a series of four chances to carry the ball forward ten yards that a team is allowed. These series continue until the team loses the ball or fails to go forward ten yards in four downs.
- 进攻分段,10 码进攻(球队可向前推进 10 码持球进攻的四次机会。球队在连续四次进攻中失球或未能推进 10 码即不能继续)
①[noun](in cricket 板球) a series of one balls bowled by the same person
①[noun](computing 计) a set of wires that carries information from one part of a computer system to another
②[verb](NAmE) to take the dirty plates, etc. off the tables in a restaurant, as a job
①[C] a practical lesson that a story, an event or an experience teaches you
And the moral is that crime doesn’t pay.
①successful and working well
a healthy economy
②[usually before noun] large and showing success
a healthy bank balance
③normal and sensible
The child showed a healthy curiosity.
①[U] very strong emotion, especially anger or enthusiasm
Her eyes were full of fire.
②[VN] to heat a clay object to make it hard and strong
to fire pottery
①(law 律) a decision made by the judge or jury in a court case
①(also daily help) (old-fashioned, BrE) a person employed to come to sb’s house each day to clean it and do other jobs
①pale in colour
She has long fair hair.
②(literary) (of winds 风) not too strong and blowing in the right direction
They set sail with the first fair wind.
③(BrE) (in the past) a market at which animals were sold
a horse fair
①[VN] [usually passive] ~ sb / sth (about sth) (formal) if sb is exercised about sth, they are very anxious about it
①(literary) to develop and become successful
- 成熟；繁荣；兴旺【SYN】 blossom
①[C] a long narrow strip of material that is stretched across the place where a race will finish
the finishing tape
②[C] = tape measure: a long narrow strip of plastic, cloth or flexible metal that has measurements marked on it and is used for measuring the length of sth
①(BrE) a sports match, especially a football ( soccer ) match, that is part of a larger competition
the first leg of the Cup tie between Leeds and Roma
②a curved line written over two notes of the same pitch (= how high or low a note is) to show that they are to be played or sung as one note
③(BrE sleeper) one of the heavy pieces of wood or concrete on which the rails on a railway / railroad track are laid
①not offensive or referring to sex; not doing anything that is considered immoral or bad
The entertainment was good clean fun for the whole family.
②played or done in a fair way and within the rules
It was a tough but clean game.
③done in a skilful and accurate way
The plane made a clean take-off.
④tasting, smelling or looking pleasant and fresh
The wine has a clean taste and a lovely golden colour.
⑤used to emphasize that an action takes place completely
The thief got clean away.
⑥[VN] to remove the inside parts of a fish, chicken, etc. before you cook it
①(BrE also studio flat) (NAmE also ‘studio apartment) a small flat / apartment with one main room for living and sleeping in and usually a kitchen and bathroom
①[usually sing.] a series of events or actions that are connected
His death set in motion a train of events that led to the outbreak of war.
②the part of a long formal dress that spreads out on the floor behind the person wearing it
③[VN] ~ sth (around / along / up, etc.) to make a plant grow in a particular direction
Roses had been trained around the door.
①(of organizations, etc. 机构等) strong and efficient because the number of employees has been reduced
The changes made the company leaner and more competitive.
②[usually before noun] (of a period of time 一段时间) difficult and not producing much money, food, etc.
a lean period / spell
③(of meat 肉) containing little or no fat
④the part of meat that has little or no fat
①[U] (informal) a way of talking about credit cards
Do they take plastic?
②[adj](disapproving) that seems artificial; false; not real or sincere
- 做作的；虚伪的；矫饰的【SYN】 false :
TV game show hosts with their banal remarks and plastic smiles
①[C] (always used with an adjective 常与形容词连用) an issue or a problem that frequently causes argument and disagreement
Health care should not become a political football.
①[adj](informal) not brave; afraid to do sth
- 胆怯；懦弱；怯懦 【SYN】 cowardly
①[C, usually sing.] ~ (of war, etc.) (formal) the place in which a war or fighting takes place
②[C, U] (BrE) = operating theatre :a room in a hospital used for medical operations
a theatre sister (= a nurse who helps during operations)
①to discover or give information about sth, especially the way it is arranged or organized
It is now possible to map the different functions of the brain.
①[VN] to increase sth; to make sth stronger
- 增加；加强；刺激【SYN】 stoke :
Higher salaries helped to fuel inflation.
①[C] a sheet of paper, especially a page in a book
②[U] metal, especially gold or silver, in the form of very thin sheets
③[C] a part of a table that can be lifted up or pulled into position in order to make the table bigger
①eaten on its own without any butter, jam, etc.
Breakfast consisted of dry bread and a cup of tea.
a crisp dry white wine
③(approving) very clever and expressed in a quiet way that is not obvious; often using irony
He was a man of few words with a delightful dry sense of humour.
Government reports tend to make dry reading.
⑤without alcohol; where it is illegal to buy, sell or drink alcohol
We had a dry wedding (= no alcoholic drinks were served).
①to play first; to play sth as your first card
It’s your turn to lead.
②[sing.] an example or action for people to copy
③[C] a piece of information that may help to find out the truth or facts about a situation, especially a crime
- (尤指有关犯罪的)线索【SYN】 clue :
The police will follow up all possible leads.
④[C] the main part in a play, film / movie, etc.; the person who plays this part
Who is playing the lead ?
⑤(BrE) (also leash NAmE, BrE) [C] a long piece of leather, chain or rope used for holding and controlling a dog
Dogs must be kept on a lead in the park.
⑥[C] (BrE) a long piece of wire, usually covered in plastic, that is used to connect a piece of electrical equipment to a source of electricity
①[V] to talk more; to add details to what you are saying
I repeated the question and waited for her to expand.
①[only before noun] (informal) large in quantity; worth a lot of money
a fat sum / profit
①an official notice that orders you to pay a fine because you have done sth illegal while driving or parking your car
- (交通违章)通知单,罚款单【SYN】 fine :
a parking / speeding ticket
②[usually sing.] (especially NAmE) a list of candidates that are supported by a particular political party in an election
She ran for office on the Democratic ticket.
①[U] (informal) words spoken to sb that are rude and show a lack of respect for that person
- 粗鲁无礼的话【SYN】 cheek :
Don’t let him give you any lip !
①[C]The favourite in a race or contest is the competitor that is expected to win. In a team game, the team that is expected to win is referred to as the favourites
The Belgian Cup has been won by the favourites F.C. Liege.
①(especially in compounds 尤用于构成复合词) a mental state that is not normal
to suffer from a guilt complex
②if sb has a complex about sth, they are worried about it in way that is not normal
①[V] ~ (on sb) (BrE, informal) if food repeats, you can taste it for some time after you have eaten it
Do you find that onions repeat on you?
①[VN] to come safely through a difficult period or experience
The company just managed to weather the recession.
①a small group or area that is different from its surroundings
There are still a few isolated pockets of resistance to the new regime.
②[usually sing.] used to talk about the amount of money that you have to spend
We have holidays to suit every pocket.
③any of the holes or nets around the edges of the table used in the games of billiards , pool or snooker , which you have to hit the ball into
④to take or keep sth, especially an amount of money, that does not belong to you
He regularly charges passengers more than the normal fare and pockets the difference.
①not sincere or enthusiastic
He gave a thin smile.
②not very bright
the thin grey light of dawn
③of poor quality; lacking an important quality
a thin excuse (= one that people are not likely to believe)
①~ the time, fun, trouble, etc. the largest part of sth
Half the fun of gardening is never knowing exactly what’s going to come up.
①~ of sth [sing.] (formal) a small amount of sth; slight evidence of sth
a breath of suspicion / scandal
②a ~ of air, wind [sing.] (literary) a slight movement of air
①a sight [sing.] (informal, especially BrE) a person or thing that looks ridiculous, untidy, unpleasant, etc.
She looks a sight in that hat!
②[C, usually pl.] a device that you look through to aim a gun, etc. or to look at sth through a telescope , etc.
He had the deer in his sights now.
①(informal) you can use straight to describe a person who is normal and ordinary, but who you consider dull and boring
②(NAmE) (BrE neat) not mixed with water or anything else
③[only before noun] one after another in a series, without interruption
- 连续的；不间断的【SYN】 consecutive :
The team has had nine straight wins.
④[only before noun] (of an actor or a play 演员或戏剧) not connected with comedy or musical theatre, but with serious theatre
①~ (by / in sth) (used especially in the progressive tenses 尤用于进行时) to be losing a game or other contest
United were trailing 2–0 at half-time.
②[V] (especially of plants 尤指植物) to grow or hang downwards over sth or along the ground
①to reach the top of a hill, etc.
As they breasted the ridge, they saw the valley and lake before them.
①to suddenly attack a place
Police stormed the building and captured the gunman.
②[V +adv. / prep.] to go somewhere quickly and in an angry, noisy way
She stormed into my office waving a newspaper.
①an office at a newspaper, television company, etc. that deals with a particular subject
the sports desk
①[C, usually pl.] (literary) all the natural things that the earth produces
②[C] (offensive) an offensive word for a homosexual man