1 关于建设和谐社会的词汇

1 疏导公众情绪 defuse (public) anger/discontent; to properly channel public sentiments
2 诚信缺失 lack of credibility
3 发展为了人民、发展依靠人民、发展成果由人民共享 development for the people, by the people and to the benefit of the people
4 和谐共赢 all-win harmony; harmony and all winners
5 实现社会公平与正义 ensure equity and justice
6 廉政文化建设 foster a culture of clean government
7 减少社会不平等现象 reduce social inequalities
8 和谐相处 live in harmony
9 和谐社会的内涵 the characteristics of a harmonious society
10 和实生物,同则不继(西周周太史史伯) Harmony generates and sameness stops/stifles vitality
11 和为贵 Harmony is most precious; Peace is to be cherished.
12 和也者,天下之达道也(《中庸》) Harmony is the Way to be. (The Doctrine of the Mean)
13 君子和而不同 Gentlemen seek harmony but not uniformity.
14 和则两利 Reconciliation benefits both; Peace benefits both.
15 和则生谐 Reconciliation leads to harmony.
16 天人合一 the unity of man/human and nature; Heaven-Man Oneness(书面); Heaven and man are one. (口译)
17 “和”是中国文化传统的基本精神,也是中华民族不懈追求的理想境界。 Harmony is a defining/core value of China’s cultural tradition. It is an ideal that the Chinese nation has never ceased to pursue.
18 “以和为贵”就是说国家之间、民族之间、人与人之间要以团结互助、友好相处为最高境界。 “Harmony is most precious”. This means that mutual help and friendly co-existence between states, nations and people should be our ultimate pursuit.
19 和而不同 harmony in diversity/harmony without uniformity
20 “和实生物”就是说只有不同文明之间相互吸收借鉴,才能文物化新,推进文明的进步。 “Harmony generates vitality”. This means that only with mutual interaction and enrichment can different civilizations rejuvenate and continue to grow.
21 要建设一个和谐世界,应坚持民主平等,实现协调合作;坚持和睦互信,实现共同安全;坚持公正互利,实现共同发展;坚持包容开放,实现文明对话。 To build a harmonious world, we should uphold democracy and equality to enhance cooperation and coordination; ensure amity/fertility and mutual trust to achieve common security; uphold justice and mutual benefit to advance common development; and stay open to facilitate dialogue among civilizations.
22 一个和谐的国家是法治的国家,稳定的国家,和平的国家,繁荣的国家。一个和谐的世界是民主的世界,和睦的世界,公正的世界,包容的世界。 A harmonious country should be one of laws and stability, peace and prosperity. A harmonious world should be one of democracy, peace, justice and tolerance.
23 中国人提倡“海纳百川,有容乃大”,主张吸纳百家优长、兼集八方精义。 We Chinese hold that one should be as tolerant / encompassing as the vast ocean which admits hundreds of rivers and should draw upon other’s strengths.
24 和谐凝聚力量,和谐成就伟业。 Harmony rallys strength and leads to great successes.
25 中国真诚愿意兼收并蓄、博采各种文明之长 China is eager to draw on/upon the strengths of other civilizations.

2  关于“xxx 观”的译法
1 科学发展观 scientific outlook on development
2 倡导公正、合理的新秩序观 call for the establishment of a new just and equitable order
3 以平等互利为核心的新发展观 new thinking on development based on equality and mutual benefit
4 推动树立以互信、互利、平等和协作为主要内容的新安全观 foster a new thinking on security featuring mutual trust, mutual benefit, equality and coordination
5 主张形成以尊重多样性为特点的新文明观 foster a new thinking on civilization that respects diversity
6 新能源观 new thinking on energy development
7 古为今用、洋为中用 旧译 let the ancient serve the present, let the foreign serve the national,现译 draw from past and foreign achievements
8 文艺工作 cultural and art work; work in the cultural field
9 牢牢把握先进文化的前进方向 firmly keep to the direction of an advanced culture/cultural advancement
10 文化与经济和政治互相交融 interaction between cultural work, and economic and political activities / cultural elements/factors intermingle with economic and political factors
11 民族的科学的大众的社会主义文化 a socialist culture that is distinctly Chinese, pro-science and people-oriented
12 弘扬主旋律,提倡多样化 promote mainstream values and uphold cultural diversity
13 以科学的理论武装人,以正确的舆论引导人,以崇高的精神塑造人,以优秀的作品鼓舞人 Equip/empower people with scientific theories, guide them with correct opinions/ convey to them right messages/provide them with correct media guidance, imbue them with a noble spirit and inspire them with excellent/fine works
14 具有中国气派的社会主义文化 Chinese-style socialist culture; socialist culture with Chinese appeal
15 越是民族的,越是世界的 The pride of a nation is also the pride of the world. / What’s unique for a nation is also precious for the world. / When you are unique, the world comes to you.
16 文艺应当贴近群众,贴近生活,贴近实际。 Culture and arts should be/keep close to the people, their lives and reality.
17 艺术滋润心灵,文化陶冶情操。 Art nurtures the soul and culture cultivates the mind.
18 文化是维系中华民族生生不息、蔓延不断的精神纽带。 Culture is the spiritual bond that ensures the continuity of our Chinese nation.
19 我们不能割断民族的文化血脉。 We must never sever the cultural vein of our nation.
20 树立正确的世界观、人生观和价值观 to foster a right/correct outlook/view on the world, life and values
21 文化市场,文化贸易 cultural market, cultural trade
22 始终把社会效益放在首位 always put social benefit first
23 扶持体现民族特色和国家水准的重大文化项目和艺术院团 support major/top-notch cultural projects and art troupes that represent national characteristics and national level

1 文化体制改革 reform of cultural administrative system
2 文化(事业内部)机制改革 internal reform of cultural institutions
3 文化事业 public cultural undertakings
4 文化产业 cultural industries
5 文化事业单位 cultural institutions
6 社会文化和图书馆事业 work of community culture and libraries
7 经营性文艺演出 commercial (art and cultural) performance
8 经营性文化单位 cultural enterprises
9 “全国舞台精品工程” Works of Excellence on the Nation’s Stage
10 “文化扶贫计划” Culture-aid Program/Cultural Aid Program
11 “全国文化信息资源共享工程” National Project for the Sharing of Cultural Information and Resources
12 “国家清史纂修工程” National Project for the Recompilation of Qing Dynasty History
13 “三下乡”(文化、科技、卫生) Bringing Culture/Science and Technology/Hygienic Health to the Countryside
14 “群星奖” Galaxy Award (for amateur artists and community culture)
15 “文华奖” Splendor Award (for professional theatrical artworks)
16 “荷花奖” Lotus Award (for professional dance)
17 “孔雀奖” Peacock Award (for ethnic minority artists and artworks)
18 “五个一工程奖” the Best Works Award
19 “三个一百” “A Hundred Patriotic Films/Songs/Books” List
20 县县都有文化馆、图书馆,乡乡都有文化站。 There should be cultural center and library in every county and cultural station in every township.
21 文物保护方针“保护为主,抢救第一;合理利用,加强管理。” ”principles for the protection of cultural heritage: “preservation with timely rescue; utilization under strict control”.
22 全国重点文物保护单位 important heritage site under state protection
23 全国一级文物保护单位 Class A Heritage site under state protection
24 国家一级保护文物 Class A heritage/cultural property under national protection
25 保护和振兴地方戏曲 protect and rejuvenate local operas
26 曲艺 Quyi folk show, chuyi folk show (folk ballads and story-telling, etc
27 讴歌时代 extol/hail/sing praise to (the progress of) the times
28 国家一级演员 National Class-A Actor/Actress/Performer/Artist
29 晚会 Evening performance, Soiree, Gala Night/Evening
30 总策划 Producer
31 策划 Executive Producer
32 顾问 Advisor
33 主办 under the auspices of / sponsored by / hosted by
34 协办、支持 co-sponsored by, supported by
35 承办 presented by
36 监制 supervised by
37 创意 event/concept designed by
38 对外文化贸易 international cultural trade
39 对外文化传播 international cultural communication
40 对外文化宣传 international cultural publicity
41 小额文化援助 small-fund aid for cultural development


1 坚持科学发展、和谐发展、和平发展 Pursue scientific, harmonious and peaceful development
2 全面落实科学发展观 Fully apply (put into practice) the Scientific Outlook (Thinking) on Development
3 中央财政2003—2006年超收较多 The central government revenue exceeded targets by a fair amount for the years 2003 through 2006.
4 避免经济增长由偏快转为过热 Prevent rapid economic growth from becoming overheated
5 整顿小煤矿取得了阶段性成果 Major progress has been made in the current stage of our efforts to bring order to small coalmines.
6 实事求是 Pursue a realistic and pragmatic approach
7 解放思想 Free our minds
8 电视覆盖从行政村向自然村延伸 TV coverage extends from incorporated villages to unincorporated villages.
9 不搞一刀切 without imposing a single solution
10 保证人民的知情权﹑参与权﹑表达权和监督权 Ensure people’s right to know, to participate, to express and to supervise.
11 加强支农、惠农政策 Strengthen the policy of supporting agriculture and benefiting farmers
12 单位 Organizations and institutions
13 走和平发展道路,既是外交,也是内政,因而,要统筹国内国际两个大局。 The path of peaceful development has both external and domestic dimensions. Thus, we must bear closely in mind our overall interests, both internal and external.
14 这种世界文明的多样性是不以人们主观意志为转移的客观存在。 Like it or not, the diversity of civilizations is a reality.
15 对外宣传工作 conduct public diplomacy programs
16 解决民生问题 to improve people’s well-being
17 “召远在修近,闭祸在除怨。” “To win distant friends, one needs, first of all, to have good relations with his neighbors. To avoid adversity, one needs to ease animosity.”
18 我的脑子里充满了忧患。 I am preoccupied with pressing challenges.
19 到……挂职 to take up provisional post in
20 非政府组织 / 民间组织 / 群众组织 /人民团体 NGOs / civil society / people’s organizations / civic organizations
21 巡视员 inspector
22 调研员 researcher
23 主任科员 principal staff
24 副主任科员 senior staff
25 科员 staff member
26 编内职工 permanent staff
27 中编办 Central Staffing Department
28 编制人数 staff size
29 国家行政编制 government staff status
30 事业编制 staffing of government affiliated institutions
31 党政正职领导干部 chief Party and government officials


1 推动经济社会发展切实转入科学发展轨道 To truly put economic and social development on a scientific track
2 科学民主决策 Make decisions scientifically and democratically
3 中央 The national leadership/The central Party and government authorities/The central government
4 我们要发展老龄事业 We will develop old age programs.
5 我们必须以对国家和人民高度负责任的精神采取有力措施解决这些问题 We must maintain a strong sense of responsibility to the country and people and take forceful measures to resolve these problems.
6 着力解决民生问题 Every effort was made to improve the people’s well-being.
7 政府自身建设存在一些问题 Government efforts to enhance performance still have room for improvement.
8 存在这些问题根本在于制度不健全,监管不到位 The root cause of the problems lies in institutional deficiencies and poor oversight.
9 领导干部要深入基层了解群众疾苦 Leading officials should visit communities to better understand the problems troubling the people.
10 加强基层民主 Expand democracy at village and community level
11 不少支出增长是刚性的 Many increases in expenditure are fixed / mandatory.
12 积极稳妥推进企业政策性破产工作 Actively yet prudently proceed with work related to policy-mandated bankruptcy of enterprises.
13 对产能过剩行业进行重组 To carry out restructuring of industries with surplus production capacity
14 淘汰煤炭行业落后产能 Close down backward production facilities in the coal industry
15 为增强经济增长后劲发挥重要作用 Play an important role in sustaining China’s economic development
16 规范收入分配秩序 Standardize pattern of income distribution
17 历史罕见的严重自然灾害 Natural disasters of a severity seldom seen in history
18 实施治理商业贿赂专项行动 A campaign to combat business bribery was launched.
19 投资消费关系不协调 Investment is not in keeping with consumer demand.
20 政府职能转变滞后 Moves to change the way the government functions are behind schedule/have not made expected progress.
21 向人民交出满意的答卷 To deliver a good report to the people
22 政府工作的基本思路是 The basic approach for the work of government is:
23 关心中国现代化建设 To care about China’s modernization
24 城市最低生活保障制度 System of basic cost of living allowances for urban residents
25 全面推进社会主义经济建设、政治建设、文化建设 Promote all aspects of socialist economic, political and cultural development
26 稳定消费预期,扩大即期消费 We should ensure consumer confidence and expand immediate consumption.
27 以更高昂的精神状态恪尽职守 We must carry out our duties with greater drive.
28 根据经济运行的新情况完善政策 Improve policies in response to new developments in the operation of the economy
29 把各项政策落到实处 Truly put all policies into effect
30 妥善处理内需和外需的关系 Properly balance domestic demand and international demand
31 统筹考虑国内外经济发展的相互联系和影响 Take into consideration the interconnectedness and mutual influence of domestic and international economic development
32 抓好以下几个方面 We should concentrate on the following areas:
33 解决出口退税历史欠帐 Resolve long-standing arrears in export tax rebates
34 放宽市场准入 Relax control over market entry
35 改变外贸增长方式 Change the way China’s foreign trade grows
36 引导银行加大对农业贷款支持 Guide banks in continuing to increase credit support to agriculture

1 高举中国特色社会主义伟大旗帜,以邓小平理论和“三个代表”重要思想为指导,深入贯彻落实科学发展观,继续解放思想,坚持改革开放,推动科学发展,促进社会和谐,为夺取全面建设小康社会新胜利而奋斗。 hold high the great banner of Chinese socialism, follow the guidance of Deng Xiaoping Theory and the important thought of Three Represents, (thoroughly) apply the Scientific Outlook on Development, continue to free our minds, persist in reform and opening up, pursue development in a scientific way, promote social harmony, and strive for new success in building a well-off society in all respects
2 是当代中国发展进步的旗帜,是全党全国各族人民团结奋斗的旗帜 the banner guiding the development and progress of China and rallying the whole Party and people of all ethnic groups in the country in our common endeavor
3 当代中国正在发生广泛而深刻的变革 China now is going through a wide-ranging and deep-going transformation
4 抓住和用好重要战略机遇期 seize and make most of the opportunities in this important strategic period
5 锐意进取 forge ahead with determination
6 就关系全局的重大问题作出决定和部署 make decisions and action plans on issues of overriding importance
7 提出并贯彻科学发展观等重大战略思想 formulate and apply the Scientific Outlook on Development and other major strategic thoughts
8 经济效益明显提高 Economic performance improved markedly / remarkably.
9 区域发展协调性增强 Regional development became more balanced.
10 自主创新能力 capacity for independent innovation
11 载人航天飞行成功实现 Manned spaceflights were successfully conducted
12 能源资源节约和生态环境保护 energy and resources conservation and ecological and environmental protection
13 农村综合改革 comprehensive reforms in rural areas
14 农业税、牧业税、特产税全部取消 Agricultural tax, livestock tax and taxes on special agricultural products were rescinded throughout the country
15 支农惠农政策 policies to support and benefit agriculture, rural areas and farmers
16 非公有制经济 the non-public sector of the economy
17 城乡居民最低生活保障制度 the system of basic living allowances for urban and rural residents
18 衣食住行用水平不断提高 enjoy better food, clothing, housing, transport and other daily necessities / better access to…
19 政治体制改革 Reform of political institutions
20 民族区域自治制度 the system of autonomy of ethnic regions
21 基层民主 community-level democracy
22 中国特色社会主义法律体系 a socialist system of laws with Chinese characteristics
23 依法治国基本方略扎实贯彻/深入落实 The rule of law was effectively implemented / will be carried out as a fundamental principle. reform of the government administration system and the judicial system
24 行政管理体制、司法体制改革 reform of the government administration system and the judicial system


1 马克思主义理论研究和建设工程 the Project to Study and Develop Marxist Theory
2 思想道德建设 efforts to raise ideological and ethical standards / promote ideological and ethical progress
3 全社会文明程度进一步提高 The educational and ethnical standards of the whole society have been raised.
4 文化体制改革 reform of cultural administrative system
5 精神文化生活更加丰富 enjoy a richer cultural life
6 全民健身和竞技体育 public fitness programs and competitive sports
7 中国特色军事变革 the revolution in military affairs with Chinese characteristics
8 裁减军队员额二十万任务顺利完成 The armed forces were reduced by 200,000 troops
9 军队革命化、现代化、正规化建设 Make the armed forces/army more revolutionary, modernized and standardized
10 全方位外交 all-directional diplomacy
11 党的建设新的伟大工程 A great new Party-building Program
12 党的执政能力建设 endeavors to strengthen the Party’s governing capability
13 理论创新和理论武装 make theoretical innovations and educate Party members in them
14 保持共产党员先进性教育活动 the campaign to educate Party members in preserving / to retain their vanguard nature
15 党内民主 intra-Party democracy
16 领导班子和干部队伍建设 strengthen the Party’s leading bodies and the ranks of Party officials to enhance capacity-building of Party’s leading bodies and Party officials
17 党风廉政建设 build a fine Party culture and keep its organizations clean
18 一些基层党组织软弱涣散 Some community level Party organizations are weak and lax.
19 党的创造力、凝聚力、战斗力 the creativity, cohesion and competence of the Party
20 谱写了中华民族自强不息、顽强奋进新的壮丽 compose a new epic of the Chinese nation’s heroic efforts
21 中国人民的面貌、社会主义中国的面貌、中国共产党的面貌发生了历史性变化 Historic changes have taken place in the Chinese people, socialist China and the CPC.
22 保持和发展党的先进性 preserve and enhance / maintain and develop the Party’s vanguard nature
23 确保党始终走在时代前列 ensure that the Party is always in the forefront of the times
24 艰辛探索社会主义建设规律 painstaking exploration of the law on the building of socialism
25 社会主义基本制度 the basic system of socialism
26 当代中国一切发展进步 every step forward, every progress
27 确立社会主义初级阶段基本路线 formulate the basic line for the primary stage of socialism
28 吹响走自己的路的时代号角 sound the clarion call of the times and take our own road
29 受命于重大历史关头 take over the helm at a critical historical juncture
30 国内外政治风波、经济风险等严峻考验 the severe tests of political turbulences and economic risks at home and abroad
31 引领改革开放的航船沿着正确方向破浪前进 steer the ship of reform and opening up forward on the right course
32 发扬求真务实、开拓进取精神 promote the truth-seeking, pragmatic and pioneering spirit
33 全面改革的进程势不可当地展开了 The sweeping reform has unfolded with irresistible momentum.
34 沿江(长江)沿边 areas along the Yangtze River and the national borders
35 对外开放的大门毅然决然地打开了 With resolve and determination, China opened her door to the world.
36 今天,一个面向现代化、面向世界、面向未来的社会主义中国巍然屹立在世界东方 Today, a new socialist China stands rock-firm in the East, embracing modernization, the world and the future.
37 人民生活从温饱不足发展到总体小康 The Chinese people, once inadequately fed and clad, are generally leading a fairly comfortable life.

1 稳定地走上了富裕安康的广阔道路 move steadily toward prosperity and happiness
2 不断探索和回答什么是社会主义、怎样建设社会主义,建设什么样的党、怎样建设党,实现什么样的发展、怎样发展等重大理论和实际问题 constantly seek answers to major theoretical and practical questions such as what socialism is and how to build it, what kind of party we must build and how to build it, and what kind of development Chinashould achieve and how to achieve it
3 党的基本理论、基本路线、基本纲领、基本经验 Party’s basic theory, line, program and experience
4 社会主义和马克思主义在中国大地上焕发出勃勃生机 Socialism and Marxism have shown vigor and vitality in China.
5 大踏步赶上时代前进潮流 catch up with the trend of the times in big strides
6 符合党心民心 accord with/echo the aspirations of the Party members and the people
7 尊重人民首创精神 respect the people’s initiative/pioneering drive/creativity
8 提高全民族文明素质 to improve the educational and ethical standards of the whole nation
9 开辟了中国特色社会主义道路 blaze a trail of socialism with Chinese characteristics open a path of…
10 形成了中国特色社会主义理论体系 theoretical system of Chinese socialism
11 建设富强民主文明和谐的社会主义现代化国家 make China a prosperous, strong, democratic, culturally developed and harmonious modern socialist country
12 实践永无止境 Practice knows no bound.
13 勇于变革、勇于创新 make bold changes and innovations
14 不为任何风险所惧,不被任何干扰所惑 fear no risks and never be confused by any interference
15 使中国特色社会主义道路越走越宽广 broaden our path of socialism with Chinese characteristics
16 让当代中国马克思主义放射更加灿烂的真理光芒 Let the truth of Marxism of contemporary Chinashine more brilliantly.
17 马克思主义关于发展的世界观和方法论的集中体现 a concentrated expression of the Marxist world outlook and methodology with regard to development
18 同……一脉相承 in the same line as…
19 立足社会主义初级阶段基本国情 fully recognize the basic reality that China is in the primary stage of socialism
20 粗放性增长方式 the extensive mode of growth/inefficient model of growth
21 改革攻坚 further reform in difficult areas
22 统筹兼顾各方面利益 accommodate the interests of all parties
23 农业基础薄弱的局面尚未改变 The foundation of agriculture remains weak
24 思想活动的独立性、选择性、多变性、差异性明显增强 become more independent, selective, changeable and diverse in thinking
25 社会结构、社会组织形式、社会利益格局 the structure of society, the way society is organized and interests of different social groups/and the mix of social interests
26 发达国家在经济科技上占优势的压力长期存在 Pressure caused by the economic and scientific dominance of developed countries will continue for a long time to come
27 从生产力到生产关系、从经济基础到上层建筑都发生了意义深远的重大变化 experience far-reaching changes in the productive forces and the relations of production, as well as in the economic base and the superstructure
28 人民日益增长的物质文化需要同落后的社会生产之间的矛盾这一社会主要矛盾 Chinese society’s principal problem/challenge is the gap between the ever-growing material and cultural needs of the people and the low level of social production
29 当前我国发展的阶段性特征 the salient features of the current stage of development in China
30 妄自菲薄 belittle oneself
31 自甘落后 be resigned to backwardness
32 脱离实际、急于求成 unrealistic pursuit of quick results


1 共同建设、共同享有的原则 the principle of all the people building a harmonious …and enjoy its benefits
2 着力解决人民最关心、最直接、最现实的利益问题 spare no effort to solve most practical problems of the utmost and immediate concern to the people
3 形成全体人民各尽其能、各得其所而又和谐相处的局面 cultivate/foster an environment in which all people do their best, are content with their lives/enjoy what they do and live together in harmony
4 提高改革决策的科学性,增强改革措施的协调性 make decision-making more scientific and measures of reform better coordinated
5 全面提高开放水平 improve the work of opening-up
6 把改善人民生活作为正确处理改革发展稳定关系的结合点 We need to improve…as we endeavor to balance…
7 全面把握科学发展观的科学内涵和精神实质 fully appreciate/understand the essence of the Scientific Outlook on Development
8 把全社会的发展积极性引导到科学发展上来 guide the whole society in pursuing development in a scientific way
9 把握经济社会发展趋势和规律 follow the trend and the law of economic and social development
10 坚持中国特色社会主义经济建设、政治建设、文化建设、社会建设的基本目标和基本政策构成的基本纲领 uphold the basic program consisting of the basic objectives and policies for economic, political, cultural and social progress under socialism with Chinese characteristics
11 区域协调互动发展机制 a mechanism for promoting balanced and interactive development among regions
12 主体功能区 development priority zones
13 法治政府建设 enhance law-based government administration
14 社会主义核心价值体系深入人心 Core socialist values are winning the hearts and minds of the people.
15 弘扬良好思想道德风尚 promote moral integrity
16 建设生态文明 promote a conservation culture
17 生态文明观念在全社会牢固树立 To foster public awareness of conservation culture
18 具有更高文明素质和精神追求 Raise ethical standards and have higher/lofty aspiration
19 对外更加开放、更加具有亲和力 be more open and friendly to the outside world
20 为全面建成惠及十几亿人口的更高水平的小康社会打下更加牢固的基础 Strengthen the foundation for building a well-off society of a higher level in all respects to the benefit of over one billion people
21 建设创新型国家 make China an innovative nation
22 国家中长期科学和技术发展规划纲要 Outline of the National Program for Long- and Medium-Term Scientific and Technological Development
23 突破制约经济社会发展的关键技术 make breakthroughs in key technologies vital toChina’s economic and social development
24 支持前沿技术研究、社会公益性技术研究 support research in frontier technology and in technology for public welfare
25 建立以企业为主体、市场为导向、产学研相结合的技术创新体系 establish a market-oriented system for technological innovation, in which enterprises play the leading role and which combines the efforts of enterprises, universities and research institutes
26 引导和支持创新要素向企业集聚 guide and support the pooling of factors of innovation into enterprises
27 科技成果产业化 the application of scientific and technological achievements in production
28 培养造就世界一流科学家和科技领军人才 train / bring up world-class scientists and leaders in scientific and technological research
29 使创新智慧竞相迸发、创新人才大量涌现 inspire creativity and bring forth large numbers of innovative personnel
30 推进信息化与工业化融合 promote IT-based industrialization
31 具有国际竞争力的大企业集团 internationally competitive conglomerates


1 加强农业基础地位  strengthen the position of agriculture as the foundation of the economy
2 形成城乡经济社会发展一体化新格局  make progress in integrating economic and social development in urban and rural areas
3 促进农业科技进步  promote advances in agriculture-related science and technology
4 增强农业综合生产能力  improve overall agricultural production capacity
5 壮大县域经济  expand county economies
6 多渠道转移农民就业  create more jobs for rural surplus labor force
7 提高扶贫开发水平  make poverty reduction more effective through development
8 改革集体林权制度  reform the system of collective forest use rights
9 坚持农村基本经营制度  uphold the basic system for the rural economy
10 发展适度规模经营  develop appropriately scaled operations
11 农民专业合作组织  specialized farmers’ cooperatives
12 支持农业产业化经营和龙头企业发展  support the industrialization of agriculture and the development of leading agribusinesses
13 把建设资源节约型、环境友好型社会放在工业化、现代化发展战略的突出位置,落实到每个单位、每个家庭  give prominence to building a resource-conserving, environment-friendly society in our strategy for industrialization and modernization and make every organization and family to act accordingly
14 开发和推广节约、替代、循环利用的先进适用技术  develop and extend advanced and appropriate technologies for conserving, substituting and recycling energy and resources
15 发展环保产业  develop environmental conservation industries
16 促进生态修复  promote restoration of the ecosystems
17 优化国土开发格局  improve land development program
18 实现基本公共服务均等化  ensure equal access to basic public services
19 西部大开发  large-scale development of western China/China’s western development
20 促进中部地区崛起  boost the development of the central region
21 突破行政区划界限,形成若干带动力强、联系紧密的经济圈和经济带  Break administrative divisions to form a number of close-knit economic rims and belts that will boost the development of the surrounding areas
22 帮助资源枯竭地区实现经济转型  help transform the economies of areas where natural resources are exhausted
23 增强综合承载能力  increase the overall carrying capacity of cities
24 以特大城市为依托,形成辐射作用大的城市群,培育新的经济增长极  form city clusters with mega-cities as the core so that they can boost development in surrounding areas and become new poles of economic growth
25 坚持平等保护物权  ensure equal protection of property rights
26 深化国有企业公司制股份制改革  deepen the reform to introduce the corporate and shareholding systems in SOEs
27 增强国有经济活力、控制力、影响力  enhance the dynamism, leverage and influence of the state sector of the economy
28 国有资本经营预算制度  budget system for managing state capital
29 发展多种形式的集体经济、合作经济  develop collective and cooperative economic operations in diverse forms
30 个体、私营经济  self-employed and other private businesses/private economy
31 以现代产权制度为基础,发展混合所有制经济  develop the economic sector of mixed ownership based on the modern system of property rights


1 形成统一开放竞争有序的现代市场体系  develop a modern market system that is unified and open and that allows orderly competition
2 完善生产要素价格形成机制  improve the pricing regime/mechanism for factors of production
3 行业协会和市场中介组织  industry associations and commercial intermediaries
4 建立健全资源有偿使用制度和生态环境补偿机制  set up a sound system of compensation for use of resources and for damage caused to the ecological environment
5 形成多种所有制的现代金融体系  build a modern financial system consisting of different forms of ownership
6 逐步实现资本项目可兑换  gradually make the RMB convertible under capital accounts
7 健全和严格市场准入制度  improve and strictly enforce market access rules
8 拓展对外开放广度和深度  expand opening up in scope and depth
9 提高开放型经济水平  improve our open economy
10 把“引进来”和“走出去”更好结合起来  ensure better coordination in pursuing the “bring in” and “go global” strategies
11 加快培育我国的国际知名品牌  speed up the launching of Chinese brand names in the world market
12 促进国际收支基本平衡  maintain a basic balance in international payments
13 人民民主是社会主义的生命  People’s democracy is the lifeblood of socialism
14 基层群众自治制度  the system of community level self-governance
15 坚持党总揽全局、协调各方的领导核心作用  uphold the Party’s central role in exercising overall leadership and coordinating work in all sectors
16 过去的五年是不平凡的五年  The past five-years has been a momentous/no ordinary one.
17 国际环境复杂多变  The international environment is complex and volatile.
18 认真贯彻十七大精神  diligently follow the guidelines set out at the 17th Party Congress
19 取得了举世瞩目的巨大成就  We have made major achievements that attracted the world’s attention.
20 终结了农民种田缴税的历史  ended the centuries-old practice of farmers paying taxes for tilling their land
21 起步良好  A good start was made in the efforts to…
22 综合国力(经济)跨上新台阶  China’s overall national strength (economy) reached new heights.
23 中国的国际地位和影响不断提高  China’s international standing and influence continue to grow.
24 取得了有国际影响的科技成果  We have achieved a lot in scientific and technological innovation that have captured world attention
25 公共卫生体系初步建立  The basic elements of a public health system have been put into place.
26 依法行政,扎实推进  Progress was made in rule-of-law administration.
27 开放(型)经济进入新阶段  China has entered a new stage in opening up its economy.
28 我们围绕解决经济运行中的突出问题,注重增强宏观调控的预见性、及时性和有效性 We have worked hard to make macro-economic regulation / macro-control more proactive, responsive and effective,  with focus on resolving major problems affecting economic performance.


1.在世界率先实现经济回升向好 China was among the first in the world to see the economic turnaround.
2.抚今追昔,伟大祖国的辉煌成就极大地激发了全国人民的自信心和自豪感 The outstanding achievements in the past six decades have greatly boosted the confidence and pride of the people.
3.自住性住房消费 owner-occupied homes/houses
4.保障性住房 low-income housing
5.经济适用房 affordable housing
6.抑制部分行业产能过剩和重复建设 to restrict excess production capacity and redundant development in some industries
7.节能产品惠民工程 project to promote energy-efficient products for the benefit of the people
8.国家补贴节能产品 Government-subsidized energy-efficient products
9.高效照明灯具 compact fluorescent lamp
10.灾害防御能力 disaster preparedness
11.体制机制 institutions and mechanisms
12.体制障碍 institutional barriers
13.创业板 The ChiNext stock market
14.集体林权制度改革 the reform of tenure in collective-owned forests
15.对外工程承包营业额 receipts from overseas project contracts revenue from overseas contracted projects
16.经贸金融合作 economic, trade and financial cooperation
17.包括农民工在内的城镇企业职工养老保险关系转移接续办法 method to ensure portability and continuity of pension accounts for urban enterprise workers, including rural migrant workers
18.棚户区 run-down areas
19.进一步促进教育公平 We made education more equitable.
20.社会正常秩序 maintain order in society
21.统筹国内国际两个大局 consider both domestic and international situations
22.既强调统一思想、顾全大局,又鼓励因地制宜、探索创新 While stressing unity in thinking and keeping overall interests in mind, we also need to encourage localities to be innovative and act in line with their own conditions.
23.世界经济格局大变革、大调整 major changes in the global economic landscape
24.扩大股权和债券融资规模 increase financing by selling equities and issuing bonds
25.企业退休人员 enterprise retirees
26.整顿和规范市场秩序 overhaul and better regulate the market
27.家电下乡产品 government subsidized home-appliances-for-the-countryside
28.推动经济进入创新驱动、内生增长的发展轨道 put economic development onto the track of endogenous growth driven by innovation.
29.抢占经济科技制高点 capture the economic, scientific and technological high ground
30物联网 the Internet of Things
31.打好节能减排攻坚战和持久战 strive to conserve energy and reduce emissions
32.促进基本公共服务均等化 ensure fair access to basic public services
33.强农惠农政策 policies to aid agriculture and benefit farmers
34.保障“米袋子”、“菜篮子”安全 secure food supply
35.促进农民就业创业 help rural residents find jobs or start their own businesses
36.实施好转基因生物新品种培育科技重大专项 carry out a major project to breed genetically modified varieties
37.有计划有步骤地解决好农民工在城镇的就业和生活问题 We will promote employment for rural migrant workers in urban areas and address their problems in a planned and step-by-step manner.
38.再解决6000万农村人口的安全饮水问题 provide safe drinking water to another 60 million rural people
39.科教兴国战略和人才强国战略 the strategies of reinvigorating China through science and education and strengthening the nation through human resources development
40.只有一流的教育,才能培养一流人才,建设一流国家 First-class education is a prerequisite for cultivating high-caliber personnel and building a great country.
41.坚持育人为本,大力推进素质教育 We will continue to give top priority to ensuring the healthy growth of students and promote well-rounded education.
42.加强师德教育to improve the professional ethics of our teachers
推动以企业为主体、市场为导向、产学研相结合的技术创新体系建设 develop a system of technological innovation in which enterprises play the leading role, the market provides orientation, and the efforts of enterprises, universities and research institutes are integrated
43.建设人力资源强国 make our country strong in human resources.


1. 社会保障体系 social safety net
2. 中华民族的凝聚力和向心力 the cohesiveness of the Chinese nation
3. 结构性减税 selective tax cuts
4. 加强科技支撑 increase input for science and technology
5. 提高社会保障水平 increase social security benefits
6. 保障性住房 low-income housing; government subsidized housing
7. 廉租房 low-rent housing
8. 经适房 affordable housing
9. 限价房 price-capped housing
10. 公租房 public rental housing
11. 棚改房 housing in run-down areas that will undergo renovation
12. 有效弥补外需缺口 to effectively compensate for weak external demand
13. 股指期货 stock index futures
14. 融资融券 securities margin trading
15. 跨境贸易人民币结算试点 the trials of settling cross-border trade accounts in RMB
16. 养老保险关系跨省转移接续 portable pension account (PPA)
17. 城市化布局和形态 patterns and forms of urbanization
18. 人才战略 human resources strategy
19. 人才教育 professional education
20. 人才培养 talent fostering; staff development
21. 人才培训 personnel training
22. 人才之家 Home for Talent
23. 人才选拔 personnel selection
24. 人才类型 personnel types
25. 人才竞争力 talent competitiveness
26. 高级人才 high-end professionals/personnel; top talents
27. 复合型人才 versatile professionals; personnel of multiple skills
28. 海外人才 overseas talents
29. 人才库 talent pool
30. 人才管理 personnel/human resources management
31. 人才投资 talent investment
32. 人才政策 personnel policy
33. 人才发展 talent development
34. 尊重人才 value talents/talented people
35. 党管人才 human resources under the Party leadership
36. 党政人才 Party and government officials
37. 青年英才 young talents
38. 高素质教育人才 high-quality educators
39. 海外高层次人才 high-quality overseas professionals
40. 全民健康卫生人才 national health professionals
41. 高技能人才 the highly skilled; highly skilled workers
42. 企业经营管理人才 enterprise management talents
43. 专业技术人才 professional and technical talents
44. 高素质军事人才 military talents
45. 专业医药人才 professional medical personnel
46. 创新型科技人才 innovative skilled sci-tech workers
47. 急需紧缺专门人才 professionals in short supply
48. 人才队伍建设 building of talent team
49. 人才工作管理体制 talent administration
50. 人才工作机制 talent management
51. 重大人才工程 major projects for talent development
52. 各类型、多层次人才队伍 a skilled, diversified and multilevel workforce
53. 国家中长期人才发展规划纲要(2010-2020) National Program for Medium and Long-term Talent Development (2010-2020)
54. 全球留学人才之家 overseas Chinese students’ home
55. 中国国际人才交流协会 China Association for International Exchange of Personnel
56. 中国国际人才交流大会 Conference on International Exchange of Professionals
57. 中日人才培养奖学金项目 Japanese grant aid for human resource development scholarship (JDS) program
58. 全国人才队伍建设规划纲要 National Program for Qualified Personnel Development
59. 科教兴国战略和人才强国战略 The strategy of reinvigorating China through science, education and human resources


1. 载人航天 manned space mission
2. 探月工程 lunar exploration program
3. 结构性、输入性物价上涨 structural and imported inflation
4. 重点产业调整振兴规划 the plan for restructuring and reinvigorating key industries
5. 政府投资引导带动社会投资 government spending guided and drove nongovernmental investment
6. 科研成果实现了产业化 a large number of research results have been applied in industrial production
7. 工业“三废” industrial wastewater, waste gases and residues
8. 主体功能区 development priority zones
9. 县级基本财力保障机制 a mechanism for ensuring basic funding for county-level governments
10. 对外工程承包和劳务合作营业额 the total turnover of overseas construction/project and labor contracts
11. 新型农村社会养老保险 a new type of pension insurance for rural residents
12. 老有所养、病有所医、住有所居 Everyone has access to old-age care, medical treatment and housing
13. 行政问责 administrative accountability system
14. 违法征地拆迁 illegal land expropriations and housing demolitions
15. 政府调控与市场机制的有机统一 closely integrate government control with market forces
16. 激发经济内在活力 stimulate the (internal) vitality of the economy
17. 加快形成消费、投资、出口协调拉动经济增长的新局面 to quickly realize economic growth driven by consumption, investment and exports
18. 提高居民收入在国民收入中的比重,提高劳动报酬在初次分配中的比重(“两个提高”) raise the proportion of national income distributed to individuals and increase the proportion of wages in the primary distribution of income
19. 提高政策范围内的医保基金支付水平 increase payment percentage/level in the medical insurance fund within authorized package
20. 构建组织多元、服务高效、监管审慎、风险可控的金融体系 develop a financial system featuring diverse organizations, efficient service, prudent supervision and risk-control
21. 建立健全能够灵活反映市场供求关系、资源稀缺程度和环境损害成本的资源性产品价格形成机制 develop a sound, flexible mechanism for setting prices for resource products capable of reflecting supply and demand in the market, resource scarcity, and the cost of environmental damage
22. 政府自身改革建设 government reforms and self-improvement
23. 从制度上改变权力过分集中而又得不到制约的状况 make institutional changes to end the excessive concentration of power and lack of checks on power
24. 保持适当的财政赤字和国债规模 keep the deficit and government bonds at appropriate levels
25. 公务接待费 hospitality spending
26. 消除输入性、结构性通胀因素的不利影响 overcome the adverse effects of imported and structural inflation
27. 消除输入性、结构性通胀因素的不利影响 overcome the adverse effects of imported and structural inflation
28. “米袋子”省长负责制和“菜篮子”市长负责制 the system of provincial governors taking responsibility for the “rice bag” (grain supply) program and city mayors taking responsibility for the“vegetable basket” (non-grain food supply) program
29. 农产品流通体系 farm products distribution


1. 实现了“十二五”时期良好开局 got the 12th Five-Year Plan period (2011-15) off to a good start
2. 努力做到调控审慎灵活、适时适度 conduct prudent and flexible macro-control on a moderate scale and in a timely fashion
3. 适时适度预调微调 carry out timely and appropriate anticipatory adjustments and fine-tuning
4. 加强环境保护重点工作的意见 the Guidelines on Strengthening Key Environmental Protection Tasks
5. 淘汰落后产能 close down outdated production facilities
6. 基层医疗卫生机构 community-level medical and health care institutions
7. 建立社会救助和保障标准与物价上涨挂钩的联动机制 institute a mechanism to increase social aid and social security benefits when consumer prices rise
8. 三公经费 spending on official overseas trips, official vehicles and official hospitality
9. 全面提升开放型经济水平 make comprehensive improvements to China’s open economy
10. 企业“走出去”步伐加快 Chinese companies expanded overseas presence.
11. 主权债务危机短期内难以缓解 It will be hard to ease the sovereign debt crisis any time soon.
12. 用好重要战略机遇期 make the most of this important period of strategic opportunities
13. 全面推进社会主义经济建设、政治建设、文化建设、社会建设以及生态文明建设 We will comprehensively advance socialist economic development, political, cultural and social progress, and raise ecological awareness.
14. 对行政事业性收费和政府性基金进行清理 investigate the collection and use of administrative fees and operations of government-managed funds
15. 为市场主体提供更多的汇率避险工具 provide more tools for market participants to hedge foreign exchange risks
16. 统筹兼顾 adopt a holistic approach
17. 及时解决苗头性、倾向性问题 promptly resolve emerging issues that signal unfavorable trends
18. 走出一条生产发展、生活富裕、生态良好的文明发展道路 take a path of civilized development which ensures that production increases, people’s living standards rise, and we live in a good ecological environment
19. 资源环境和人口承载能力 the carrying capacity of China’s resources, environment and population
20. 大力实施素质教育 energetically implement well-rounded education
21. 择校 pay to enroll one’s children in better schools
22. 倡导学术诚信 advocate academic integrity
23. 深化人才体制改革 deepen reform of the personnel management system
24. 实现好、维护好、发展好最广大人民的根本利益是以人为本理念的具体体现 Putting people first is about realizing, upholding, and promoting their fundamental interests.
25. 政务诚信、商务诚信、社会诚信 government, business, and public integrity
26. 文化是人类的精神家园 Culture gives human beings a sense of belonging.
27. 优秀文化传承是一个民族生生不息的血脉 Passing on fine culture is essential in maintaining the everlasting vitality of a nation.
28. 努力形成知荣辱、讲正气、守诚信、作奉献、促和谐的良好风尚 strive to create a social atmosphere that promotes morality, integrity, dedication and harmony
29. 推动多种所有制经济共同发展 promote the common development of economic entities under diverse forms of ownership
30. 规范收入分配秩序 ensure that income distribution is governed by proper standards
31. 人民的知情权、参与权、表达权和监督权people’s rights to stay informed about, participate in, express views on, and oversee government affairs, and corrupt practices in law enforcement


1. 社会事业 social services/programs
2. 不断提高政策的针对性、灵活性和前瞻性 make our policies more targeted, flexible, and forward-looking
3. 扎实推进教育公平 make solid progress in making education more equitable
4. 理顺能源价格体系 base the energy pricing system on market supply and demand
5. 理顺政府与市场的关系 clearly define the roles/functions of the government and the market
6. 理顺政府与公民和社会组织的关系 the government should properly handle its relationship with the public and social organizations
7. 逐步理顺煤电价格关系 make the price of electricity better reflect the price of coal
8. 清理、规范行政审批事项 review and standardize procedures of administrative approval
9. 开展债务清理整顿 clear up debt obligations
10. 提高基本公共服务均等化水平 make delivery of basic public services more equitable; to ensure equal access to public service
11. 放宽落户条件 relax restrictions on granting permanent residency
12. 发挥他们的积极作用 fully motivate them in doing sth.; keep them motivated in doing sth.
13. 衔接和落实好支持港澳经济社会发展的系列政策措施 implement coordinated policies and measures for supporting the economic and social development of Hong Kong and Macao
14. 建立社会救助和保障标准与物价上涨挂钩的联动机制 increase social aid and security to offset price rises
15. 纠正有法不依、执法不严、违法不究、粗暴执法、渎职失职和执法腐败等行为 resolve the problems of laws not being abided by or fully enforced, lawbreakers not being prosecuted, abuses in law enforcement, dereliction and neglect of duty, and corrupt practices in law enforcement
16. 开展劳动关系争议排查 settle labor disputes
17. 完善人才培养、任用、评价、激励机制 improve the mechanism for training, employing, evaluating, and giving incentives to talented personnel
18. 发挥各地特色和优势 fully tap the distinctive strengths of each region; to optimize local distinctive strengths
19. 囤积居奇、操纵价格、恶意炒作 hoarding and profiteering, manipulating prices, and speculation
20. 优抚对象 entitled group; recipient of government relief
21. 提高城乡低保补助水平 increase subsistence allowances for rural and urban residents
22. 一次性生活补贴 one-off living allowances
23. 基本药物安全性提高、价格下降 Basic drugs became safer and more affordable.
24. 挂职 to work on secondment
25. 选任 election-based appointment
26. 委任 direct appointment
27. 考任 examination-based appointment
28. 聘任 contract-based appointment
29. 双向进入、交叉任职 cross appointment
30. 基层锻炼have community-level working experience; get tempered on a community-level post

17 (十八大报告重点词汇)
1. 进入全面建成小康社会的决定性阶段 We have entered the decisive stage of completing the building of a moderately prosperous society in all respects; We have entered the decisive stage of achieving a moderately prosperous society in all respects.

2. 凝聚力量,攻坚克难 pool our strength to overcome all difficulties

3. 世情、国情、党情 global, national and Party conditions

4. 更加奋发有为,兢兢业业地工作 aim higher and work harder

5. 作出全面部署 adopt a comprehensive/an overall action plan

6. 作出总体安排 adopt steps for general implement-ation

7. 关系全局的重大问题 issues of underlying/ overarch-ing/overriding importance

8. 新形势下党的建设 Party building in a new environ-ment/under new conditions

9. 综合国力大幅提高 China’s overall strength has grown considerably.

10. 生态文明建设扎实展开 Solid steps have been taken to promote ecological progress/raise ecological awareness.

11. 宏观调控体系 system of macro-regulation

12. 衣食住行用条件明显改善 People’s need for daily necessities such as clothing, food, housing and transport is better met.

13. 农村扶贫标准大幅度提高 Rural poverty line was raised by a big margin.

14. 政治体制改革 reform of the political structure; political structural reform

15. 基层民主不断发展 Community-level democr-acy has steadily developed.

16. 文化建设迈上新台阶 Development of the cultural sector has reached a new stage.

17. 文化体制改革全面推进 Comprehensive prog-ress has been made in the reform of the cultural system.

18. 人民精神文化生活更加丰富多彩 People have richer intellectual pursuit and cultural entertainment.

19. 基本公共服务均等化程度明显提高 Access to basic public services has become much more equitable.

20. 免费义务教育全面实现 Free compulsory educ-ation is now available across the country.

21. 军事斗争准备不断深化 Military preparedness is enhanced.

22. 开创两岸关系和平发展新局面 usher in a new stage of peaceful growth of cross-Straits relations

23. 在国际事务中的代表性和话语权进一步增强 We have secured more representation and a greater say for China in international affairs.

24. 有利的国际环境 favorable international condi-tions/environment

25. 加强党的干部队伍 strengthen the ranks of Party officials

26. 发展中不平衡、不协调、不持续问题仍然突出 Unbalanced, uncoordinated and unsustainable development remains a big/major/prominent problem.

27. 资源环境约束加剧 Resources and environ-mental constraints have become more serious.

28. 关系群众切身利益的问题 problems affecting people’s immediate interests

29. 一些领域消极腐败现象易发多发 Some sectors are prone to corruption and other misconduct/malpractices.

30. 反腐败斗争形势依然严峻 The fight against corruption remains a challenging task for us.

31. 战胜一系列重大挑战 successfully met major challenges

32. 国际局势风云变幻 We face a volatile intern-ational environment.

33. 准确把握我国发展的阶段性特征 We have gained a good understanding of the essential/salient features of China’s development in the current stage.

34. 应对外部经济风险冲击 defuse/stand external economic risks

35. 所有这些彰显了中国特色社会主义的巨大优越性和强大生命力 All this shows the superiority and vitality of socialism with Chinese characteristics.

36. 时代特征 the underlying trend of our times

37. 牢牢扭住经济建设这个中心,坚持聚精会神搞建设,一心一意谋发展 We must pursue economic development as the central task and concentrate on it with every determination.

38. 实施科教兴国、人才强国战略 We must implement the strategies for making China strong by developing science and education and training competent personnel.

39. 全面落实经济建设、政治建设、文化建设、社会建设、生态文明建设五位一体总体布局 We must fully implement the overall plan for promoting economic, political, cultural, social, and ecological progress.

40. 开拓生产发展、生活富裕、生态良好的文明发展道路 expand the path of sound development that leads to increased production, prosperity and a good eco-system

41. 把统筹兼顾作为落实科学发展观的根本方法 take a holistic/ integrated approach as the fundamental way of applying the Scientific Outlook on Development

42. 统筹 balance/coordinate relations between

43. 坚持一切从实际出发 We should base our-selves on reality in everything we do.

44. 充分调动各方面的积极性 keep all parties fully motivated

45. 形成全体人民各尽所能、各得其所而又和谐相处的局面 to ensure that all people do their best, find their proper places in society and live in harmony

46. 解放思想、实事求是、与时俱进、求真务实,是科学发展观最鲜明的精神实质 Freeing up the mind, seeking truth from facts, keeping up with the times and being realistic and pragmatic—these are the salient/essential features of the Scientific Outlook on Development.

47. 实践发展永无止境,认识真理永无止境,理论创新永无止境 There is no end to practice, to seeking truth, or to making theoretical innovation.

48. 把握时代发展要求 respond to the call of the times

49. 探索和把握中国特色社会主义规律 to explore and master laws governing socialism with Chinese characteristics

50. 历经千辛万苦 endure untold hardships and sufferings

51. 开创生动的新局面 create a dynamic new environ-ment in which…

52. 开创全面改革开放的新局面 usher in a new phase/open a new horizon in carrying out all-round reform and opening up

53. 加快生态文明建设 promote ecological pro-gress; speed up ecological conservation; raise ecological awareness

54. 我们既不走封闭僵化的老路,也不走改旗易帜的邪路 We reject both the old and rigid closed-door policy and any attempt to abandon socialism and take an erroneous path.

55. 逐渐实现全体人民共同富裕 achieve pro-sperity for all over time/in due course

56. 它以全新的视野深化了对共产党执政规律的认识 It offers from new perspectives a deeper understanding of the laws of governance by the Communist Party.

57. 回答了建设什么样的社会主义的根本问题 It has addressed the fundamental issue of what kind of socialism to build.

58. 中国特色社会主义是当代中国发展进步的根本方向 Socialism with Chinese characteristics is what we must pursue if we are to achieve development and make progress in contemporary China.

59. 我们要把握住以下基本要求 We should have a firm grasp of the following basic requirements…

60. 我们必须坚持人民主体地位 We must ensure that the people maintain their principal position in the country.

61. 最广泛地动员和组织人民管理国家事务 mobilize and organize as many people as possible to manage state affairs

62. 要始终把改革开放精神贯彻到治国理政的各个环节 We should always apply the spirit of reform and innovation to all aspects of governance.

63. 社会公平正义 social fairness and justice

64. 逐步建立以权利公平、机会公平、规则公平为主要内容的社会公平保障体系 establish in due course a system for ensuring fairness in society featuring, among other things, equal rights, equal opportunities and fair rules for all

65. 公平正义是中国特色社会主义的内在要求 Fairness and justice are an inherent requirement of socialism with Chinese characteristics.

66. 社会和谐是中国特色社会主义的本质属性 Social harmony is an inherent attribute of socialism with Chinese characteristics.

67. 保证人民平等参与、平等发展权利 ensure people’s equal right to participation in governance and to development

68. 分配制度 system of income distribution

69. 团结一切可以团结的力量 rally all the forces that can be rallied

70. 确保人民安居乐业、社会安定有序、国家长治久安 We should ensure that the people live and work in contentment, the society is stable and orderly, and the country enjoys enduring peace and stability.

71. 和平发展是中国特色社会主义的必然选择 Peaceful development is the sure choice of socialism with Chinese characteristics.

72. 我们要坚持开放的发展,合作的发展,共赢的发展 We should pursue development through opening up and cooperation to benefit all.


1.立党为公,执政为民。 The Party was founded for public good and it exercises state power/governance for the people.
2.总揽全局 exercise leadership with a holistic view
3.人民日益增长的物质文化需要同落后的社会生产力之间矛盾是我国社会的主要矛盾。 The principle problem in our society is the backward production cannot meet the ever-growing material and cultural needs of the people.
4.我们在任何情况下都要牢牢把握住社会主义初级阶段这个最大国情。We must bear in mind under any circumstances the paramount reality that China remains in the primary stage of socialism.
5.我们必须把坚持以经济建设为中心同四项基本原则、改革开放这两个基本点统一于中国特色社会主义伟大实践。 We must adhere to both the central task—economic development—and the two basic points—the Four Cardinal Principles and the policy of reform and opening up—in our great endeavor to build socialism with Chinese characteristics.
6.我们要胸怀理想、坚定信念、不动摇、不懈怠,不折腾、顽强奋斗、艰苦奋斗,不懈奋斗。 We should remain true to our ideal, be firm in our conviction, never vacillate in or relax our efforts or act recklessly, and we should forge ahead/press forward with tenacity and resolve.
7.全面把握机遇、沉着应对挑战,赢得主动、赢得优势 seize all opportunities, respond with cool-headedness to challenges and gain initiative and advantages
8.司法公信力应不断提高 Public trust in the judiciary should be steadily enhanced.
9.社会主义核心价值体系深入人心 Core socialist values takes roots among the people.
10.公民文明素质和社会文明程度明显提高 Both the level of civility and the moral and ethical standards of the whole society should be significantly raised.
11.中华文化走出去 take Chinese culture to the global stage
12.破除一切妨碍科学发展的思想观念和体制机制弊端 discard all notions and remove all systemic barriers that hinder the pursuit of development in a scientific way
13.在更大程度更广范围发挥市场在资源配置中的基础作用 leverage to a greater extent and in a wider scope the basic role of the market in allocating resources
14.加快推进社会主义民主政治制度化、规范化、程序化 work harder to enhance socialist democracy in a systemic way by adopting due standards and procedures
15.实现国家各项工作法治化 ensure that all governance functions are performed in accordance with law
16.基本建立现代文化市场体系 establish the basic framework of a modern cultural market system
17.加快生态文明制度 move faster to set up a system for ecological improvement
18.形成人与自然和谐发展现代化建设新格局 promote modernization featuring harmonious development between man and nature
19.以经济建设为中心是兴国之要,发展仍是解决我国所有问题的关键。Taking economic development as the central task is vital to national renewal, and development still holds the key to addressing all the problems we have in China.
20.以科学发展为主题,以加快转变经济发展方式为主线,是关系我国发展全局的战略抉择。 Taking scientific development as the underlying guideline (not theme) and accelerating the change of the growth model (not pattern of economic development) as a major task(not main thread) is a strategic choice we have made for promoting China’s overall development.
20.把推动发展的立足点转到提高质量和效益上来 ensure that development is based on improved quality and performance
21.激发各类市场主体发展活力 fire all types of market participants with new vigor for development
22.培育开放性经济发展新优势 create new favorable conditions for developing the open economy
23.城乡区域发展协调互动 coordinated and mutually reinforcing urban-rural development
24.促进工业化、信息化、城镇化、农业现代化同步发展 promoting harmonized/in step development of industrialization, IT application, urbanization and agricultural modernization
25.推动国有资本更多投向关系国家安全和国民经济的重要行业和关键领域 invest more state capital in major industries and key fields that comprise the lifeline of the economy and are vital to national security
26.保证各种所有制经济平等使用生产要素 ensure that economic entities under all forms of ownership have equal access to factors of production
27.健全中央和地方财力与事权相匹配的体制 ensure that the central and local governments have sufficient financial resources to exercise their respective powers and responsibilities
28.财税体系 the fiscal and taxation systems
29.加强宏观调控目标和政策手段机制化建设 strengthen institutional procedures for setting macro-regulation targets and employing policy tools
30.完善促进基本公共服务均等化的公共财政体系 improve the public finance system to ensure equal access to basic public services
31.形成有利于结构优化,社会公平的税收制度 improve the structure of the taxation system to promote social equity
32.建立公共资源出让收益合理共享机制 establish a mechanism for equitable sharing of proceeds from public resources transfers
33.稳步推进利率和汇率市场化改革 take steady steps to make interest rates and the RMB exchange rates market-based
34.逐步实现人民币资本项目可兑换 promote the RMB’s convertibility under capital accounts in due course
35.科技创新必须摆在国家发展全局的核心位置。 We must give science and technology top priority in overall national development.
36.提高原始创新、集成创新和引进消化吸收再创新能力 increase capacity for making original innovation and integrated innovation and for making further innovation on the basis of absorbing advances in overseas science and technology
37.着力构建以企业为主体,市场为导向,产学研结合的技术创新体系 We should establish a system of technological innovation in which enterprises play the leading role, the market points the way, and enterprises, universities and research institutes work together.
38.完善科技创新激励机制 improve mechanisms for rewarding scientific and technological innovations
39.把全社会智慧和力量凝聚到创新发展上来 ensure that the wisdom and strength of the whole society are directed to promoting innovation-driven development
40.解决制约经济健康持续发展的重大结构性问题 resolve major structural barriers to sustained and sound economic development
41.牢牢把握扩大内需这一战略基点 We should firmly maintain the strategic focus of boosting domestic demand.
42.强化实体经济的需求导向 make the real economy more demand-driven
43.理布局建设基础设施和基础产业 make geographical/regional layout of the development of infrastructure and basic industries more balanced.
44.发展现代信息技术产业体系,健全信息安全保障体系 develop IT industry and better ensure information security
45.有序推进农业转移人口市民化 conduct registration of rural migrant workers as permanent urban residents in an orderly way
46.对农民采取多与少取放活的方针 We should give more to farmers and take less from them and lift restrictions over their business activities.
47.培育新型经营主体 oster new types of business entities
48.集约化、专业化、组织化、社会化相结合的新型农业经营体系 a new type of system for intensive agricultural operations that are specialized, well organized and commercialized
49.形成以技术、品牌、质量、服务为核心的出口竞争新优势 make China’s export more competitive in terms of technology, brand, quality and service
50.提高利用外资综合优势和总体效益 We should make full use of our overall advantageous position in utilizing foreign capital and make better use of such investment.
51.统筹双边、多边开放合作 make overall planning for bilateral and multilateral opening up and cooperation
52.全面深化经济体制改革 deepen economic structural reform across the board
53.发展更广泛、更充分、更健全的人民民主 make people’s democracy more extensive, fuller in scope and sounder in practice
54.必须坚持党的领导、人民当家作主,依法治国有机统一。 We must ensure the unity of the leadership of the Party, the position of the people as masters of the country and law based governance.
55.发展社会主义政治文明 promote socialist political progress/advance
56.维护国家法制统一、尊严、权威 uphold the unity, sanctity and authority of the country’s legal system
57.保证人民依法享有广泛权利和自由 ensure that the people enjoy extensive rights and freedoms as prescribed by law
58.要把制度建设摆在突出位置,充分发挥我国社会主义政治制度优越性,积极借鉴人类政治文明有益成果。 We should place high importance on system building, give full play to the strength of the socialist political system and draw on the political achievements of other societies.
59.我们决不照搬西方政治制度模式 We will never copy the Western political system.
60.加强对政府全口径预算决算的审查和监督 tighten examination and oversight of all government budgets and final accounts
61.优化常委会、专委会组成人员知识和年龄结构 improve the age mix and expertise of the members of the standing committees and special committees of people’s congresses
62.推进协商民主广泛、多层、制度化发展 promote the extensive, multilevel, and institutionalized development of consultative democracy
63.健全以职工代表大会为基本形式的企业事业单位民主管理制度 improve the democratic management system in enterprises and public institutions with employees’ congress as its basic form
64.严格规范公正文明执法 enforce laws in a strict, fair and civilized way according to due procedures
65.提高领导干部运用法治思维和法治方式深化改革,推动发展,化解矛盾,维护稳定的能力 We should ensure that leading officials are guided by law in both thinking and action in their effort to deepen reform, promote development, solve problems and maintain stability.
66.任何组织和个人都不得有超越宪法和法律的特权。 No organization or individual has the privilege of overstepping the Constitution and laws.
67.绝不允许以言代法、以权压法、徇私枉法。 No one in a position of power is allowed in any way to take his own words as the law, place his own authority above the law or abuse the law.

China’s dream; the Chinese dream
China’s spirit; the spirit of China; China’s character; China’s soul
keep power in the cage of systemic checks; Power should be placed under close oversight/checks
Power should be covered with antiseptic and be kept in a straitjacket; Power should be insulated from corruption.
Getting things done is more important than shouting/yelling; Don’t just shout/yell. Roll up sleeves and get things done!
Only the wearer knows whether his shoes f it.
One should not stick his head in the past when his body is already in the 21st century.
Governing a big country is as delicate as frying a small fish; A big country should be governed with the same care of frying a small fish.
Empty talk is harmful to the nation, while doing practical work will make it thrive.
maintain strategic focus/confidence/composure; keep to our strategic goals
In fighting corruption, we should go after both tigers and flies, that is, both the high and low-ranking officials who have benefited from graft.
One should face up to his responsibility.
The iron must be of good quality to be hammered / struck into a tool.
Worms can only grow in something that is already rotten.
If you fall behind, you will be bullied. Only by developing yourself can you thrive.
build positive energy to promote reform
The Communist Party of China should be open/receptive/responsive to sharp criticism.
Reform and opening up are not missions accomplished. Rather, they are a dynamic/ongoing process.
Step onto the stone and you should leave your footprint on it; clutch a piece of iron and you should leave your handprint on it. This means one should take forceful steps and deliver tangible results.
In learning about China, one should avoid making the mistake of the blind men who tried to learn about the elephant by feeling/touching it.
A leader/leading official should exercise his responsibility with utmost care/caution as if he were walking / treading on thin ice or standing on the edge of an abyss/cliff.
We must not slacken our efforts or be negligent of duty in the slightest way.
We should fully dedicate ourselves to our work/duty/mission.
We should abide by the Constitution and be loyal to the people.
We should follow people’s wishes in exercising governance.
We will take it as our sacred mission to realize people’s aspiration for a better life.
When/Where the government takes on a misplaced role, we should return the hand misplaced on the government to the market.
28.这是削权,会很痛,甚至有割腕的感觉, 但是我们要有壮士断腕的决心
This means cutting one’s power, which is quite painful, like cutting one’s own arm. But we should have the resolve to do so. / But we are determined to make such sacrifice.
Bones may be broken, but they are still linked by sinews. The compatriots on both sides of the Taiwan Straits are siblings of the same family, and there is no knot between them that cannot be untied.
This will push through the society’s moral and psychological limit.
Only when one is upright himself can he ask others to be upright.
Holding government/public off ice and making money should be kept separate. You cannot have it both ways.
To ensure that the people lead a good life, the government should tighten belt/practice frugality/practice austerity/practice economy first.
In pursuing reform, we have entered uncharted/deep waters. But we must wade through these waters no matter how deep they are.
Taking away some of their vested interests is more difficult than changing their way of thinking.
We need to upgrade China’s economy.
We should put in place an action forcing mechanism to make both businesses and the government live up to their responsibilities.
Follow the fundamental truth, work for public good/put people’s interests first and bring benefits to all the people.

Faced with a new environment and new tasks, we must deepen the reform comprehensively at this new historical starting point, and continuously strengthen confidence in the path of, theory on and system of socialism with Chinese characteristics so as to finish building a moderately prosperous society in all respects, and eventually make China a modern socialist country that is prosperous, strong, democratic, culturally advanced and harmonious, and realize the Chinese dream of the nation’s great renewal (revival/revitalization).
We should have full confidence, forge consensus, make holistic planning, and pursue development in a coordinated way. We will keep to the direction of reform towards the socialist market economy, take the promotion of social fairness, justice and improvement of people’s lives as the starting point and ultimate goal, further free the mind, continue to release and grow the productive forces, release and strengthen vigor of society, overcome various systemic defects and institutional deficiencies, and strive to open up broader prospects for the cause of building socialism with Chinese characteristics.
We will deepen reform of the cultural sector to building the socialist core values and make China a country with influential culture. We will accelerate improvement of the system for managing the cultural sector and the mechanism for cultural production and operation, establish a sound modern public cultural service system and a modern cultural market system and improve them, and thus bring about great development and enrichment of socialist culture.
We will deepen ecological environment management reform to build a beautiful China. We will accelerate system building to promote a sound ecology, improve institutions and mechanisms for developing the country’s territory, conserving resources and protecting the ecological environment and promoting modernization featuring harmonious development between man and nature.
We will always put people first, respect the people’s principal position in the country, give full rein to their creativity, promote reform with full support of the people, and promote well-rounded development of the person. We should strike a balance between reform, development and stability, implement reform boldly yet steadily, both strengthen top-level planning and advance through a process of trial and error, promote both comprehensive advance and breakthroughs at key points, improve decision-making, form broad-based consensus and synergy for carrying out reform.
China has entered a new phase in its development endeavors and a period of overcoming major difficulties and a deep-water zone in its reform drive. We must, with a strong sense of historical mission, pool the wisdom of the entire Party and the entire society to the broadest extent possible, mobilize all positive factors, be ready to face tough choices, ford dangerous rapids, shatter fetters of an outdated ideological mindset with greater determination, overcome the barriers of entrenched interests, and promote the self-improvement and development of the system of socialism with Chinese characteristics.
By 2020, decisive progress will have been achieved in the reform of important areas and crucial links. The reform tasks put forward in this Decision are to be completed within this period, and systems that are structurally complete, procedure based and with effective operation will be in place, to ensure that institutions in all areas become more mature and well established.
The basic economic system with public ownership playing a leading role and various ownership growing side by side is an important pillar of the socialist system with Chinese characteristics and the foundation of the socialist market economy. Both the public and non-public sectors are key components of the socialist market economy and an important basis for boosting China’s economic and social development. We must unswervingly consolidate and develop the public economy, maintain the leading position of public ownership, give full play to the leading role of the state-owned sector, and continuously increase its vitality, leveraging power and impact. At the same time, we must unwaveringly encourage, support and guide the development of the non-public sector, and stimulate its vigor and creativity.
An economy of mixed ownership with cross holding by and integration of state-owned capital, collective capital and non-public capital is an important form of China’s basic economic system. It enables state-owned capital to expand function, maintain and increase its value and raise its competitiveness, and it also enables capital of various ownership to draw on one another’s strength, complement one another and develop together.
Rural collectively owned profit-oriented construction land will be allowed to be transferred, leased and converted into shares, provided/on the precondition that it conforms to planning and its use is regulated. This is to ensure that it can enter the market with the same rights and at the same prices as state-owned land.


Resolution of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China on Major Issues Concerning the Enhancement of all-round Law-based Governance
make coordinated efforts to exercise law-based governance, political power and administration
based on China’s realities
draw on the fine legacy of the Chinese legal culture
improve the socialist system of laws with Chinese characteristics, at the heart of which is the Constitution/ with the Constitution at its heart
The people are major participants in conducting law-based governance and provide the source of strength for it.
expand the definition of a bribe from “property” alone to “property or/and other things of benefits”
upholding the legal system with the following features: administration of justice is based on facts and law, findings are consistent with facts, substantive justice is served as shown in the outcome of cases handled and due procedures are observed in handling cases
intensify efforts to maintain law and order
press ahead with efforts to promote the socialist rule of law in China
establish a system of socialist rule of law with distinctive Chinese features
build a country, government and society under the rule of law
The socialist market economy is a law-based economy.
apply the theory of developing socialist rule of law with distinctive Chinese features
heighten public awareness of the rule of law
encourage people to have faith in shared ideals and convictions, live by socialist core values and abide by the socialist rule of law
Using political integrity as an important criterion, we will select to positions of leadership those who observe the rule of law in both thinking and action.
competent personnel for enforcing the rule of law
Legislative, judicial and law enforcement personnel
personnel working to enforce the socialist rule of law
Only law-based governance and the rule of law under the leadership of the Party can ensure that the people fully exercise their power as masters of the country and that steady progress will be made in promoting the rule of law in the country and society.
We should handle people’s complaints filed and concerns expressed through letters or in person in accordance with the law to ensure that their reasonable and legitimate complaints and concerns are addressed according to due legal procedures and provisions.
Certain laws and regulations do not fully reflect objective laws or the will of the people, are not well targeted and are weak in terms of enforceability.
The law is vital to the governance of a country, and good laws are a prerequisite for good governance.
We should let the people see that justice is served in every case tried.
We must resolutely crack down on brokering justice and prevent the tunneling of interests/transferring of vested interests.
We must do away with all hidden rules and make it absolutely impermissible to grant leniency by bending the law or handle any case under the influence of personal connections, personal favor or bribe.
We must show zero tolerance towards judicial corruption and root out corrupt elements.
emerging problems and adverse trend
Pursuing vested interests and vying for power while shirking responsibilities by government departments concerned are major problems affecting law making.
There are still problems of some officials knowingly breaking the law, overriding the law with their own arbitrary views, placing power above the authority of law and abusing the law for personal gains.
The leadership of the CPC is established by/provided for in China’s Constitution.
thoroughly redress acts of nonfeasance and misfeasance/address inaction and abuse of power
strengthen efforts to develop the system of socialist consultative democracy
establish a sound system of benchmarks for exercising discretionary government power
Judicial justice enhances social justice, while judicial injustice cripples it.
hold the law in awe and reverence and never challenge or cross the red line of the law
We should raise the credibility standards of the public, keep a good record of citizens’ and organizations’ observance of law and credibility, and refine mechanism that commend those who obey the law and have credibility and punish those who break the law or lose credibility. This will ensure that the people willingly respect and abide by the law.


Socialist democracy can be fundamentally guaranteed through improved institutions, rules and regulations, and well-defined procedures.
regulate online activities in accordance with the law
improve and regulate public services on the basis of law
improve legislation on social organizations through which to regulate and guide a sound development of all types of social organizations
work to ensure that the powers/functions/mandates of the government at each level are stipulated in law and the way they are exercised is consistent with laws and procedures
make our legislation more responsive, systematic, relevant, and effective
We will take a systematic, law-based, and holistic approach to governance and try to resolve root causes of problems, if there are any.
We need to adopt a holistic approach to national security, move more quickly to develop rule of law in our national security efforts, and lose no time in enacting counter-terrorism laws that are urgently needed.
We should, as required by law, regulate (ensure proper) contact between judicial officers and litigants, lawyers, special related persons, and intermediary agencies.
so that China achieves economic growth, good governance, a flourishing culture, social justice, and a healthy ecology, and attains its strategic goals for peaceful development.
socialist core values (core values of socialism)
make sure that every piece of legislation is consistent with the Constitution
improve the Constitution-enforcing system and the constitutional review system
To exercise the law-based governance of China, first we must exercise governance of the country based on the Constitution; to exercise state power on the basis of the law, first we must exercise state power on the basis of the Constitution.
We will designate December 4th China’s Constitution Day.
We will establish a system of pledging allegiance, whereby all those who are elected or appointed to public office by people’s congresses or their standing committees make a public pledge of allegiance to the Constitution when they officially assume office.
establish a sound system whereby specialists may act as legislative advisors to the special committees of people’s congresses and the legislative affairs commissions of the standing committees of people’s congresses
introduce third party evaluation
promote democracy at the community level and industry self-regulation
Government bodies shall not assume power which is not prescribed by law.
a lifelong retroactive accountability mechanism for major decisions and a mechanism for retroactive investigation of accountability for major decisions
carry out coordinated law enforcement
a system of enforcing administrative decisions
judicial administrative authorities
keep power of adjudication and power of enforcement separated
those working in the judiciary
establish sound mechanisms for giving early warning about social conflicts, giving people channels to express their interests, settling conflicts through consultation and mediation, and providing legal remedies and assistance
sector-wide and industry-wide organizations for mediation
improve the multi-dimensional system for maintaining law and order
investigate and penalize law-enforcement officers for breaking laws/abuse of power
improve their professional qualities/standards/performance and competence
perfect the system for admission to legal professions
private lawyers, public sector lawyers, and corporate lawyers
the public security and judicial committee

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