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Activity Trackers May Undermine Weight Loss Efforts
运动监测软件不能帮你减肥

Wearable activity monitors can count your steps and track your movements, but they don’t, apparently, help you lose weight. In fact, you might lose more weight without them.

可穿戴式活动监测设备能计算你的步数,并追踪你的运动,但它们对减肥似乎没有帮助。实际上,不用它们的话,你的减肥效果可能更好。

The fascinating finding comes from a study published today in JAMA that found dieting adults who wore activity monitors for 18 months lost significantly fewer pounds over that time than those who did not.

这项非常有趣的发现来自《美国医学会杂志》(The Journal of the American Medical Association)今天发表的一项研究。该研究发现,在18个月的时间里,戴活动监测设备的成人减肥者体重下降的磅数,明显少于不戴活动监测设备的人。

The results suggest that activity monitors may not change our behavior in the way we expected, and raise interesting questions about the tangled relationships between exercise, eating, our willpower and our waistlines.

相关结果表明,活动监测设备或许并不会以我们预计的方式改变我们的行为。它们也引出了有关锻炼、饮食、意志力和腰围之间错综复杂的关系的问题,颇为有趣。

There have been tantalizing hints in a few studies recently that new technologies such as wearable activity monitors, which tell us how much we are moving and how many calories we have burned during the day, might help some people to drop pounds.

在最近的一些研究中,出现了一些激动人心的迹象。这些迹象表明,像能够告诉我们一天中做了多少运动,燃烧了多少卡路里的可穿戴式活动监测设备这样的新技术,或许有助于一些人减肥。

Those studies, however, had typically been small scale and short term, so it was still unclear how much activity monitors might aid in weight loss.

然而,这些研究往往规模小,周期短,因此活动监测设备对减肥的帮助作用可能有多大仍不得而知。

So for the new study, University of Pittsburgh scientists from the Physical Activity and Weight Management Research Center and their colleagues gathered almost 500 young, overweight men and women who wanted to lose weight. The recruits ranged in age from 18 to 35 since, presumably, these younger volunteers would be familiar with and competent using technologies such as activity trackers and any learning curve would be slight.

就前文提到的新研究而言,匹兹堡大学(University of Pittsburgh)来自身体活动与体重管理研究中心(Physical Activity and Weight Management Research Center)的科学家和他们的同事招募到了近500名想减肥的超重青年男女。他们的年龄在18到35岁之间,因为这些较年轻的志愿者大概会对活动追踪设备这类技术比较熟悉,能够正确使用它们,需要学习的话也会较为容易。

The volunteers were weighed and their general health and fitness assessed.

志愿者们称了体重,并接受了总体健康状况评估。

Then, for the first six months of the study, the volunteers followed a straightforward, low-calorie diet designed to provide steady weight loss and were urged to start moving more, aiming for at least 100 minutes of moderate activity each week. They kept daily food and exercise diaries and attended weekly counseling sessions.

然后,在研究的头六个月里,志愿者们遵循一种简单的低热量饮食计划。该计划的设计意图是实现稳定的体重下降。研究人员督促他们开始增加运动量,目标是每周至少进行100分钟的低强度活动。他们要写饮食和锻炼日记,还要参加每周一次的咨询辅导活动。

By the end of six months, everyone had lost weight. And then the actual experiment began.

六个月结束时,所有人的体重都下降了。然后,真正的实验开始了。

The scientists now divided their volunteers in half. One group was told to start logging their daily exercise sessions onto a study website.

科学家们把志愿者平分成两组。一组被要求把每天的锻炼时间记录在一个研究网站上。

The others were given a monitor designed to be worn on the upper arm that would track their physical activity and provide feedback about whether they were achieving goals for step counts, calorie expenditure and so on.

其他人则拿到了监测仪,它会被使用者戴在上臂上,以追踪用户的身体活动,并就用户是否即将完成步数和热量消耗等方面的目标提供反馈。

“We were pretty confident” that the volunteers in the group using the activity monitors would exercise more, monitor their calorie intake better, and lose more weight than the people in the self-monitoring group, says John Jakicic, a distinguished professor in the department of health and physical activity at the University of Pittsburgh and the study’s lead author.

匹茨堡大学健康与身体活动系的著名教授、这项研究的第一作者约翰•亚基奇科(John Jakicic)说,“我们本来非常相信”使用活动监测仪那个小组的志愿者会加大运动量,更好地监测热量摄入,因而减肥效果也会比自我监控小组的人好。

For 18 months, the volunteers logged into the study website or wore the monitor on most days. Counselors occasionally checked with everyone by phone and sent encouraging text messages.

在18个月里,志愿者们大部分时候或是登陆前述研究网站,或是戴着监测仪。咨询顾问偶尔会通过电话进行检查,并发送鼓励短信。

After 18 months — and two years after the beginning of the study — all of the volunteers returned to the lab to repeat their measurements from the start.

在18个月,也就是研究开始两年后,所有志愿者都回到实验室,重新读出他们一开始的体重。

Most were thinner now than at the start of the study (although many had regained some of the weight that they had lost during the first six months).

此时大部分人都比研究开始的时候瘦了(不过不少人在最初六个月体重下降后,又出现了一定程度的反弹)。

Those who had not worn activity monitors were, on average, about 13 pounds lighter now than two years ago.

不戴活动监测仪的人平均比两年前轻了大约13磅。

Those who had worn the monitors, however, weighed only about 8 pounds less than at the start.

而戴活动监测仪的人只比一开始瘦了大约8磅。

“We were definitely surprised,” Dr. Jakicic says.

“我们确实很惊讶,”亚基奇科说。

The reasons for the difference in weight loss are not immediately clear, he says.

他表示,减肥效果出现这种差异的原因目前还不清楚。

Theoretically, those using the monitors might have been so inspired to exercise that they moved a lot, developed large appetites, and overate, blunting any weight loss from the workouts, he says.

他说,从理论上说,使用监测仪的那些人可能大受鼓舞,以至大量运动,胃口变大,吃得太多,削弱了锻炼产生的减肥效果。

But in fact, the data from the monitors shows that those wearing the technology generally exercised less than those in the other group.

但事实上,来自监测仪的数据显示,使用这种技术的人总体上比另一组的人锻炼得少。

So perhaps the monitors resulted in less motivation to move, Dr. Jakicic says. It is possible, he says, that when those wearing the trackers realized they would not reach their daily exercise goal, they simply gave up, leading to relatively low caloric expenditure on those days, and less weight loss overall than among those not using the technology.

亚基奇科说,所以也许监测仪导致的结果,是锻炼的积极性降低。他说,可能当那些佩戴追踪设备的人意识到他们达不到每天的运动目标时就放弃了,导致那些日子里的热量消耗相对较低,总体上的减肥效果不及不使用该技术的人。

The people using the monitors may also have assumed that, in some roundabout way, the technology removed responsibility from them for monitoring their energy intake, Dr. Jakicic says. “People may have focused on the technology and forgotten to focus on their behaviors” and ate too much, he says.

亚基奇科说,使用监测设备的人也可能认为,该技术以某种模糊的方式免去了他们自己监测能量摄入的责任。他说,“人们可能把注意力放到了这种技术上,忘记关注自己的行为”,结果吃得太多。

Dr. Jakicic and his colleagues hope to conduct follow-up studies that will directly examine how activity monitors affect exercise motivation and subsequent weight loss.

亚基奇科和同事希望进行后续研究,直接调查活动监测设备是如何影响锻炼积极性及后来的减肥效果的。

“What these results say to me is that we still have a great deal to learn” about how monitoring technologies affect real-life actions, Dr. Jakicic says. People’s responses to a monitor strapped to their arm may not always be rational and could result in behaviors that are the opposite of those that the monitor would be expected to encourage.

亚基奇科说,“在我看来,这些结果表明”,关于监测技术如何影响现实行动,“我们还有很多需要学习”。人们对绑在胳膊上的监测设备的反应可能并不总是理性的,因而可能会造成与我们希望监测设备所能鼓励的行为相反的结果。

In other words, we humans are strange and often our own worst enemies, especially when it comes to trying to increase our exercise or reduce our weight.

换言之,我们人类很奇怪,经常是自己最大的敌人,尤其是在努力增加锻炼或减轻体重方面。
Researchers Confront an Epidemic of Loneliness
孤独是一种病,比肥胖更可怕

BLACKPOOL, England — The woman on the other end of the phone spoke lightheartedly of spring and her 81st birthday the previous week. “Who did you celebrate with, Beryl?” asked Alison, whose job was to offer a kind ear.

英格兰布莱克浦——一位女士在电话里快活地聊着春暖花开,还有她上周刚度过的81岁生日。“是谁和你一起庆生的,贝柔?”艾利森问道;她的工作就是当个耐心的听众。

“No one, I …” And with that, Beryl’s cheer turned to despair.

“没有人。我……”因为艾利森这句话,贝柔的情绪从快活转为低落。

Her voice began to quaver as she acknowledged that she had been alone at home not just on her birthday, but for days and days. The telephone conversation was the first time she had spoken in more than a week.

当贝柔承认自己不只生日那天独自在家,还有好一段时间都是如此,说话的声音开始颤抖。这通电话是她一个多星期以来首度与人交谈。

About 10,000 similar calls come in weekly to an unassuming office building in this seaside town at the northwest reaches of England, which houses The Silver Line Helpline, a 24-hour call center for older adults seeking to fill a basic need: contact with other people.

在英格兰西北区的这个海滨小镇,每周都有大约1万通类似的电话打进此地一栋不起眼的办公大楼。它是Silver Line求助热线的所在地。这是一个为老人服务的24小时热线中心。这些老人家打电话来,是为了满足生活的某种基本需求:与他人保持联系。

Loneliness, which Emily Dickinson described as “the Horror not to be surveyed,” is a quiet devastation. But in Britain, it is increasingly being viewed as something more: a serious public health issue deserving of public funds and national attention.

诗人艾米莉•狄金森(Emily Dickinson)把孤独感描述为“不可丈量的恐怖”,那是一种悄无声息的伤害。不过在英国,人们逐渐认为,它的危害甚至更严重:它是应该被严肃对待的公共卫生课题,值得公共资金的投入和举国关注。

Working with local governments and the National Health Service, programs aimed at mitigating loneliness have sprung up in dozens of cities and towns. Even fire brigades have been trained to inspect homes not just for fire safety but for signs of social isolation.

与地方政府和国家医疗服务体系(National Health Service)合作、致力于减缓孤独现象的计划正在数十个城镇兴起。就连消防队也受了相关训练,除了查看民宅的防火安全,他们也要注意屋主是否有与世隔绝的迹象。

“There’s been an explosion of public awareness here, from local authorities to the Department of Health to the media,” said Paul Cann, chief executive of Age UK Oxfordshire and a founder of The Campaign to End Loneliness, a five-year-old group based in London. “Loneliness has to be everybody’s business.”

“从地方当局、卫生署到媒体,各界对这件事的关注在迅速提高,”保罗‧坎恩(Paul Cann)表示。他是老龄英国(Age UK)牛津郡分部的行政主管,也是有五年历史的伦敦“终结孤独”倡议行动(The Campaign ot End Loneliness)的发起人。“每个人都该关心孤独这件事。”

Researchers have found mounting evidence linking loneliness to physical illness and to functional and cognitive decline. As a predictor of early death, loneliness eclipses obesity. “The profound effects of loneliness on health and independence are a critical public health problem,” said Dr. Carla M. Perissinotto, a geriatrician at the University of California, San Francisco. “It is no longer medically or ethically acceptable to ignore older adults who feel lonely and marginalized.”

学者已经发现,越来越多的证据显示,孤独与生理疾病还有行为与认知能力下降都有关联。孤独也比肥胖更可能预示人的早逝。“孤独对个人健康与自主生活能力的深刻影响,是很重要的公共卫生问题,”加州大学旧金山分校的老龄医学专家卡拉‧M‧佩里西诺托(Dr. Carla M. Perissinotto)说。“不论从医学或道德的眼光来看,我们都不能再忽略那些觉得自己孤单或不受重视的长者了。”

In Britain and the United States, roughly one in three people older than 65 live alone, and in the United States, half of those older than 85 live alone. Studies in both countries show the prevalence of loneliness among people older than 60 ranging from 10 percent to 46 percent.

在英国与美国,65岁以上的民众大约每三人里就有一人独居,而美国年龄在85岁以上的人,有一半是独居。两国的研究都显示,60岁以上者老境孤独的比例在10%到46%之间。

While the public, private and volunteer sectors in Britain are mobilizing to address loneliness, researchers are deepening their understanding of its biological underpinnings. In a paper published earlier this year in the journal Cell, neuroscientists at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology identified a region of the brain they believe generates feelings of loneliness. The region, known as the dorsal raphe nucleus, or DRN, is best known for its link to depression.

就在英国的公共部门、私人机构、义工团体都动员起来对付孤独的时候,研究人员也在更深入了解它的生物学基础。在今年稍早发表于《细胞》(Cell)期刊的一篇报告里,麻省理工学院(Massachusetts Institute of Techonology)的神经科学家认为他们找到了人脑产生孤独感的区域。这个叫做中缝背核(dorsal raphe nucleus, DRN)的部位最为人所知的是它和忧郁症的关联。

Kay M. Tye and her colleagues found that when mice were housed together, dopamine neurons in the DRN were relatively inactive. But after the mice were isolated for a short period, the activity in those neurons surged when those mice were reunited with other mice.

戴琦(Kay M. Tye)与她的同事发现,实验用小鼠住在一起的时候,鼠脑中缝背核里的多巴胺神经元比较不活跃。不过老鼠被隔离一小段时间再放回鼠群里的时候,这些神经元的活动会大幅增加。

“This is the first time we’ve found a cellular substrate for this experience,” said Tye, an assistant professor at the Picower Institute for Learning and Memory at MIT and a senior author of the paper. “And we saw the change after 24 hours of isolation.”

“这是我们第一次发现孤独感的细胞学根源,”戴博士说。她是麻省理工学院皮考尔学习和记忆研究所(Picower Institute for Learning and Memory)助理教授,也是该篇报告的主要作者。“在小鼠隔离了24小时之后,我们开始看到这种变化。”

John T. Cacioppo, a professor of psychology at the University of Chicago and director of the university’s Center for Cognitive and Social Neuroscience, has been studying loneliness since the 1990s. He said loneliness is an aversive signal much like thirst, hunger or pain.

约翰•T•卡奇奥波(John T. Cacioppo)是芝加哥大学(University of Chicago)心理学教授,也是该校认知与社会神经科学中心(Center for Cognitive and Social Neuroscience)主任。他自20世纪90年代以来就一直在研究孤独感。他说,孤独感与口渴、饥饿、疼痛很相似,是一种反向讯号。

“Denying you feel lonely makes no more sense than denying you feel hunger,” he said. Yet the very word “lonely” carries a negative connotation, Cacioppo said, signaling social weakness, or an inability to stand on one’s own.

卡奇奥波表示:“拒绝承认自己的孤独感,就像拒绝承认自己饿了一样,没有意义。”不过他也说,“孤独”这个字本身有负面涵义,意味着一个人不善社交或无法自立更生。

The unspoken stigma of loneliness is amply evident during calls to The Silver Line. Most people call asking for advice on, say, roasting a turkey. Many call more than once a day. One woman rings every hour to ask the time. Only rarely will someone speak frankly about loneliness.

这种没有被言说的污名,从打给Silver Line的电话里很能看得出来。大部分去电寻求建议的人,问的都是,比方说,“怎么烤火鸡”这种问题;有些人一天会打上好几通。有位女性每小时都会打这条专线问时间。只有极少数人会坦诚地讨论自己的孤单感受。

Yet the impulse to call in to services like The Silver Line is a healthy one, Cacioppo said.

不过卡奇奥波说,想给这类服务热线打电话的冲动是健康的。

Sophie Andrews, chief executive of The Silver Line, said she was surprised by the explosion of calls shortly after the service began operating nearly three years ago. The Blackpool call center now receives some 1,500 calls a day.

Silver Line的执行主管苏菲‧安德鲁斯(Sophie Andrews)表示,这条专线在近三年前开通后,很快就涌入大量电话,她很惊讶。如今他们在布莱克浦的中心每天接听大约1500通电话。

Andrews said she was most concerned not about those who called The Silver Line, but those who were too depressed by their isolation to pick up the phone. “We need to raise awareness with the people who are the hardest to reach,” she said.

安德鲁斯还说,她最担心的不是那些打电话来的人,而是那些因为孤独而过度抑郁,以至于连电话也不想打的人。“对于最难接触到的人群,我们需要引起更多的重视,”她说。

Cacioppo lauds efforts like The Silver Line, yet he warns that the problem of loneliness is nuanced and the solutions not as obvious as they might seem. That is, a call-in line can help reduce feelings of loneliness temporarily, but is not likely to reduce levels of chronic loneliness.

卡奇奥波对Silver Line这类努力表示赞许,但他也警告,孤独的问题还有很多细分,解决之道也不如表面看来那么显而易见。也就是说,电话专线能帮人暂时缓解孤独的感觉,却不太可能降低长期的孤独感。

In his research, Cacioppo has shown that loneliness affects several key bodily functions, at least in part through overstimulation of the body’s stress response. Chronic loneliness, his work has shown, is associated with increased levels of cortisol, a major stress hormone, as well as higher vascular resistance, which can raise blood pressure and decrease blood flow to vital organs.

卡奇奥波的研究显示,孤独感会影响许多身体重要功能,至少部分是因为人体应激反应被过度激发造成的。他的研究工作显示,长期感觉孤独与皮质醇浓度上升有关(这是一种主要的应激荷尔蒙),也与较高的血管阻力有关;血管阻力能使血压上升、减少流入主要器官的血液量。

Cacioppo’s research has also shown that the danger signals activated in the brain by loneliness affect the production of white blood cells; this can impair the immune system’s ability to fight infections.

卡奇奥波的研究还显示,脑部受孤独感刺激所释放出的警示讯号会影响白细胞的生成,而这有可能损及免疫系统对抗感染的能力。

It is only in the past several years that loneliness been examined through a medical, rather than psychological or sociological, lens. Perissinotto, the University of California, San Francisco geriatrician, decided to study loneliness when she began to sense there were factors affecting her patients’ health that she was missing.

人们透过医学而非心理学或社会学的角度研究孤独感,不过是近几年的事。前面提到的老龄医学医师佩里西诺托决定要投入孤独感的研究,是因为她开始觉得有些因素在影响她的病人的健康状况,但她却不知是什么。

Although plenty of research into loneliness takes place in the United States, Britain remains well ahead in addressing the problem.

虽然有很多孤独感的研究是在美国做的,不过在应对这个问题方面,英国还是领先许多。

“In the U.S., there isn’t much recognition in terms of public health initiatives or the average person recognizing that loneliness has to do with health,” said Julianne Holt-Lunstad, a professor of psychology at Brigham Young University, whose studies also link loneliness to deteriorating health.

“美国的公共卫生行动还不怎么认可这个问题,一般人也不太了解孤独感会影响健康,”杨百翰大学(Brigham Young University)的心理学教授茱莉安‧浩特─朗斯泰德(Julianne Holt- Lunstad)说。她的研究也显示出孤独感与健康损害有关。

Age UK, an organization similar to AARP in the United States, oversees an array of programs aimed at decreasing loneliness and coordinates efforts with fire brigades to look for signs of loneliness and isolation in the homes they enter.

老龄英国是一个与美国退休人员协会(AARP)相似的组织,他们监督一系列旨在减轻老人孤独处境的项目。该组织也与消防队合作,让消防人员在上门检查时,也注意屋主是否有孤独或与世隔绝的迹象。

Another charity, Open Age, runs some 400 activities each week in Central London — sewing circles, current events discussions, book clubs and exercise and computer classes, held at church halls, sport centers, housing projects — and its employees also visit people in their homes to try to get them out and about.

另一个慈善组织Open Age每周在伦敦市中心组织400多种活动:缝纫团体、时事讨论会、阅读俱乐部、体能锻炼、电脑班。活动举办地点则在教堂大厅、运动中心或社会住宅。该组织员工也会上门探视,想办法让老人出门走走。

“We try to work out what it is that’s preventing them from leaving the house,” said Helen Leech, the organization’s director.

“我们会去了解是什么原因使他们不愿出门,”Open Age的主任海伦‧利奇(Helen Leech)说。

Men and women differ greatly in how they grapple with loneliness. Seventy percent of the calls to The Silver Line are from women.

男女应付孤独感的方式大不相同。打给Silver Line的有70%是女性。
Turning Negative Thinkers Into Positive Ones
转变消极心态,你需要学会这几招

Most mornings as I leave the Y after my swim and shower, I cross paths with a coterie of toddlers entering with their caregivers for a kid-oriented activity. I can’t resist saying hello, requesting a high-five, and wishing them a fun time. I leave the Y grinning from ear to ear, uplifted not just by my own workout but even more so by my interaction with these darling representatives of the next generation.

大多数早上,游完泳、冲完澡的我离开基督教青年会时,都会穿过满是蹒跚学步的幼儿的小径,他们被看护人带到这里,参加一个面向儿童的活动。我禁不住要向他们问好,请他们跟我击掌,并祝他们玩得愉快。我离开时总是满面笑容,精神振奋,这不仅仅因为我刚刚锻炼了身体,更重要的是,我和下一代人的这些可爱代表互动了一番。

What a great way to start the day!

能以这样的方式开始每一天,真是太棒了!

When I told a fellow swimmer about this experience and mentioned that I was writing a column on the health benefits of positive emotions, she asked, “What do you do about people who are always negative?” She was referring to her parents, whose chronic negativity seems to drag everyone down and make family visits extremely unpleasant.

当我跟一同游泳的一个伙伴说起上述体验,并提及我正在写一篇关于积极情绪对健康有什么好处的专栏文章时,她问,“你会拿一直都很消极的人怎么办?”她指的是她的父母,长期主导着他们的消极情绪似乎会把每个人拉下水,让探亲过程不愉快到极点。

I lived for half a century with a man who suffered from periodic bouts of depression, so I understand how challenging negativism can be. I wish I had known years ago about the work Barbara Fredrickson, a psychologist at the University of North Carolina, has done on fostering positive emotions, in particular her theory that accumulating “micro-moments of positivity,” like my daily interaction with children, can, over time, result in greater overall well-being.

我和一个因抑郁症不时发作而遭受折磨的男人共同生活过50年,很能明白消极情绪会带来多大的挑战。我真希望自己多年前就了解北卡罗来纳大学(University of North Carolina)的心理学家芭芭拉•弗雷德里克森(Barbara Fredrickson)在培养积极情绪方面做的工作,尤其是她的这样一个理论:“激发积极情绪的微瞬间”不断累积,假以时日,会让整体健康状况得到改善。我和孩子们每天的交流就属于这种微瞬间。

The research that Dr. Fredrickson and others have done demonstrates that the extent to which we can generate positive emotions from even everyday activities can determine who flourishes and who doesn’t. More than a sudden bonanza of good fortune, repeated brief moments of positive feelings can provide a buffer against stress and depression and foster both physical and mental health, their studies show.

弗雷德里克森以及其他人开展的研究表明,我们可以在多大程度上从日常活动中获得积极情绪,决定着我们能不能活得健康快乐。他们的研究显示,比起突然交上一次好运,反复出现的那些激发积极情绪的短暂时刻,可以更好地缓冲压力和抑郁,增进身心健康。

This is not to say that one must always be positive to be healthy and happy. Clearly, there are times and situations that naturally result in negative feelings in the most upbeat of individuals. Worry, sadness, anger and other such “downers” have their place in any normal life. But chronically viewing the glass as half-empty is detrimental both mentally and physically and inhibits one’s ability to bounce back from life’s inevitable stresses.

这并不是说,一个人要健康快乐,就必须一直都很积极。显然,有些时刻和情况会自然而然地让最乐观的人产生消极感受。忧虑、悲伤、愤怒以及其他类似的“沮丧之情”存在于每一个普通人的生命中。但总是看到杯子只剩下一半水,不仅有碍身心健康,还会抑制一个人顶住生活中不可避免的压力、重焕生机的能力。

Negative feelings activate a region of the brain called the amygdala, which is involved in processing fear and anxiety and other emotions. Dr. Richard J. Davidson, a neuroscientist and founder of the Center for Healthy Minds at the University of Wisconsin — Madison, has shown that people in whom the amygdala recovers slowly from a threat are at greater risk for a variety of health problems than those in whom it recovers quickly.

负面情绪会激活脑部一个名为杏仁核的区域,它与恐惧、焦虑等情绪的处理有关。威斯康星大学麦迪逊分校(University of Wisconsin — Madison)健康心灵研究中心(Center for Healthy Minds)创始人、神经科学家理查德•J•戴维森(Richard J. Davidson)博士发现,遇到威胁后杏仁核平复较慢的人,会比杏仁核平复较快的那些人面临更大的出现各种健康问题的风险。

Both he and Dr. Fredrickson and their colleagues have demonstrated that the brain is “plastic,” or capable of generating new cells and pathways, and it is possible to train the circuitry in the brain to promote more positive responses. That is, a person can learn to be more positive by practicing certain skills that foster positivity.

戴维森、弗雷德里克森以及他们的同事开展的研究表明,大脑具有“弹性”,或者说可以产生新细胞和通路,我们有可能通过训练脑回路来催生更为积极的反应。也就是说,一个人可以通过使用培养积极情绪的特定技巧,学着变得更积极。

For example, Dr. Fredrickson’s team found that six weeks of training in a form of meditation focused on compassion and kindness resulted in an increase in positive emotions and social connectedness and improved function of one of the main nerves that helps to control heart rate. The result is a more variable heart rate that, she said in an interview, is associated with objective health benefits like better control of blood glucose, less inflammation and faster recovery from a heart attack.

例如,弗雷德里克森的团队发现,开展为期六周的慈悲与仁爱冥想训练,会让人产生更多积极情绪,增进社会联络,并改善一种帮助控制心率的重要神经的功能。她接受采访时说,其结果是心率变异度更高,而这牵涉到一些健康方面的客观好处,比如血糖得到更好的控制,减少炎症,以及在心脏病发作后更快地恢复。

Dr. Davidson’s team showed that as little as two weeks’ training in compassion and kindness meditation generated changes in brain circuitry linked to an increase in positive social behaviors like generosity.

戴维森的团队发现,即便只进行为期两周的慈悲与仁爱冥想训练,也可以让脑回路发生有助于增进慷慨等积极社会行为的改变。

“The results suggest that taking time to learn the skills to self-generate positive emotions can help us become healthier, more social, more resilient versions of ourselves,” Dr. Fredrickson reported in the National Institutes of Health monthly newsletter in 2015.

“这些结果显示,花时间学习自行产生积极情绪的技巧,有助于我们变成更健康、更合群、更具复原力的人,”2015年,弗雷德里克森在国立卫生研究院(National Institutes of Health)的每月简报中表示。

In other words, Dr. Davidson said, “well-being can be considered a life skill. If you practice, you can actually get better at it.” By learning and regularly practicing skills that promote positive emotions, you can become a happier and healthier person. Thus, there is hope for people like my friend’s parents should they choose to take steps to develop and reinforce positivity.

戴维森表示,换句话说,“健康可以被视为一种生活技巧。如果勤加练习,你其实会有进步。”通过学习和定期使用催生积极情绪的技巧,你可以变成一个更快乐、更健康的人。因此,我朋友的父母那样的人是有希望的,只要他们选择采取行动,培养和增强自己的积极情绪。

In her newest book, “Love 2.0,” Dr. Fredrickson reports that “shared positivity — having two people caught up in the same emotion — may have even a greater impact on health than something positive experienced by oneself.” Consider watching a funny play or movie or TV show with a friend of similar tastes, or sharing good news, a joke or amusing incidents with others. Dr. Fredrickson also teaches “loving-kindness meditation” focused on directing good-hearted wishes to others. This can result in people “feeling more in tune with other people at the end of the day,” she said.

弗雷德里克森在其新书《爱的方法》(Love 2.0)中表示,“比起一个人独自体验的积极情绪,共同的积极情绪——两人沉浸在同一种情绪中——甚至可能对健康产生更大影响。”想象一下和一个趣味相投的朋友一同观看有趣的戏剧或电影或电视剧,或者与人分享好消息、笑话或趣事的情形吧。弗雷德里克森还教人练习以给予他人善意祝福为重点的“慈心奉爱冥想”。她说,最终,这会让人“觉得与他人更合拍”。

Activities Dr. Fredrickson and others endorse to foster positive emotions include:

弗雷德里克森等人推荐的一些有助于培育积极情绪的行为包括:

Do good things for other people. In addition to making others happier, this enhances your own positive feelings. It can be something as simple as helping someone carry heavy packages or providing directions for a stranger.

做有益他人的事情。除了让他人更快乐,这样做还会增强你的积极情绪。事情可以非常简单,比如帮人提重物,或者给陌生人指路。

Appreciate the world around you. It could be a bird, a tree, a beautiful sunrise or sunset or even an article of clothing someone is wearing. I met a man recently who was reveling in the architectural details of the 19th-century houses in my neighborhood.

欣赏周围的一切。可以是一只鸟,一棵树,一次美丽的日出或日落,甚至是某人穿的一件衣服。我所在的社区里伫立着一些始建于19世纪的房子,我最近遇到了一个正在欣赏那些房子的建筑细节的男人。

Develop and bolster relationships. Building strong social connections with friends or family members enhances feelings of self-worth and, long-term studies have shown, is associated with better health and a longer life.

建立和巩固关系。与朋友或家庭成员密切交往可以增强自我价值感,而且有长期研究表明,这和更好的健康状况以及更长的寿命之间有关联。

Establish goals that can be accomplished. Perhaps you want to improve your tennis or read more books. But be realistic; a goal that is impractical or too challenging can create unnecessary stress.

树立能够实现的目标。或许你想要提高自己的网球水平,或者阅读更多书籍。但要现实一些:不切实际或太过具有挑战性的目标,可以会制造出不必要的压力。

Learn something new. It can be a sport, a language, an instrument or a game that instills a sense of achievement, self-confidence and resilience. But here, too, be realistic about how long this may take and be sure you have the time needed.

学些新东西。可以是能够带来成就感、自信心和复原力的一项运动、一门语言、一样乐器或者一种游戏。但请再次注意,要对可能花费多长时间有现实的认知,并确定自己能抽出足够多的时间。

Choose to accept yourself, flaws and all. Rather than imperfections and failures, focus on your positive attributes and achievements. The loveliest people I know have none of the external features of loveliness but shine with the internal beauty of caring, compassion and consideration of others.

选择接受你自己,接受你的缺点以及全部。聚焦于自己的积极属性和成就,而非缺陷和失败。我认识的最可爱的人,没有任何关乎可爱的外在特征,而是因为体贴、有同理心、为他人着想而散发出内在美。

Practice resilience. Rather than let loss, stress, failure or trauma overwhelm you, use them as learning experiences and steppingstones to a better future. Remember the expression: When life hands you a lemon, make lemonade.

训练复原力。不要被损失、压力、失败和创伤击垮,而是要把它们当成前车之鉴和通往更美好未来的垫脚石。记住一句话:如果生活给了你柠檬,那就用它做柠檬水吧。

Practice mindfulness. Ruminating on past problems or future difficulties drains mental resources and steals attention from current pleasures. Let go of things you can’t control and focus on the here-and-now. Consider taking a course in insight meditation.

进行正念练习。总是想着过去的问题或未来的困难,会让人神思枯竭,无力关注眼前的乐趣。别去管你无法控制的事情,专注于当下吧。不妨考虑参加内观修行课程。

Travis Kalanick, Uber’s C.E.O., to Take Leave Amid Inquiry Into Workplace Culture
企业文化受质疑,优步CEO宣布无期限休假

SAN FRANCISCO — Travis Kalanick, Uber’s chief executive, said he would take a leave of absence from the ride-hailing service after an investigation into the company concluded that Uber must repudiate its aggressive startup culture.

旧金山——在一项针对公司的调查断定优步(Uber)必须消除其侵略性的创业文化后,这家叫车服务公司的首席执行官特拉维斯•卡兰尼克(Travis Kalanick)表示自己将休假。

The developments were part of a flurry of actions at Uber on Tuesday morning, which began with an internal email from Kalanick right before a staff meeting got underway. In the email to employees, Kalanick said he would take a leave of absence to work on himself and reflect on building a “world class leadership team” for the company. He did not specify how long he would be away.

事态的发展是周二上午一连串的行动的一部分,首先是卡兰尼克在一场员工会议开始前发出了一封内部邮件。在发给员工的邮件中,卡兰尼克说自己会休假一段时间,做一些自己的事情,并思考为公司建立一个“世界级的领导团队”。他没有具体说会离开多久。

Minutes later, Uber released 13 pages of recommendations to change the company, which were the result of an investigation into its culture conducted by former Attorney General Eric Holder and his law firm, Covington & Burling.

几分钟后,优步公布了13页的公司改革建议。这是前司法部长埃里克•霍尔德(Eric Holder)和他所在的科文顿-柏灵律师事务所(Covington & Burling)对该公司的文化进行了调查后得出的结果。

The recommendations included limiting Kalanick’s responsibilities by reallocating some of his duties, with an increased emphasis on a chief operating officer at the company. Uber also should appoint an independent chairman and create an oversight committee on the board, in an effort to bolster the checks and balances on management, according to the recommendations.

建议包括通过重新分配卡兰尼克的部分职责并加强首席运营官在公司的地位,来限制卡兰尼克的职责。根据建议,优步还应该在董事会任命一位独立主席,并成立一个监督委员会,以增强管理层的制衡。

The proposed changes amounted to a rejection of the methods and culture that Uber has used to build itself into a nearly $70 billion company that has upended the transportation status quo worldwide. Under Kalanick, Uber flouted rules and regulations to bring its ride-summoning service to hundreds of cities, prized growth above all else, and often turned a blind eye to corporate misbehavior.

提出的改革建议,相当于否定优步的方法和文化,此前公司正是依靠这些将自己打造成一个估值近700亿美元(约合4800亿元人民币),并颠覆了全球交通运输现状。在卡兰尼克的领导下,优步藐视规章制度,把叫车服务引入数百个城市,唯增长至上,并经常对企业不端行为视而不见。

That ballooned into a crisis starting in February, when a former employee wrote a blog post detailing what she said was a history of sexual harassment and lack of response from management at the company. The post set off a deluge of other complaints from staff about Uber’s culture, exposing a toxic environment.

这发展成了一场始于2月的危机。当时,一名前雇员写了一篇博客,详述自己在优步遭到性骚扰、管理层却毫无回应的经历。文章引发了员工对优步文化如潮水般的其他抱怨,揭露了一个不良环境。

Uber has since moved to clean up the situation. It has fired 20 employees in the last few months for transgressions including sexual harassment. Emil Michael, a top lieutenant of Kalanick’s, left the company this week. And many other executives have departed, leaving something of a leadership void at the company.

自那以后,优步采取了清理环境的行动。过去几个月里,该公司因包括性骚扰在内的过失解雇20名员工。本周,卡兰尼克的左膀右臂埃米尔•迈克尔(Emil Michael)离开优步。其他很多高管也离开了,导致优步出现了某种领导真空。

“Implementing these recommendations will improve our culture, promote fairness and accountability, and establish processes and systems to ensure the mistakes of the past will not be repeated,” Liane Hornsey, Uber’s chief of human resources, said in a statement.

“实施这些建议将改善我们的文化、促进公正和责任并建立相应的程序和制度,以确保过去的错误不会重演,”优步首席人力资源官利亚纳•霍恩西(Liane Hornsey)在一份声明中说。

Fake News on Facebook? In Foreign Elections, That’s Not New.
社交媒体的政治力量:当假新闻影响选举

HONG KONG — Facebook rumors force a well-known politician to publish proof of his heritage. Fake images show a prominent female leader in a hangman’s noose. A politician’s aide decries violent crime with a Facebook photo of a girl’s corpse — an image that turns out to come from another country.

香港——Facebook上的传言迫使一位著名政治人物公开了证明自己身份的证据。在多张伪造的图片中,一位颇有名望的女性领导人被刽子手套上了绞索。一位政界人物的助手利用Facebook上的一张照片——一个女孩的遗体——谴责暴力犯罪,但事后证明,原来这张照片来自其他国家。

Another day on social media for Barack Obama, Hillary Clinton and Donald J. Trump? Think again.

这又是贝拉克•奥巴马、希拉里•克林顿(Hillary Clinton)和唐纳德•J•特朗普(Donald J. Trump)在社交网络上的遭遇?不见得。

Those incidents took place in Indonesia and the Philippines, where social media’s outsize place in politics is widely acknowledged, even as that role is coming under sharper criticism in the United States.

这些事情发生在印度尼西亚和菲律宾。这两个国家的社交媒体在政治中的巨大作用得到了广泛的认可,尽管在美国,这种作用正在遭受更严厉的指责。

Well before last week’s American election threw Facebook’s status as a digital-era news source into the spotlight, leaders, advocacy groups and minorities worldwide have contended with an onslaught of online misinformation and abuse that have had real-world political repercussions. And for years, the social network did little to clamp down on the false news.

上周的美国大选将Facebook作为数字时代消息来源的地位推到了聚光灯下。早在那之前,世界范围内的领导人、倡导团体和少数族裔群体就一直面临大量虚假网络信息和辱骂,它们对真实世界造成了不良政治影响。多年来,社交网络基本上没有抑制虚假信息的举措。

Now Facebook, Google and others have begun to take steps to curb the trend, but some outside the United States say the move is too late.

现在,Facebook、谷歌(Google)其他一些社交媒体已经开始采取措施,意在遏制这一趋势,但美国以外的一些人表示为时已晚。

“They should have done this way earlier,” said Richard Heydarian, a political analyst in the Philippines, one of Facebook’s fastest-growing markets. “We already saw the warning signs of this years ago.”

“它们早该这么做了,”菲律宾政治分析人士理查德•海达里安(Richard Heydarian)说。菲律宾是Facebook增长最快的市场之一。“多年前我们就已经看到令人警惕的迹象。”

On Thursday, President Obama, speaking in Berlin and standing alongside Chancellor Angela Merkel, criticized Facebook and other social media for disseminating fake news. He became so impassioned that at one point he lost track of the question he was answering.

周四,奥巴马总统在德国总理安格拉•默克尔(Angela Merkel)的陪同下在柏林发表讲话时,指责Facebook和其他社交媒体传播假新闻。他情绪激动,以至一度偏离了正在回答的问题。

“If everything seems to be the same and no distinctions are made, then we won’t know what to protect,” Mr. Obama said.

“如果所有东西看上去都一样,不加区分,那我们就无法知道该保护什么,”奥巴马说。

The impact of Facebook and other social media platforms on international elections is difficult to quantify. But Facebook’s global reach — roughly a quarter of the world’s population now has an account — is difficult to deny, political experts and academics say.

Facebook和其他社交媒体平台对国际选举的影响是很难估量的。但政治专家和学者表示,Facebook的全球影响力——现在全球大约四分之一的人拥有Facebook账号——难以否认。

Some governments are pushing back, sometimes with undemocratic consequences. Ms. Merkel has said she is considering plans to force social networks to make public how they rank news online. Some African countries have banned the use of Facebook, WhatsApp and Twitter before elections. Indonesia’s government has closed sites that it says promote fake news, though experts say some portals were also targeted for political reasons.

一些政府正在进行反击,有时会造成不民主的后果。默克尔表示正在考虑强迫社交网络公开网络新闻排名方式。一些非洲国家禁止在选举前使用Facebook、WhatsApp和Twitter。印尼政府关闭了多个网站,称它们传播假新闻,但专家称一些门户网站也是因为政治原因而成为目标的。

Facebook said on Thursday that the social network was a place for people to stay informed and that what people saw in their news feed was overwhelmingly authentic. The Silicon Valley company previously denied that it failed to deal with misinformation and said it continues to monitor the social network so that it meets existing standards.

Facebook周四表示,该社交网络是人们获取信息的地方,并称人们在自己的新闻推送中看到的内容绝大部分都是真实的。之前,这家位于硅谷的公司否认自己对虚假信息不作为。该公司表示会继续监控该社交网络,以符合现有标准。

“I think the idea that fake news on Facebook, which is a very small amount of the content, influenced the election in any way — I think is a pretty crazy idea,” Mark Zuckerberg, the company’s chief executive, told a tech conference days after the American presidential election. “Voters make decisions based on their lived experience.”

“我觉得,认为Facebook上的假新闻以某种方式影响了选举是非常疯狂的想法,那些内容的数量非常小,”美国大选结束几天后,该公司首席执行官马克•扎克伯格(Mark Zuckerberg)在一次科技会议上说。“选民会根据生活中的经验作出决定。”

Facebook’s power is often stronger overseas than it is in the United States. In many developing countries with populations new to both democracy and social media, experts said, fake stories can be more widely believed. And in some of these countries, Facebook even offers free smartphone data connections to basic public online services, some news sites and Facebook itself — but limits access to broader sources that could help debunk fake news.

Facebook在国外的影响力通常比在美国更大。专家说,在许多发展中国家,民主和社交媒体对民众来说是新鲜事物,假新闻会更加普遍地被信以为真。在其中一些国家,Facebook甚至免费提供将智能手机数据与基本的公共在线服务机构、部分新闻网站和Facebook自己连接起来的服务,但限制用户接触更广泛的消息来源。后者可能有助于揭穿假新闻。

One such place is the Philippines, where a spokesman for its populist president, Rodrigo Duterte, shared on Facebook an image of a corpse of a young girl believed to have been raped and killed by a drug dealer. Fact checkers later revealed that the photo had come from Brazil. Despite the debunking, proponents of Mr. Duterte’s bloody crackdown on reported drug dealers and addicts still cite the image in his defense, according to political analysts.

菲律宾便是这样一个地方。该国的民粹主义总统罗德里戈•杜特地(Rodrigo Duterte)的发言人在Faebook上分享了一张照片,上面是一名年轻女孩的遗体,据信是被一名毒贩奸杀的。调查人员后来透露,其实这张照片来自巴西。据政治分人士介绍,尽管真相被揭穿,但支持杜特地血腥镇压被举报毒贩和瘾君子的人,依然用这张照片为他辩护。

Tens of thousands of Philippine Facebook users also recently shared a story claiming that NASA had voted Mr. Duterte “the best president in the solar system.” While many commenters on the Facebook post took it as a joke, some appeared to take it seriously. And an image of Leila de Lima, a local lawmaker and a critic of Mr. Duterte, depicted her facing a hangman’s noose.

最近,菲律宾数万名Facebook用户还分享了一则声称美国航空航天局(NASA)评选杜特地为“太阳系最杰出的总统”的新闻。尽管在Facebook上的这篇帖子下面留言的很多人都把它当做笑话,但一些人似乎当真了。此外,在一张图片中,菲律宾议员、对杜特地持批评意见的莱拉•德利马(Leila de Lima)被人套上了绞索。

“Facebook hasn’t led to empowerment of the average citizen, but empowerment of professional propagandists, fringe elements and conspiracy theorists,” said Mr. Heydarian, the Philippines political analyst. “Voices that were lurking in the shadows are now at the center of the public discourse.”

“Facebook并未带来普通公民的赋权,倒是助长了职业政治宣传、边缘分子和阴谋论者的力量,”菲律宾政治分析人士海达里安说。“过去潜伏在阴影中的声音,现在成了公共话语的中心。”

In Indonesia, where Facebook is so popular that some people confuse it with the broader internet, the service has considerable sway.

Facebook在印尼极受欢迎,以至于一些人把它等同为整个互联网。在那里,Facebook拥有相当大的影响力。

When Joko Widodo, Indonesia’s president, was running for office in 2014, he was accused through social media of being a Chinese Christian and a communist — severe criticism in the deeply Islamic country. The Indonesian politician released his marriage certificate to prove he wasn’t Chinese and made a pilgrimage to Mecca just before voting.

在2014年竞选时,印尼总统佐科•威多多(Joko Widodo)在社交媒体上被指是一名华裔基督徒和共产主义者。在一个伊斯兰教深入人心的国家,这是颇为严厉的抨击。为了证明自己不是华裔,这位印尼政治人物公开了自己的结婚证书,还在大选前夕前往麦加朝圣。

“The fake news had a very big impact in our campaign,” said Tubagus Ramadhan, who helped Mr. Widodo run his social media campaign during the election.

“假新闻对我们的竞选影响非常大,”在选举期间帮助威多多管理社交媒体活动的图巴古斯•拉马丹(Tubagus Ramadhan)说。

Even in long-established democracies like Germany, Spain and Italy, false news reports and hate speech on social media have whipped up grass-roots populist movements, which have often targeted the recent influx of Middle Eastern refugees, to garner wider electoral support.

即便是在德国、西班牙和意大利等历史悠久的民主国家,社交媒体上的虚假新闻报道和仇恨言论也在煽动草根阶层的民粹主义运动。它们常将目标对准最近大量涌入的中东难民,以在选举中获得更广泛的支持。

Now, many European politicians are questioning what role social media has had in deciding what voters can and cannot see. They also have forced social networks like Facebook, Twitter and Google to sign up for voluntary — so far — standards to police hate speech online.

现在,很多欧洲政治人物质疑,社交媒体在决定选民能看到和看不到的内容上扮演着什么角色。他们还迫使Facebook、Twitter和谷歌等社交网络签名支持监控网络仇恨言论的标准。相关标准目前属于自愿性质。

In Germany, Ms. Merkel’s push to require American social network companies to publish how they rank news is intended to give voters greater control over what they read online.

在德国,默克尔试图要求美国社交网络公司公布新闻排名方式,以求让选民对自己在网上看到的内容有更大的控制权。

“Algorithms must be more transparent,” Ms. Merkel has said, “so that interested citizens are also aware of what actually happens with their own media behavior and that of others.”

“算法必须更加透明,”默克尔说。“这样相关的公民也会对自己和其他人的媒介行为有更清楚的意识。”

Police in England Report Fatalities at Ariana Grande Concert
英国曼彻斯特体育场爆炸,数十人死伤

MANCHESTER, England — At least one explosion thundered through a Manchester concert arena on Monday night just as a performance by the pop star Ariana Grande ended in what the police described as a “terrorist incident.” They said at least 19 people were killed and 50 wounded as panicked spectators including children screamed and fled.

英国曼彻斯特——星期一晚上,流行歌手阿丽亚娜•格兰德(Ariana Grande)在曼彻斯特体育场的演唱会结束之际,发生了至少一起爆炸。警方称之为“恐怖主义事件“,他们表示至少有19人遇害,50人受伤,包括许多孩子在内的现场观众恐慌不已,尖叫并四处逃散。

There was no immediate word from the police on the precise cause of the blast but it immediately evoked the terrorist attacks in Paris in November of 2015, which included a deadly assault inside a concert arena where the Eagles of Death Metal had been playing.

警方暂时并未说明爆炸发生的确切原因,但这一事件立刻令人回想起2015年11月在巴黎发生的恐怖袭击,其中就包括在金属乐队“死亡之鹰”(Eagles of Death)演唱会现场发生的致命袭击。

“This is currently being treated as a terrorist incident until the police know otherwise,” the Manchester police said in a Twitter posting.

“在警方有更确切消息前,该事件被作为恐怖主义事件处置。“曼彻斯特警方在一则推文中表示。

People at the concert at the Manchester Arena said they heard what sounded like explosions at the end of the show around 10:30 p.m.

在曼彻斯特体育场参加这场演唱会的人说,在晚上10点30分左右,演出结束时听到了疑似爆炸声。

One concertgoer, Sasina Akhtar, told The Manchester Evening News that there had been an explosion at the back of the arena after the last song. “We saw young girls with blood on them, everyone was screaming and people were running,” she said.

现场观众萨希娜•阿赫塔尔(Sasina Akhtar)告诉《曼彻斯特晚报》(The Manchester Evening News)说,在最后一首歌唱完后,体育场后部发生了爆炸。她说:“我们看到年轻女孩身上有血迹,大家都在尖叫,有人在跑动。”

Ariana Grande, a 23-year-old singer with a big voice who started her career as a star on a Nickelodeon TV series, is on an international tour supporting her 2016 album, “Dangerous Woman.”

23岁的阿里安娜•格兰德是一位知名歌手,曾是尼克国际儿童频道(Nickelodeon TV)一部剧集中的明星,现在正在进行国际巡回演唱会,为她2016年德专辑《危险女人》(Dangerous Woman)做宣传。

The tour was scheduled to continue on Thursday at the O2 Arena in London. Two additional acts, Victoria Monét and Bia, performed as openers.

根据计划,下一场演唱会将于周四在伦敦O2体育馆举行。另外两名歌手维多利亚•莫内(Victoria Monét) 和比亚(Bia)担任开场嘉宾。

”Ariana is O.K.,” said her publicist, Joseph Carozza. “We are further investigating what happened.”

“阿里安娜情况还好,”她的公关人员约瑟夫•卡罗扎(Joseph Carozza)说:“我们正在调查发生了什么事情。”

Videos posted on Twitter showed concertgoers running and screaming from their seats. Hannah Dane, who attended the performance, told The Guardian that she had heard “quite a loud explosion heard from inside the Manchester Arena.”

在Twitter上发布的视频显示,观众们离座跑动、尖叫。观看表演的汉娜•丹恩(Hannah Dane)告诉《卫报》,她听到“曼彻斯特体育场内部传来了很大的爆炸声”。

She added, “It shook, then everyone screamed and tried to get out”.

她说:“太震惊了,大家都尖叫起来,试图逃出去。”

The Manchester Arena, opened in 1995, can hold up to 21,000 spectators; it was not clear how many people were in the crowd for the concert.

曼彻斯特体育场于1995年开放,可容纳2.1万名观众;目前不清楚参加演唱会的人有多少。

The stadium is next to a train terminus, Victoria Station, which was evacuated.

体育场旁边是维多利亚火车站,那里的人员也被撤离了。

Karen Ford, a witness, told the BBC that she was leaving the concert when “everyone was just getting out of their seats and walking toward the stairs when all of a sudden a huge sound, which sounded like an explosion, went off.”

目击者卡伦•福特(Karen Ford)当时正要离开演唱会现场,她告诉BBC,“就在大家刚刚离开座位,走向楼梯的时候,突然间发出一声巨大的声音,像是爆炸声。”

“Everyone tried to push people up the stairs,” she recalled, adding that in the chaos, people tried to push past a woman in a wheelchair as children screamed.

“大家推推攘攘爬上楼梯,”她回忆说,情况很混乱,人们试图从一个坐轮椅的女人身边挤过去,小孩在尖叫。

She said there was no smoke, just one very loud bang. “It was very, very loud.” She said her husband thought he had heard a second explosion.”there were shoes on the floor,” left behind by people who had fled, she recalled.

她说现场没有烟雾,只有一声非常响的爆炸声。“真是非常、非常响,”她说,她丈夫感觉听到第二次爆炸声,“地板上有鞋子,”是逃离的人留下的,她回忆说。

“Just chaos,” she said. “I was trying to tell people to calm down.” She added that the crush of people trying to flee created a perilous situation: “We were being crushed.”

“当时一片混乱,”她说。“我试图告诉大家要冷静。”她说,试图逃跑的人造成了一种危险的局面:“我们被人推来撞去。”

Outside, Ms. Ford said, parents awaited their children who were attending the concert, checking their smartphones in a panic. “Everyone was trying to find each other.”

福特说,在体育场外面,一些父母正在等待着看演唱会的孩子,他们慌恐地检查智能手机。“每个人都在试图找到对方。”

The Long, Lonely Road of Chelsea Manning
泄密者曼宁的孤独之旅(一):“我想摆脱性别”

On a gray morning this spring, Chelsea Manning climbed into the back seat of a black S.U.V. and directed her security guard to drive her to the nearest Starbucks. A storm was settling over Manhattan, and Manning was prepared for the weather, in chunky black Doc Martens with an umbrella and a form-fitting black dress. Her legs were bare, her eyes gray blue. She wore little makeup: a spot of eyeliner, a smudge of pink lip gloss.

今年春天一个多云的早晨,切尔西•曼宁(Chelsea Manning)爬进一辆黑色SUV车后座,指示保安人员开车送她到最近的星巴克。曼哈顿上空正酝酿着一场暴风雨,曼宁已经为此做好了准备,她脚穿粗重的马丁靴,带着雨伞,身上是一件彰显身材的黑色连衣裙,裸露着双腿。她画着淡妆:灰蓝色的眼睛周围有眼线的痕迹,一点点粉红色的唇彩。

At Starbucks, she ordered a white-chocolate mocha and retreated to a nearby stool. Manning has always been small (5 foot 4), but in her last few months at the United States Disciplinary Barracks at Fort Leavenworth, she jogged religiously, outside in the prison yard and around the track of the prison gym, and her body had taken on a lithe sharpness, apparent in the definition of her arms and cheekbones. She looked healthy and fit, if a little uneasy, as people who have served long spells in prison often do.

在星巴克,她点了白巧克力摩卡,坐到旁边的高脚凳上。曼宁的身材一直很娇小(5英尺4英寸),但在过去的几个月里,在美国莱文沃斯堡军事监狱里,她非常认真地沿着监狱操场和监狱体育馆的跑道上跑步。从她的手臂和颧骨轮廓可以看出,她的身体变得柔韧结实。她看上去健康强壮,虽然带着些许不安的感觉,长期在狱中服刑的人往往都是这样的。

She had been released only eight days earlier, after serving seven years of a 35-year sentence. Her crime, even in hindsight, was an astonishing one: handing WikiLeaks approximately 250,000 American diplomatic cables and roughly 480,000 Army reports from the wars in Afghanistan and Iraq. Collectively the largest leak of classified records in American history, the disclosures cleared a path for Edward Snowden and elevated the profile of Julian Assange, then little known outside hacker circles. “Without Chelsea Manning,” P.J. Crowley, an assistant secretary of state from 2009 to 2011, told me recently, “Julian Assange is just another fringe actor who resents what he sees as American hegemonic hubris.” To an extraordinary extent, Manning’s actions, in the words of Denver Nicks, the author of a book on her case, represented the “beginning of the information age exploding upon itself”: a new era in which leaks were a weapon, data security was of paramount importance and privacy felt illusory.

她被判35年徒刑,服刑七年后,她在八天前得到释放。即便事后看来,她的罪行也足以令人震惊:她将美国在阿富汗和伊拉克战争期间的约25万份外交电报和约48万份军队报告交给了维基解密(Wikileaks)。这些泄露加在一起,构成了美国历史上最大的机密记录泄漏事件,为爱德华•斯诺登(Edward Snowden)扫清了道路,并且令朱利安•阿桑奇(Julian Assange)的形象得到提升,此前阿桑奇在黑客圈以外少有人知。“要不是切尔西•曼宁,”2009年至2011年担任助理国务卿的P•J•克劳利(P.J.Crowley)最近告诉我,“朱利安•阿桑奇无非就是另一个处在边缘地位,对他心目中美国霸权主义傲慢感到愤怒的小角色。”丹弗•尼克斯(Denver Nicks)曾经写过一本关于曼宁案的书,用他的话来说,曼宁的行为从广义上来说,代表着“信息时代自身开始爆炸”:一个新时代,现在内情泄漏可以成为武器,数据安全至关重要,而隐私则让人感到虚幻。

In January 2017, after being locked up at five different facilities, in conditions a United Nations expert called “cruel” and “inhumane,” Manning had received a surprise commutation by President Barack Obama. Four months later, she was free, trying to adjust to life in a world she helped shape. Finishing her coffee, she fished her iPhone out of her purse and asked her security guard for a lift back to the apartment where she was staying while in Manhattan. The one-bedroom was furnished sparsely, with a wide glass table and a tan couch, opposite which Manning had set up an Xbox One video-game console. The art was of the anodyne motel variety — an old-masters-esque tableau, a canvas of a zebra standing in a forest. We were many floors up, suspended in the storm clouds, and through the window, I could see the spires of the skyscrapers on the other side of the Hudson River.

曼宁曾先后被关押在五个不同的地方,一个联合国专家称她所处的环境是“残酷”且“不人道”的,2017年1月,她终于从贝拉克•奥巴马总统那里得到了出乎意料的减刑。四个月后,她重获自由,开始努力适应身边这个自己参与塑造的世界。喝完咖啡后,她从手袋里摸出iPhone手机,让保安开车送她回到她在曼哈顿的公寓。这是一个一室一厅的房子,装修简朴,有一个宽阔的玻璃桌和一张棕褐色的沙发,沙发对面,曼宁放了一个Xbox One游戏机。公寓里的艺术品是平淡乏味的汽车旅馆风格——一幅早期大师风格的人物画,一幅描绘森林里一匹斑马的油画。楼层很高,仿佛悬浮在酝酿暴风雨的云层之中,通过窗户,我可以看到哈德逊河对岸摩天大楼的尖顶。

Manning, who is 29, tapped an unplugged microwave next to the door and asked me to place my laptop inside: The Faraday cage in the microwave would block radio waves, she explained. But the unplugged microwave was already full of devices, including two Xbox controllers. “You can put it in the kitchen microwave,” Manning said; then, intuiting the strangeness of the request, she added with a shrug, “You can’t be too careful.”

29岁的曼宁敲了一下门边一个没接电源的微波炉,要我把笔记本电脑放在那里面。她解释说,微波炉里的法拉第笼可以屏蔽无线电波。但是那个没接电源的微波炉里已经装满了各种设备,包括两台Xbox遥控器。“你可以把它放在厨房的微波炉里,”曼宁说,意识到自己的请求有多么奇怪,她耸了耸肩,“怎么小心都不为过”。

She recalled that she last gave an in-person, on-the-record interview to a journalist in 2008, on the occasion of a marriage-equality march in New York. For almost a decade after that, barred by prison officials from communicating directly with the public, she remained silent as her story was told in books, an opera, an Off Broadway play and countless magazine articles, almost all of them written before Manning had come out as transgender. “It wasn’t the whole story,” she told me, “my whole story.”

她回忆说,她上一次亲自接受记者面对面的正式采访是2008年在纽约婚姻平权游行上。此后将近十年里,监狱管理者阻止她和公众直接接触,因此她一直保持缄默,与此同时,她的故事被写成书,被改编为歌剧和小成本舞台剧,登上无数杂志文章,它们大都是在曼宁公开跨性别者身份之前写的。“那不是完整的故事,”她告诉我,“不是关于我的完整故事。”

Absent her own voice, a pair of dueling narratives had emerged. One had Manning, in the words of President Donald Trump, as an “ungrateful traitor.” The other positioned her as transgender icon and champion of transparency — a “secular martyr,” as Chase Madar, a former attorney and the author of a book on her case, recently put it to me. But in Manning’s presence, both narratives feel like impossible simplifications, not least because Manning herself is clearly still grappling with the meaning of what she did seven years ago. When I asked her to draw lessons from her journey, she grew uneasy. “I don’t have. … ” she started. “Like, I’ve been so busy trying to survive for the past seven years that I haven’t focused on that at all.”

虽然她自己的声音是缺席的,但是关于她,出现了两种水火不相容的叙事。第一种叙事把曼宁描述为——用唐纳德•特朗普的话来说——“忘恩负义的叛徒”。另一种叙事则把她奉为跨性别者的偶像与信息透明的捍卫者,就像曾经当过检察官的蔡斯•马达尔(Chase Madar)最近对我说的,是一个“非宗教的殉道者”,他也曾经写过一本关于曼宁案的书。但是在曼宁面前,这两种叙事似乎都简化到了不可思议的地步,尤其是因为曼宁自己显然仍在努力思考,想要弄清她七年前所做的事情究竟意味着什么。我问她,从这段经历中学到了什么,她变得非常不安。“我没有……”她开始说道。“这个,过去七年里,我一直忙着生存下去,我根本没有重点关注这个。”

But surely, I pressed, she must have some sense of the impact she had on the world. “From my perspective,” she responded, “the world’s shaped me more than anything else. It’s a feedback loop.”

但是,我追问,她肯定会感觉自己对这个世界造成了影响。“从我的角度来看,”她回答说,“这个世界对我的影响比其他一切更重要。这是一个反馈回路。”

As far back as Chelsea Manning can remember, to her earliest days in Crescent, on the far edge of the Oklahoma City metro area, she suffered from a feeling of intense dislocation, something constant and psychic that she struggled to define to herself, much less to her older sister, Casey, or her parents, Brian and Susan. During one of our interviews, I mentioned that I heard a clinical psychologist compare gender dysphoria to a “giant, cosmic toothache.” Manning flushed. That was it exactly, she agreed: “Morning, evening, breakfast, lunch, dinner, wherever you are. It’s everywhere you go.”

就切尔西•曼宁记忆所及,早在儿时住在俄克拉荷马市市区边缘的克雷森特那段时期,她就曾经有过强烈的困惑感,她要努力让自己搞清楚某些持续不断的、和精神状态有关的东西,更不用说让姐姐凯西(Casey)和她的父母布赖恩(Brian)与苏珊(Susan)也明白。在一次采访中,我提到我听临床心理学家将性别焦虑比作“无时不在的巨大牙痛”。曼宁脸上一阵泛红。就是这样,她同意:“早上、晚上、早餐、午餐、晚餐,无论你身在何处。它到处都跟着你。”

At the age of 5, Manning recalled, she approached her father, an I.T. manager for Hertz, and confessed that she wanted to be a girl, “to do girl things.” Brian responded with a lengthy and awkward speech on the essential differences in “plumbing.” But Manning told me, “I didn’t understand how that had anything to do with what you wore or how you behaved.” Soon she was sneaking into her sister’s bedroom and donning Casey’s acid-washed jeans and denim jackets. Seated at the mirror, she would apply lipstick and blush, frantically scrubbing off the makeup at the slightest stirring from downstairs.

她的父亲是赫兹公司的IT部门经理,曼宁回忆说,五岁那年,她对父亲承认她想成为女孩,“做女孩做的事情”。对此,布赖恩就男女“生殖管道”的本质区别做了一番冗长而笨拙的讲话。但是曼宁告诉我,“我不明白这和你所穿的东西或你的行为有什么关系。”“不久后她开始溜进姐姐的卧室,偷偷穿上凯西的酸洗牛仔裤和牛仔夹克,对着镜子涂上口红和腮红,楼下一传来风吹草动,她就拼命擦掉脸上的化妆品。

“I wanted to be like [Casey] and live like her,” Manning said.

“我想要像她(凯西)一样,像她那样生活,”曼宁说。

When she was still in elementary school, she came out as gay to a straight male friend. The friend was understanding; the other kids at school, less so. Manning tried, unsuccessfully, to retract her confession, but the teasing continued. “I would come home crying some days, and if my dad was there, he’d say: ‘Just quit crying and man up. Like, go back there and punch that kid in the face,’ ” she said. It was the late 1990s, when the trans movement was very much on the fringes of American society. “The closest I came to knowing anything was from the portrayal of drag-queen-style cross-dressing on sensational TV shows” like Jerry Springer’s, Manning told me. She spent more time inside, on the computers that her father was always bringing home, playing video games and dabbling in basic code.

还在读小学的时候,她便向一个直男朋友出柜,告知对方自己是同性恋。那位朋友理解她;学校里的其他孩子则没有那么善解人意。曼宁试图收回自己的坦白之词,但没有成功,继续遭到戏弄。“有些日子,我回到家会哭出来,如果我父亲在场,他会说:‘别哭了,爷们些。比如,回去朝那小子脸上擂一拳,’”她说。那是1990年代末,跨性别者权利运动在美国社会中还处于极为边缘的位置。“耸动的电视节目中关于变装皇后式异性着装的描绘,是我最接近相关信息的渠道”——比如杰瑞•斯布林格(Jerry Springer)的节目。她花更多时间待在家中,摆弄她父亲总是会带回家的电脑,玩电子游戏、尝试鼓捣基本代码。

Her parents had issues of their own. When Manning was about 12, Susan swallowed an entire bottle of Valium. Casey called 911, only to be told that the nearest ambulance was a half-hour away. Casey loaded her mother into the car; Brian, who Manning says was too drunk to drive, sat shotgun, leaving a terrified Chelsea in the back to make sure her mother kept breathing. She told me the incident was formational. “I grew up very quickly after that,” she said. (Brian could not be reached for comment.)

她的父母有着自己的问题。曼宁12岁那年,苏珊吞下一整瓶安定。凯西打了911,却被告知最近的救护车要半小时才能赶到。凯西把母亲弄到汽车上;而布赖恩据曼宁所说喝得烂醉,无法开车,坐在副驾驶位置上,留下惊恐的切尔西待在后面,确定母亲还在呼吸。她告诉我那件事对她影响很大。“自那以后我成长得很快,”她说。(记者未能联系上布赖恩并请其置评。)

In Susan’s native Wales, where Manning moved with her in 2001 after her parents split, Chelsea says she took over full control of the household, paying bills and handling much of the shopping. There was freedom there, too: She could buy her own makeup at the convenience store, wear it for a few hours in public and jam it into a waste bin on her way home. She passed many evenings on her computer, in L.G.B.T. chat rooms. Her worldview shifted. While in Crescent, Manning had imbibed her father’s conservative politics — “I questioned nothing,” she told me. But at Tasker Milward, a school in the town of Haverfordwest, she studied the civil rights movement, the Red Scare, the internment of Japanese-Americans during World War II. In a term paper for a history class, she expressed skepticism about the rationale for the American invasion of Iraq.

父母离婚后,曼宁于2001年随苏珊搬到其老家威尔士。切尔西说,在那里,她全盘掌管家中事务,付账单并负责很多东西的采购。那里也给了她自由:她可以在便利店给自己买化妆品,带妆在公共场合出现几个小时,然后在回家的路上将化妆品扔进垃圾桶。很多晚上她都是守着电脑在LGBT聊天室里度过的。在克雷森特生活的时候,曼宁曾吸纳父亲的保守派政治观点——“我一度不质疑任何事,”她告诉我。但在哈沃福维斯特镇的塔斯克尔•米尔沃德中学(Tasker Milward),她学习了与民权运动、红色恐慌以及二战期间日裔美国人被囚禁有关的知识。在历史课的学期论文中,她表达了对美国入侵伊拉克合理性的怀疑。

When Manning returned to the United States in 2005 to live with Brian and his new wife in Oklahoma City, she was a changed person, if not a wholly transformed one: She wore eyeliner and grew out her hair and dyed it black. “I thought, Maybe I want to just eradicate this gender thing and be gender neutral, like androgynous,” she told me. She found a job at an internet start-up and, through a matchmaking site, met her first boyfriend, who lived 70 miles away in the town of Duncan. But her stepmother, Manning said, forbade her from setting foot in the kitchen: “She felt that I was unclean.”

当曼宁于2005年返回美国,与布赖恩及其续娶的妻子在俄克拉荷马市一起生活的时候,即便没有彻头彻尾地转变,也已经变了一个人:她画眼线,留长发,并将头发染成黑色。“我认为,或许我想要摆脱性别这种东西,成为中性的存在,就像雌雄同体,”她告诉我。她在一家互联网初创企业找到了份工作,还通过交友网站遇到了她的第一个男朋友,后者当时住在70英里外的邓肯镇。但曼宁说,她的继母禁止她踏足厨房:“她觉得我是不洁的。”

Manning confided to no one what she was increasingly coming to understand: that she wasn’t gay, wasn’t a cross-dresser. She was a woman. In the summer of 2006, she and her boyfriend parted ways, and she lit out from Oklahoma for good, all her belongings piled high in the cab of her red Nissan pickup truck. A spell of itinerancy followed — out to Tulsa, Okla., to work at a pizza parlor; up to Chicago to work at Guitar Center; east to the suburbs of Washington to live with her aunt, with whom she enjoyed a connection she never shared with her parents. She did four sessions with a psychologist, but got no closer to unburdening herself than she had with friends or family members. “I was scared,” Manning said. “I didn’t know that life could be better.”

曼宁没有向任何人坦白她日益意识到的一件事:她不是同性恋,不是异装者。她是一个女人。2006年夏天,与男友分道扬镳后,她把自己的物品高高堆在红色尼桑皮卡的驾驶室里,永远离开了俄克拉荷马市。随之而来的是四处漂泊的生活——前往俄克拉荷马州塔尔萨,在一家比萨店工作;还曾抵达芝加哥,在吉他中心(Guitar Center)工作;往东到了华盛顿郊区,和一个姑妈一起生活,与姑妈同住期间,她感受到了和父母之间从未有过的那种亲密。她在一名心理医生处接受过四次咨询辅导,但减压效果并没有超出与朋友或家人交流的程度。“我当时很害怕,”曼宁说。“我不知道生活可以变得更好。”

Brian Manning had often fondly recounted for Chelsea his days in the military: It had given him structure and grounding, he said. Manning hadn’t been ready to listen then. Now she was. Enlisting might be the thing to “man her up,” to rid her of the ache. Besides, while her ideas about American foreign policy had become more nuanced, she still considered herself a patriot — in the Army, she could use her analytical skills to help her country. “I remember sitting in the summer of 2007 and just every single day turning on the TV” and seeing the news from Iraq, she told me. “The surge, the surge, the surge. Terrorist attacks. Insurgents. … I just felt like maybe I could make a difference.”

布赖恩•曼宁以前常常向曼宁动情地回忆其军旅生涯:他说那段岁月塑造了他的性格和脚踏实地的精神。曼宁当初还没做好把那些话听进去的准备。她现在准备好了。报名参军或许是一件可以让她变得“爷们些”、祛除她的痛苦的事情。此外,虽然对美国的外交政策的看法不再那么黑白分明,她依然认为自己是一名爱国者。“我还记得2007年夏天,我每天都坐在那里,打开电视”,收看来自伊拉克的新闻,她告诉我。“增兵,增兵,增兵。恐怖袭击。叛乱分子……我只是觉得或许我可以有所贡献。”

That fall, Manning reported for basic training at Fort Leonard Wood in the Missouri Ozarks; within a few days, she had suffered injuries to her arm. “The drill sergeants were acting like I was malingering or something,” she said. “But I was like: ‘No, I’m not trying to get out of anything. I just really can’t feel my right hand.’ ” A soldier who spent time with Manning in Missouri later recalled for The Guardian that Manning was routinely called a “faggot.” “The guy took it from every side. He couldn’t please anyone. And he tried. He really did,” the soldier said.

那年秋天,曼宁报名在密苏里州欧萨克的伦纳德伍德堡接受基础训练;几天后她的胳膊受了伤。“教官表现出来的样子就好像我在装病之类的,”她说。“但我的内心独白却是:‘不,我并非试图逃避什么东西。我只是真的无法感知到我的右手。’”一名曾和曼宁一起待在密苏里州的士兵后来向《卫报》(The Guardian)回忆,曼宁常常被称为“娘炮”。“到处都有人这么叫。他无法取悦任何人。他试过。他真的努力尝试过,”那名士兵说。

The Army, in need of more bodies to fight the insurgencies in Afghanistan and Iraq, allowed Manning another shot at boot camp. In 2008, she graduated to intelligence school at Fort Huachuca in Arizona, which to her felt like a kind of community college. There, she was trained to sort what the military terms “SigActs,” or significant actions — the written reports, photos and videos of the confrontations, explosions and firefights that form the mosaic of modern war. Manning told me she fit in well with the intelligence types at Fort Huachuca, who shared her intrinsic geekiness. “There were more like-minded people there,” she said, adding, “It wasn’t ‘Rah, rah, you need to do this.’ They encouraged us to speak up. They encouraged us to have opinions, to make our own decisions.”

亟需更多人员去抗击阿富汗和伊拉克的叛军的美国陆军,在新兵训练营给了曼宁另一次机会。2008年,她完成基本训练,进入亚利桑那州华楚卡堡的情报学院——她觉得该学院有点儿像社区大学。在那里,她学习了如何对重大行动,也就是美国军事术语中的“SigActs”进行分类整理——这一工作所涉的关于对峙、爆炸和交火的书面报告、照片和视频,共同构成了现代战争的马赛克。曼宁告诉我,她在华楚卡堡和搞情报的那些人相处得很好,他们和她一样都有种内在的极客特性。“那里有更多志趣相投的人,”她说。她还表示,“不是‘来,来,你需要做这个’这种。他们鼓励我们说出自己的想法。鼓励我们有自己的观点,做出自己的决定。”

At her first official duty station, Fort Drum in upstate New York, Manning was charged in part with helping to build a digital tool that would automatically track and sort SigActs from Afghanistan, where Manning’s unit initially expected to be deployed. For hours a day, she watched spectral night-vision video and read reports from distant battlefields. Already, she was being exposed to the bloodshed that would serve as inspiration for her leaks. But she was handling the material at a spatial and emotional reserve: She remained, she told me, “eager” to get to the front lines. “I was hungry.”

在第一个服役地点,纽约州北部的德鲁拉堡,曼宁的部分职责是帮助打造自动追踪和分类整理来自阿富汗的重大行动的数字化工具——曼宁所在的部队起初预计会被派驻到阿富汗。她每天花很多个小时观看幽暗的夜视视频、阅读来自遥远战场的报告。她已经见识到日后促使她泄密的那种血腥。但她处理材料时与之保持着空间和情感上的距离:她告诉我,她当时依然“渴望”上前线,“我的渴望非常迫切。”

Through a gay dating site, she met a bookish Brandeis student named Tyler Watkins. She started driving to visit Watkins in the Boston area, where she became a regular at Pika, a Massachusetts Institute of Technology co-op, and visited Boston University’s Builds, a hub of the local hacking community. At the Pika gatherings, she found friends that approached coding the same way she did: as outlet, pastime and calling. She often stayed up late into the night talking. Yan Zhu, then an undergraduate student at M.I.T., remembers Manning as “obviously intelligent,” if “nervous.” It was clear to Zhu that Manning was “haunted by something.” But she never had a chance to find out what: That fall, Manning’s unit was deployed to Iraq.

通过一个同性恋交友网站,她结识了就读于布兰迪斯大学、书卷气十足的泰勒•沃特金斯(Tyler Watkins)。她开始驱车造访波士顿地区的沃特金斯——在那里她成了麻省理工大学(Massachusetts Institute of Technology)的合作生活社区Pika的常客;还曾到访波士顿大学(Boston University)的Builds——当地黑客群体的一个枢纽。在Pika的聚会上,她找到了和自己看待编码的思维一致的朋友:视之为情感的发泄、消遣和使命。当时在麻省理工读本科的朱岩(Yan Zhu,音)回忆说,曼宁“显然很聪明”,虽然“有些焦虑”。朱岩清楚地知道,曼宁那时候“正被什么事情困扰着”。但她从未有机会找出答案:那年秋天,曼宁所在的部队被派往伊拉克。

When Young Chinese Ask, ‘What’s Your Sign?’ They Don’t Mean Dragon or Rat
中国千禧一代的星座文化

BEIJING — China, the birthplace of the Chinese zodiac and some of the world’s oldest and most sophisticated fortunetelling techniques, has a new obsession: Western astrology.

北京——中国是中式生肖以及世界上某些最古老、最复杂的算命术的发源地,但是现在,这里的人们迷上了西方占星术。

What remains a largely niche interest in the West has in recent years become a mainstream cultural trend in China, especially among the younger generation. At dinner tables and in coffee shops, friends and strangers trade the latest gossip and tidbits about their astrological profiles.

在西方,星座在很大程度上是一种小众的爱好,近年来却成了中国的一种主流文化,尤其是在年轻人中间。餐桌旁或咖啡店里,人们会跟朋友乃至陌生人谈论关于自己星座的最新八卦与趣闻。

Online, social media accounts with millions of fans dispense weekly horoscope forecasts. On dating websites, users list their zodiac signs alongside other basic information like age, salary, and car and home ownership status.

网络上,一些拥有数以百万计粉丝的社交媒体账号每周都会发布星座运势预测。相亲网站上,用户除了列出自己的年龄、收入以及是否有车有房,还会列出星座。

Starting in the 1990s, Western astrology began to seep into China, mostly through variety shows from Taiwan, which caught the astrology bug early on. After the spread of the internet, a seed of interest soon blossomed into a torrid love affair.

西方占星术自1990年代起开始传入中国,主要是通过各种台湾综艺秀——台湾人更早就已经成为星座爱好者。星座在网上流传开以后,兴趣的种子很快就开花结果,演变为狂热的爱好。

While concepts like the traditional Chinese zodiac are still relevant, they are often dismissed by millennials here as “the older generation’s pastime.” Western astrology, on the other hand, is seen as more fun. Much as some Westerners have embraced Eastern practices like Buddhism, young Chinese are gravitating toward Western astrology because they say it is new and exotic.

中国传统生肖之类的概念仍然有其市场,但这里的千禧一代常常带着些轻视的意味称之为“老一辈爱玩的”。西方占星术则被视为更有趣的东西。就如同一些西方人全盘接受佛教等东方修行,中国年轻人也同样受到占星术吸引,他们说它既新奇又富有异国情调。

“People don’t get as excited about traditional culture because it’s too familiar,” said Liu Hongchen, an astrologer known as Eskey among his more than nine million followers on Weibo, a popular microblogging site. “The younger generation likes Western culture more, and the interest in Western astrology is a perfect example of this.”

“因为人们对传统文化熟悉,所以就不是那么特别感兴趣,”被900余万微博粉丝唤作Eskey的占星师刘洪晨说。“年轻一代更喜欢西方文化,对西方星座的兴趣正好反映了这一点。”

More and more Chinese are consulting the ancient practice for celestial guidance on all kinds of major life decisions: relationship advice, making friends, having babies — even hiring employees.

越来越多的中国人正诉诸这种古老的做法,就生活中的各种重要决定寻求星象指引,不管是恋爱、交友、生子,还是招聘员工。

Que Gangjian, a manager at a car sales company in the southern Chinese city of Changzhou, said that true to his nature as a Pisces, he was better at handling the so-called softer side of the business. So when it came time to recruit a sales representative, Mr. Que considered what skills would be best suited to the demanding job and would complement his own.

在中国南方城市广州的一家汽车销售公司担任经理的阙刚健(音)说,他是真正的双鱼座,更擅于应对生意中所谓柔性的一面。因此,招聘销售代表的时候,阙刚健会考虑哪些技能与这一要求很高的工作最契合,还可以和他自己的技能互补。

After listing the mandatory requirements — a hardworking attitude, a driver’s license and a quick tongue — Mr. Que inserted another line into the online job posting: “Scorpios, Capricorns and Geminis preferred.”

在列出勤奋的工作态度、有驾照和语速快等硬性要求之后,阙刚健在网络招聘帖子里加入了另一个条件:“天蝎座、摩羯座和双子座优先。”

“People who fall under these three signs tend to be more persistent — they don’t give up as easily,” Mr. Que said in a telephone interview. “So really this is just to save time and make the hiring process more efficient.”

“这三个星座的人更有韧劲,他们不轻易放弃,”阙刚健在接受电话采访时说。“所以我觉得列出这些就是为了节省招聘时间,更有效率而已。”

It is not the only instance of what has become known in China as “zodiac discrimination.” A recent survey showed that 4.3 percent of college graduates looking for jobs in China had experienced discrimination based on their Western or Chinese zodiac sign. On Baidu Baike, the Chinese version of Wikipedia, there is even an entry for the term “xingzuo zhaopin,” or job recruitment based on Western zodiac signs.

这不是在中国被称为“星座歧视”的唯一一个例子。最近的一项调查显示,4.3%的中国大学毕业生在求职过程中曾因自己的星座或生肖而遭受歧视。在类似维基百科的百度百科里,甚至有一个条目是“星座招聘”,也就是基于西方星座的工作招聘。

Of the 12 horoscope signs, Virgos, or those born between Aug. 23 and Sept. 22, have an especially rough time. Described as perfectionists, Virgos — and Virgo men in particular — are considered to be constantly on the defensive. While the criticism is mostly tongue in cheek, the sign has become so tarnished that some Chinese employers go out of their way to emphasize in job postings that, yes, Virgos are welcome to apply, too.

在12个星座中,出生于8月23日至9月22日的处女座处境格外艰难。处女座——特别是处女座男性——被描述为完美主义者,也被视为一直处于戒备状态之中。虽然这样的批评大多是开玩笑的,但是这个星座已经被污名化,一些中国雇主会在招聘帖子里特意强调,是的,我们也欢迎处女座的申请。

The derision has prompted much introspection among Virgos.

这样的嘲笑引发了处女座人的不少反省。

“Sometimes I think about whether my personality has been shaped by the stereotype,” said Yan Rubin, 35, a Virgo and an electronics engineer in the northern Chinese city of Xi’an. “I wouldn’t say it’s discrimination, necessarily, but I guess we’re just different from the other signs.”

“有时我会思考,自己的个性是不是被刻板印象塑造了,”中国北方西安市一位处女座的电子工程师、35岁的阎鲁宾(音)说。“我不会说这是歧视,但我想我们和别的星座不一样。”

Hu Xiaofei, like many of her friends, had a strong aversion to Virgos until she discovered that her boyfriend’s birthday fell within the ill-fated range.

和她的许多朋友一样,胡晓飞(音)对处女座深恶痛绝,直到她发现男友的生日也落在了这个倒霉的星座。

“Well, he wasn’t a true Virgo,” said Ms. Hu, 28, a Taurus who works in public relations in Shanghai. “His mom changed his birthday when he was younger so he could make the age cutoff for school.”

“嗯,他不是真正的处女座,”28岁、金牛座的胡晓飞说,她目前在上海做公关工作。“他小时候,他妈妈为了让他早点上学,就给他改了生日。”

In any case, Ms. Hu said she did not take horoscopes that seriously. “It’s just something to read everyday when I’m bored on the subway,” she said, adding that they certainly they did not influence her life decisions.

无论如何,胡晓飞说自己并没有认真对待星座。“只不过是我每天在地铁上无聊看的东西,”她补充说,这些当然不会影响自己的生活决定。

Well, that is, with one exception.

不过也有一个例外。

“Oh, I would never date a Cancer,” Ms. Hu said adamantly. “They might be good family men but most of the Cancer guys I know dabble outside their marriage. It’s really bad.”

“我绝对不跟巨蟹约会,”胡晓飞斩钉截铁地说。“他们可能是很好的住家男人,但是我认识的绝大多数巨蟹男都搞婚外情。太差劲了。”

Over the centuries, China developed a set of sophisticated divination techniques for use within and outside the imperial court. Today, many Chinese still consult fate-calculating practices like bazi, which determines a person’s fortune based on birth year, month, date and hour.

几个世纪以来,中国形成了一套复杂的占卜技术,在皇家与民间广泛使用。如今,许多中国人仍然参考“八字”这种算命方式——根据出生的年月日与时辰来决定一个人的命运。

And the traditional Chinese zodiac, which features 12 animals representing 12 years, is so widely referenced that in 2014, several provinces reported a spike in births among young couples hoping to have their babies in the last weeks of the auspicious Year of the Horse to avoid the less favorable Year of the Sheep.

中国十二生肖则是用12种动物来代表12年,它的使用非常广泛,比如2014年,有几个省份出现了婴儿出生的高峰,年轻夫妇希望在吉祥的马年里,赶在最后几个星期把婴儿生下来,避开不那么吉利的羊年。

China is, of course, not the only place where interest in the occult thrives. A survey by the National Science Foundation, published in 2014, found that in recent years the number of Americans who said they believed that astrology was “sort of scientific” or “very scientific” was on the rise.

当然,中国不是唯一一个对神秘学产生浓厚兴趣的地方。美国国家科学基金会(National Science Foundation)2014年发布的一项调查发现,近些年,声称自己认为占星术“有点科学”或“非常科学”的美国人的数量在上升。

The difference in China is the visibility of the phenomenon. Unlike in America, there is little embarrassment about believing in Western astrology. Determining your fortune based on the interaction between the sun, the stars and the planets is just what Chinese have been doing for hundreds of years.

这种现象在中国的特别之处在于它特别明显。与美国不同,相信西方占星术并不会让中国人觉得不好意思。根据与太阳、恒星和行星的互动确定命运是成百上千年来中国人一直在做的事。

At the root of Western astrology’s popularity, some astrologers say, is a growing thirst for spiritual guidance.

有些占星师表示,西方占星术流行的根基是人们对精神指引越来越多的渴望。

“In America, you have religion,” Panda Cao, a Chinese astrologer based in Washington, said. “But in China, most people don’t have a defined belief system. They don’t have a godlike figure to help them find a solution or guide them in a certain direction. So Western astrology helps fill that gap.”

“在美国有宗教,”华盛顿的华裔占星师判答说,“但是在中国,人们没有一个明确的信仰系统,没有一个像上帝那样的形象来帮助人们找到一个解决问题的途径,或者指导他们方向。所以星座就起到了填补这个空白的作用。”

Never mind all the skeptics who say astrology is a pseudoscience.

不过,有不少质疑者声称占星术是伪科学。

“Didn’t Reagan like astrology?” Ms. Cao asked, referring to Nancy Reagan, the former first lady who is said to have kept an astrologer on retainer while her husband, President Ronald Reagan, was in the White House. “So I don’t think you can say that it’s completely false.”

“里根总统不也相信星座吗?”判答问道。她指的是前第一夫人南希•里根(Nancy Reagan)。据说她的丈夫罗纳德•里根总统(Ronald Reagan)在白宫时,南希经常咨询一名占星师。“所以我觉得你不能简单地将星座定义为迷信。”

For some astrologers, the growing obsession has translated into big business. Cai Yuedong, also known as Tongdao Dashu, shot to online fame in recent years with his satirical zodiac-themed cartoons.

对有些占星师来说,人们对星座越来越多的痴迷变成了大生意。近些年,“同道大叔”蔡跃东凭借讽刺性的星座主题漫画在网上蹿红。

In December, Meisheng Culture, a local investment firm, spent $32 million to acquire a 72.5 percent stake in Tongdao Dashu’s company. There are now plans to spin off the popular social media account, which has over 12 million fans on Weibo and many more on Tencent’s messaging app WeChat, into a sprawling zodiac-themed franchise.

去年12月,当地投资公司美盛文化以3200万美元购买了同道大叔公司72.5%的股份。现在,他们计划围绕自己的热门社交媒体账户发展出一个庞大的星座主题特许品牌。同道大叔在微博上有1200多万关注者,在腾讯的即时通讯应用程序微信上的关注者更多。

To be sure, China has plenty of astrology skeptics. In December, Guokr, a popular science website, organized an online lecture that used scientific arguments to defend against the growing prominence of Western astrology.

毋庸置疑,中国有很多星座怀疑者。去年12月,热门科学网站果壳网组织了一场在线讲座,用科学论述反驳西方占星术越来越显著的地位。

“Western astrology is the most annoying trend,” said Yu Jun, a science editor at Guokr and a die-hard skeptic. “A person’s personality has nothing to do with his or her star sign.”

“星座的流行是一个讨厌的趋势,”果壳网的科学编辑、坚定的星座怀疑者虞骏说。“一个人的性格和他的星座没有关系。”

But every once in a while, Mr. Yu said, he finds himself succumbing to the celestial pressure.

不过,虞骏表示,他也会时不时地屈服于上天的压力。

“Sometimes I’ll joke about horoscopes with my friends,” Mr. Yu, a Pisces, admitted. “But my star sign is the sign that is least likely to believe in star signs.”

“有时候,我也会拿星座跟朋友们开玩笑,”双鱼座的虞骏承认。“我的星座是最不可能相信星座的星座。”

Why Libraries Are Everywhere in the Czech Republic
为什么捷克遍地都是图书馆?

PRAGUE — In the age of Amazon and the internet, the idea of going to a public library to borrow a book may seem ever more quaint and old-fashioned in many parts of the world, but one country, at least, is clinging to it tenaciously: the Czech Republic.

布拉格——在这个亚马逊(Amazon)与网络当道的年代,在世界上许多地方的人看来,上公共图书馆借书一举似乎更显得古怪过时。然而至少还有一个国家仍顽强地保持这项习惯,那就是捷克共和国。

There are libraries everywhere you look in the country — it has the densest library network in the world, according to a survey conducted for the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation. There are more libraries than grammar schools. In fact, there is one library for every 1,971 Czech citizens, the survey found — four times as many, relative to population, as the average European country, and 10 times as many as the United States, which has one for every 19,583 people.

放眼望去,捷克到处是图书馆:根据比尔及梅琳达盖茨基金会(Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation)进行的一项调查,该国有全世界密度最高的图书馆网络,数量比文法学校还要多。事实上,这项调查发现,每1971位捷克人就有一间图书馆,依人口比例算来是平均欧洲国家的4倍、美国的10倍(美国每19583人才有一间图书馆)。

Why so many Czech libraries? Well, for decades they were mandatory — every community, from a big city down to a tiny village, was required by law to have one.

为什么捷克有这么多图书馆?其实在数十年的时间里,图书馆的建造曾是强制规定——以前捷克从大城到小镇的每个社区,依法都必须要有一间图书馆。

The law was enacted in 1919, soon after Czechoslovakia emerged as an independent country. The idea was to promote universal literacy and education after the country was free of the German-speaking Austro-Hungarian Empire. And it worked.

该项法案是1919年颁布的,当时捷克斯洛伐克独立不久,用意是为了在脱离说德语的奥匈帝国统治后,提高全民的识字率、普及教育。而这种做法的确有效。

“Czechs developed a strong reading habit, and even today, those who visit libraries buy more books — 11 a year, on average — than others,” said Vit Richter, director of the Librarianship Institute of the Czech National Library.

“捷克人养成了很强的阅读习惯,即便在今天,会上图书馆的人买书也更多,一年下来平均会买11本书。”捷克国家图书馆附设图书馆学中心的主任维特‧李希特(Vit Richter)表示。

The library law survived the German occupation, the communist era and even the breakup with Slovakia in the early 1990s. What it couldn’t survive, in the end, was budgetary pressure. To save money, the requirement was dropped in 2001, when there were about 6,019 libraries in the country; since then, about 11 percent have merged or closed.

这项图书馆法案挺过了“二战”德国占领期、共产主义时期,甚至当捷克在上世纪90年代初期与斯洛伐克分家时仍照行不误。它最终挺不住的是预算压力。这项法案在2001年为减省开支而废除了,而当时捷克全国上下有将近6019座图书馆。自此以后,有大约11%的图书馆遭合并或关闭。

Rather than just linger on as an eccentricity from a bygone age, though, the surviving Czech libraries are doing what they can to stay vibrant and relevant. They serve as polling places for elections and as local meeting venues. They organize reading clubs and art exhibits and offer computer literacy courses, and they welcome droves of schoolchildren and retirees during the day.

然而,现存的捷克图书馆并不甘于作为历史遗留的怪癖传世,它们尽可能地保持活跃及与民众生活的联系。图书馆是选举时的投票所、是当地居民的集会场地,馆方也会组织阅读俱乐部与艺术展览、提供计算机教学课程,并且在日间接待成群来访的学童与退休人士。

But mostly, they do what 92 percent of Czechs still want them to go on doing, according to the Gates Foundation survey: They lend books.

不过,根据盖兹基金会的调查,这些图书馆的主要工作还是提供92%的捷克人仍希望他们继续下去的服务:借书给大家看。

Malta’s Walls Are Covered in Murals, and Street Art Is Covered in Schools
从街头到政府,马耳他的全民涂鸦计划

A visitor’s eyes never quite adjust to Malta.

马耳他的风景向来令游客目不暇接。

The fierce glare of the sun. The ocher-colored tones that adorn the island’s medieval architecture. The unimaginable blue of the Mediterranean Sea.

强烈而炫目的日光。点缀着岛上中世纪建筑的赭色色调。地中海那不可思议的蓝。

And perhaps most shocking — the graffiti.

以及也许最令人震撼的——街头涂鸦。
Most cities around the world denounce, or grudgingly tolerate, painting on public property. But on the Mediterranean island of Malta, the process is encouraged.

世界上的大多数城市对在公物上随意涂画都持谴责或者勉强接受的态度。但在地中海小岛马耳他,这一行为却是被鼓励倡导的。

In the shade of a pedestrian bridge, where old men and women sit on the concrete benches, staring out to sea, a wall has been splashed with color and the spray-painted words “NO WAR.”

在人行天桥下的阴凉处,老人们坐在水泥长凳上远望大海。这里的一面墙被泼上颜料,喷绘着“NO WAR”(不要战争)。

The phrase is part of a mural of a crying child carrying a teddy bear that’s been shot in the head.

这是一幅墙壁涂鸦的一部分,图中哭泣的儿童抱着他被子弹击中头部的泰迪熊。

This wall, like many on the island, was earmarked by the local council for street art.

这面墙,像岛上的其他许多面墙一样,是由当地主管街头艺术的委员会绘制的。

Malta is so fond of what other cities would call graffiti, a government agency, Arts Council Malta, teaches street art in schools and even in some retirement homes.

马耳他十分热爱这种被其他城市称为街头涂鸦的艺术形式。这里成立了专门的政府机构马耳他艺术理事会,负责在学校甚至养老院教授街头艺术。

James Grimaud, the artist who painted the antiwar mural, teaches students to sketch, make stencils and use spray paint.

詹姆斯•格里莫德(James Grimaud)是一位绘制反战壁画的艺术家,他还教授学生素描、制作喷刷磨具和喷绘。

Sandra Borg, of the arts council, said the street art projects “engage with numerous communities and contribute directly to urban regeneration.”

艺术理事会成员桑德拉•博格(Sandra Borg)认为,街头艺术项目“连接接洽了无数社区,并且直接为城市的新生做出了贡献。”

The island’s streets had traditionally been dotted with works of devotional art, depicting figures like the Virgin Mary, and Mr. Grimaud said “there isn’t a history of vandalism on the island.”

这个小岛上的街道一直以来被富有宗教色彩的艺术所装点,描绘诸如圣母玛利亚之类的人物。“这个岛上从来没有故意毁坏文化艺术的历史。”格里莫德说。

That might be part of why the modern murals, which are more likely to focus on political corruption or the commercialization of the island, are still treated with a kind of secular reverence.

也许正因为如此,尽管大部分岛上的当代壁画都以政治腐败和商业化加剧为主题,它们仍然得到了世俗的尊重。
Bob Dylan the Writer: An Authentic American Voice
鲍勃•迪伦:我们这个时代的诗人

“I’m the first person who’ll put it to you,” Bob Dylan said in a 1978 interview, “and the last person who’ll explain it to you.”

“我是第一个把它放在你面前的人,”鲍勃•迪伦(Bob Dylan)在1978年的一次采访中说道,“也是最不愿意向你解释它的人。”

The Swedish Academy, which awarded Mr. Dylan the Nobel Prize in Literature on Thursday, has put it to us, and it has no explaining to do to most readers and listeners, however much they might have been pulling for Philip Roth or Don DeLillo or Margaret Atwood.

星期四,瑞典文学院(Swedish Academy)把诺贝尔文学奖颁给了迪伦,他们把这个结果放在了我们面前,但是却没有为大多数读者与听众提供解释,不管这些读者们是多么看好菲利普•罗斯(Philip Roth)、唐•德里罗(Don DeLillo)或玛格丽特•阿特伍德(Margaret Atwood)。

This Nobel acknowledges what we’ve long sensed to be true: that Mr. Dylan is among the most authentic voices America has produced, a maker of images as audacious and resonant as anything in Walt Whitman or Emily Dickinson.

这次把奖颁给他,等于是确认了我们一直以来的一个感觉是真的:迪伦已经跻身美国最为真诚的声音之列,他所创造的意向如同沃尔特•惠特曼(Walt Whitman)或艾米莉•迪金森(Emily Dickinson)的一样大胆、令人产生共鸣。

It has never hurt that Mr. Dylan’s words were delivered, as the English poet Philip Larkin once put it, in a “cawing, derisive voice” that seemed to carry the weight of myth and prophecy. Mr. Larkin was not Mr. Dylan’s greatest fan. He found the lyrics to “Desolation Row” to be “possibly half-baked.”

正如英国诗人菲利普•拉金(Philip Larkin)指出的,迪伦的歌词是用一种“鸦叫般的嘲弄之声”唱出,这嗓音从来无伤大雅,似乎承载了神话与预言的重量。不过拉金并不是迪伦最大的歌迷。他觉得《荒凉小径》(Desolation Row)的歌词“可能是半成品”。

It took a different Englishman, the venerated critic and scholar Christopher Ricks, to make the case most fully for Mr. Dylan as a complicated and complicating poet. In Mr. Ricks’s sly 2004 book “Dylan’s Visions of Sin,” he persuasively compared Mr. Dylan at various points with personages as distinct as Yeats, Hardy, Keats, Marvell, Tennyson and Marlon Brando.

彻底把迪伦作为一个复杂难解,且还在不断变得更加扑朔迷离的诗人来研究的,是另一位英国人——备受崇敬的评论家与学者克里斯托弗•瑞克斯(Christopher Ricks)。瑞克斯在2004年那本俏皮之作《迪伦的原罪想象》(Dylan’s Visions of Sin)一书中,从各个方面把迪伦同范围广泛的各路名人进行了令人信服的对比,包括叶芝(Yeats)、哈代(Hardy)、济慈(Keats)、麦尔维尔(Marvell)、丁尼生(Tennyson)与马龙•白兰度(Marlon Brando)。

“Dylan’s in an art in which sins are laid bare (and resisted), virtues are valued (and manifested), and the graces brought home,” Mr. Ricks wrote. He added, “Human dealings of every kind are his for the artistic seizing.”

“迪伦的作品是一种赤裸呈现原罪(并对之进行抵抗)的艺术,美德受到重视(并得以公开),恩宠清晰可见,”里克斯写道。他又说,“人类的每一种行为都可供他以艺术的方式去捕捉。”

Mr. Dylan, born Robert Allen Zimmerman in Duluth, Minn., in 1941, was inspired when young by potent American vernacular music, songs by performers like Woody Guthrie, Hank Williams and Robert Johnson. When his voice became fully his own, in his work of the mid-to-late 1960s that led up to what is probably his greatest song, “Like a Rolling Stone,” no one had ever heard pop songs with so many oracular, tumbling words in them.

迪伦原名罗伯特•艾伦•齐默曼(Robert Allen Zimmerman),于1941年出生在明尼苏达州的德卢斯,年轻时,他深受强大的美国民间音乐的影响,包括伍迪•格瑟里(Woody Guthrie)、汉克•威廉姆斯(Hank Williams)与罗伯特•约翰逊(Robert Johnson)等人的歌曲。他渐渐形成了完全属于自己的声音,在其20世纪60年代中后期的作品《像一块滚石》(Like a Rolling Stone)中,众多如同神谕般云里雾里的字眼前所未有地出现在流行歌曲之中,而这首歌或许也是他最伟大的一首歌。

When Bruce Springsteen inducted Mr. Dylan into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in 1988, he described the opening seconds of that song this way: “That snare shot sounded like somebody’d kicked open the door to your mind.” The words that followed pulled that door from its hinge. In the chorus, they posed a question that has not stopped ringing over American life: “How does it feel/To be on your own/with no direction home.”

1988年,布鲁斯•斯普林斯汀(Bruce Springsteen)引荐迪伦进入摇滚名人堂(Rock and Roll Hall of Fame)时这样描述这首歌的开头几秒钟:“军鼓的声音就像有人一脚踢开通向你头脑的大门。”其后的歌词更是把这扇门整个拆了下来。副歌中提出的问题多年来一直回响在美国人的生活之中:“孤身一人的感觉怎么样/没有回家的方向。”

At the time, Dylan wrote in his masterful memoir “Chronicles: Volume One” (2004), “I just thought of mainstream culture as lame as hell and a big trick.” That memoir demonstrated that Mr. Dylan could write prose as fluently as lyrics. This needed proving only because Mr. Dylan’s sole novel, “Tarantula” (1966), written when he was 25, is a largely unreadable wordstew, written so as to defeat the hardiest of his idolators.

迪伦在他精彩的回忆录《编年史:第一卷》(Chronicles: Volume One,2004)中写道,那个时候,“我觉得主流文化蹩脚极了,就是一个大笑话。”这本回忆录表明,迪伦可以像写歌词一样流畅地书写散文。这一点之所以还需要证明,只是因为迪伦的唯一一本小说,他在25岁那年创作的《狼蛛》(Tarantula, 1966)是几乎难以读懂的文字大杂烩,只是用来打击他最铁杆的崇拜者。

As Elvis Costello said in his own recent memoir, “If you want a long career, you have to drive people away now and again, so they realize they miss you.”

正如埃尔维斯•科斯特洛(Elvis Costello)在前不久出版的回忆录中写到的,“如果你希望拥有长久的事业生涯,就得时不时地赶走人群,好让他们意识到他们对你的想念。”

Everyone has his or her own private anthology of favorite Dylan lyrics. Mine come from songs including “Idiot Wind” (“blowing every time you move your teeth”), “Brownsville Girl” (“Strange how people who suffer together have stronger connections than people who are most content”), “Hurricane” (“How can the life of such a man/be in the palm of some fool’s hand?”), “Sweetheart Like You” (“It’s done with a flick of the wrist”) and “Yea! Heavy and a Bottle of Bread,” written with the Band (“Pack up the meat, sweet, we’re headin’ out”).

所有人都有自己最心爱的“迪伦歌词选”。我喜欢的歌词来自《白痴风》(Idiot Wind,“每当启齿就呼啸而来”);《布朗斯维尔女孩》(Brownsville Girl,“一起受苦的人比心满意足的人更加紧密团结,这件事可真是奇怪”);《飓风》(Hurricane,“这样一个男人的生活,何以落入愚人之手?”);《甜心如你》(Sweetheart Like You,“就在手腕轻颤之间”),还有《耶,沉沉的一大瓶子面包》(Yea! Heavy and a Bottle of Bread),是他与“乐队”(the Band)合写的(“带上点肉,宝贝,我们要出发了”)。

Then there’s this, from “Blind Willie McTell”:

然后还有《盲眼威利•麦克代尔》(Blind Willie McTell)里的歌词:

Well, God is in His heaven,

And we all want what’s his.

But power and greed and corruptible seed,

Seem to be all that there is.

上帝在他的天堂/我们都想要他的国/然而权力、贪婪与腐坏的种子/似乎依然遍布大地

Before this Nobel Prize, Mr. Dylan has been recognized by the world of literature and poetry. In 2008, the Pulitzer Prize jury awarded him a special citation “for his profound impact on popular music and American culture, marked by lyrical compositions of extraordinary poetic power.”

在获得诺贝尔奖之前,迪伦已经获得文学界与诗歌界的认可。2008年,普利策奖评委会因为“他的歌词中带有非凡的诗意力量,对流行音乐与美国文化产生了深刻影响”,把一个特别奖颁发给他。

His songs have always packed social and political power to match the imagery. In his book “The Beautiful Struggle: A Father, Two Sons, and an Unlikely Road to Manhood,” Ta-Nehisi Coates spoke of what Mr. Dylan’s songs meant to his father as well as to a generation:

他的歌中总是包含与这个描述相衬的社会与政治力量。塔-奈西希•科特斯(Ta-Nehisi Coates)在《美丽的斗争:一位父亲,两个儿子与难以置信的成人之路》(The Beautiful Struggle: A Father, Two Sons, and an Unlikely Road to Manhood)一书中说起迪伦的歌曲对自己的父亲,乃至整整一代人的意义:

“Dylan’s voice was awful, an aged quaver that sounded nothing like the deep-throated or silky R&B that Dad took as gospel. But the lyrics wore him down, until he played Dylan in that addicted manner of college kids who cordon off portions to decipher the prophecies of their favorite band. Dad heard poetry, but more than that an angle that confirmed what a latent part of him had already suspected.” What was confirmed was this: The Vietnam War was a moral disgrace.

“迪伦的声音非常可怕,带着年迈的颤音,父亲视为福音的都是那些嗓音深沉或是如丝般润滑的节奏布鲁斯歌手,和迪伦可谓相去甚远。但是他们的歌词让他厌烦,直到他上瘾般地放着迪伦的歌,就像那些把心爱乐队的歌曲分成一段段来听,企图破解歌中预言的大学生一般。”爸爸从中听到了诗歌,但更多还是一个角度,确证了已经潜藏在他心中的怀疑。他确认的是:越南战争是一种道德上的耻辱。

Songs are not poems, exactly. Songs prick our senses in different manner. Many of Mr. Dylan’s lyrics can no doubt, as Mr. Larkin put, look half-baked when set starkly alone on a white page.

准确地说,歌曲并不是诗歌。歌曲是以另一种方式来刺激我们的感官。正如拉金指出的,如果只是白纸黑字地印出来,那么迪伦的很多歌词确实是半成品。

But Mr. Dylan’s work — “with its iambics, its clackety-clack rhymes, and its scattergun images,” as the critic Robert Christgau wrote — has its own kind of emblematic verbal genius. His diction, focus and tone are those of a caustically gifted word man; his metrical dexterity is everywhere apparent. He is capable of rhetorical organization; more often he scatters his rhetoric like seed, or like curses.

但是,正如评论家罗伯特•克里斯戈(Robert Christgau)所写到的,迪伦的作品“带着抑扬格,带着咔哒作响的清脆节奏,带着机关枪般的意象”,呈现出独特的标志性语言天分。他的措辞、焦点和语调都属于一个具有尖刻才华的文字创作者;歌词中对韵律的敏锐随处可见。他擅长组织修辞,经常把自己的雄辩像种子抑或诅咒一般播散在歌曲之中。

This award is also a sign —after last year’s laureate, Svetlana Alexievich, whose work is made up of interviews — that the Swedish Academy is increasingly open to nontraditional forms of writing.

这个奖项也是一个标志——继去年把桂冠颁给了主要作品为访谈的斯韦特兰娜•阿列克谢耶维奇(Svetlana Alexievich)之后,瑞典文学院对非传统形式的写作有了更加开放的态度。

In what feels like a blow for common sense and scalding wordplay, the academy has attended to Mr. Dylan’s lyrics in “Lay Lady Lay,” to wit: “Why wait any longer for the one you love/When he’s standing in front of you?”

说句似乎有点打击常识,而且非常尖刻的俏皮话吧,瑞典文学院肯定是看了迪伦《躺下吧,女士》(Lay Lady Lay)的歌词,就是那句“当真爱就站在你的面前/为什么还要再去等待”。

In a 2004 interview in The New York Times, Mr. Ricks summed up my sense of the best of Mr. Dylan’s oeuvre: “I just think we’re terrifically lucky to be alive at a time when he is.”

在2004年接受《纽约时报》采访时,瑞克斯的一句话极好地概括了我对迪伦作品的感受:“我觉得我们能和他生活在同一个时代,简直是太幸运了。”
After Quake, an Italian Crisis Unit Races to Rescue a Region’s Heritage
大地震后,意大利小城抢救宝贵历史

AMATRICE, Italy — The rescuers worked tirelessly under a scorching sun. Wearing white masks to fight off the dust, they formed a human chain, passing from hand to hand all they could salvage from the gravelly destruction of the earthquake that struck this region in August. They had to work quickly, fearing the precariousness of an adjacent building splintered by wide fissures.

意大利阿马特里切——救援人员在烈日下不知疲倦地工作。为防止吸入尘土而戴着白色口罩的他们组成了一条人链,传递着能从8月那场地震留下的瓦砾中抢救出来的所有东西。由于担心旁边一栋楼不安全——楼体出现了多条很宽的裂缝——他们必须抓紧时间。

It was not lives they were saving on this recent day, nor corpses they were retrieving from the mounds of stone ruins, but the history of Amatrice itself. Working alongside firefighters, the team included a specialized art squad of Italy’s carabinieri police that had been deployed specifically to vacate the city’s municipal archives — 300 years in the making.

在最近几天,他们不是在抢救生命,也不是从石头堆里挖掘遗体。他们是在抢救阿马特里切本身的历史。和消防员并肩作战的这支队伍中,包括意大利宪兵警卫队派来的一个专业的艺术小组。他们是专门来搜救阿马特里切市的市政档案的。相关档案有300年的历史。

At least 296 people died in the violent shaking on Aug 24. Many more were left homeless and injured. But those few, fraught and devastating minutes also placed at risk thousands of books, dossiers and folders amassed since past earthquakes destroyed this town in 1639 and 1703. There were also countless pieces of art and artifacts in churches and museums across the earthquake zone, which touches towns in four Italian regions.

在8月24日那场强地震中,至少296人死亡。无家可归者和受伤者更多。但那令人担忧并造成了毁灭性影响的几分钟也让大量书籍、档案、卷宗处境危险。它们是从1639年和1703年那两场地震之后积累起来的。此外,分布在地震灾区的多家教堂和博物馆里还有不计其数的艺术品和手工艺品。此次地震的受灾区包括意大利四个地区的城镇。

“For now, we have secured a trace of Amatrice’s past — that’s the principal thing, that the community has preserved its history,” said Maria Letizia Sebastiani, the Culture Ministry official who oversaw that afternoon’s recovery.

“目前,我们找到了阿马特里切的过去的痕迹,这个地区保留了自己的历史,这是主要的,”负责那天下午的抢救工作的意大利文化部官员玛丽亚•莱蒂齐娅•塞巴斯蒂安(Maria Letizia Sebastiani)说。

The crisis unit of the Culture Ministry was created after an earthquake engulfed central Italy in 1997, severely damaging a number of monuments, including the Basilica of St. Francis in Assisi. It has since been deployed in dozens of disasters, both natural and man-made, in Italy and abroad, and last year was formally instituted via a ministerial decree.

1997年,意大利中部发生地震,导致大量历史遗址,包括阿西西的圣方济各宗主教圣殿(Basilica of St. Francis)严重受损。之后,意大利文化部成立危机应对小组。自那时以来,该小组参与了意大利国内外数十场灾难的救灾行动,既有自然灾害,也有人为灾难。去年,文化部下令,该小组正式成为一个机构。

This year, the Culture Ministry even created a task force that works with UNESCO to carry Italy’s long-standing restoration expertise to war-torn corners of the world. United Nations officials had hoped to send it to Syria, where the monumental ruins in Palmyra were badly damaged after the Islamic State entered the ancient city in 2015. But the Syrian conflict has remained too intense for the team to enter.

今年,意大利文化部甚至还成立了一个工作组,与联合国教科文组织(UNESCO)合作,将意大利历史悠久的修复技术带给全世界遭受战争破坏的角落。联合国官员本希望将其派往叙利亚。伊斯兰国(Islamic State)在2015年进入叙利亚古城巴尔米拉后,那里的历史遗迹受到了严重的破坏。但叙利亚冲突的局势太紧张,不适合工作组前往。

“We’re operative, ready to go at a moment’s notice,” said Capt. Michelange Stefàno, an official with the carabinieri art squad and a member of the UNESCO-trained task force.

“我们一直在行动,做好了一得到通知就出发的准备,”宪兵队艺术小组的官员、接受联合国科教文组织培训的工作组成员米凯兰杰•斯特凡诺(Michelange Stefàno)说。

For now, in any case, there is work to be done in Italy.

至少目前在意大利国内有工作要做。

The crisis unit was dispatched in the first hours after the earthquake. As emergency operations were winding down, trained experts began inspecting buildings to assess the damage to the area’s cultural patrimony.

地震发生几小时后,上述危机应对小组便被派往灾区。随着急救行动逐渐减少,训练有素的专家开始检查各建筑,并初步评估该地区文化遗产遭受的损失。

Since then, squads of rescuers and Culture Ministry officials have entered churches, museums and town halls, all with an eye to saving the territory’s heritage, and its very memory of its past.

自那时以来,救援人员和文化部官员组成多个分队进入教堂、博物馆和市政厅,一心想抢救该地区的文化遗产及其对过往历史的记忆。

Paintings, statues and ecclesiastical objects, like crucifixes and processional crosses, have been bundled and sent to what amount to field hospitals for art and artifacts, for preservation and an early evaluation of the damage.

绘画、雕像以及耶稣十字架受难像和十字架等宗教物品被捆起来,送往特定的地方,接受保护和初步定损。那些地方相当于艺术品和手工艺品的战地医院。

The work has been risky and painstaking. Many buildings in Amatrice and elsewhere are still in danger of collapse, and weeks after the quake, aftershocks continued to strain already-weakened structures.

这项工作有风险,也很艰苦。阿马特里切和其他地方的不少建筑仍有倒塌的风险。尽管离地震发生已经过去了数周,但余震仍威胁着本就遭到削弱的建筑结构。

The teams photograph and document artifacts, and recover what can be easily removed from some sites — “those that we can enter; many are still in a bad state,” Stefàno said — with the assistance of firefighters and civil protection rescuers.

各支队伍会对手工艺品进行拍照和记录,并在消防员和民事保护救援人员的帮助下拿走容易取下的部分。“我们能进入的建筑,很多仍处在危险状态,”斯特凡诺说。

The crisis unit’s immediate task was to safeguard monuments as best as possible, “to halt any further deterioration,” said Prefect Fabio Carapezza Guttuso, the unit’s leader, who acts as a liaison between art experts and firefighters and civil protection officials.

上述危机应对小组的首要任务是尽可能让历史遗迹得到最好的保护,“防止受损情况进一步恶化,”该小组的组长法比奥•卡拉佩扎•古图索(Fabio Carapezza Guttuso)说。他也是艺术专家、消防员和民事保护官员之间的联络人。

He described it as a complex but harmonious synergy of individual expertise. Experience gained in every disaster that the unit has dealt with “has improved our capacity to intervene,” he said.

他称这项工作是各种专业技能复杂却又和谐的融合。该小组从之前参加的每一场灾难中获取的经验,“都提升了我们参与救援的能力,”他说。

In the weeks since the quake, the crisis unit has emptied Amatrice’s municipal museum, as well as some churches here and in towns including Accumoli and Arquata del Tronto, which were also badly hit.

地震发生后的这几周里,危机应对小组清空了阿马特里切市博物馆,还有这里以及同样受灾严重的阿库莫利(Accumoli)和阿尔夸塔德尔特龙托(Arquata del Tronto)等城镇的一些教堂。

But thousands of artifacts still need to be salvaged from unsteady churches and palazzos, many in remote areas. “One by one, we will get to them all,” the prefect said.

但仍有成千上万件手工艺品需要从不稳定的教堂和宫殿里转移出来。它们很多地处偏远地区。“我们会一件一件地把它们都转移出来,”古图索说。

Though each operation is being carried out with every possible precaution, an element of urgency prevails. “We’re at 1,000 meters altitude,” Carapezza Guttuso said. “There will be snow in a month.”

每次执行任务时都会尽可能地做足防范措施,但紧迫性依然存在。“我们处于海拔1000米的地方,”卡拉佩扎•古图索说,“再过一个月就要下雪了。”

Some priorities were identified, the prefect said, like an 18th-century replica of the Shroud of Turin, the linen that faithful believe wrapped the body of Jesus. It was removed from a church in Arquata del Tronto and placed in the Cathedral of Ascoli Piceno.

古图索说,他们确定了一些优先事项,譬如都灵裹尸布(Shroud of Turin)——据信曾包裹过耶稣尸身的亚麻布——的一件18世纪的复制品。他们把它从阿尔夸塔德尔特龙托村的一座教堂里转移出来,放进了阿斯科利皮切诺大教堂(Cathedral of Ascoli Piceno)。

“It was important for the population,” he said. “It had the value of a relic.”

“它对民众而言非常重要,”他说。“它具有文物价值。”

Restorers with the crisis unit have also begun to pick out ancient stones and bricks from the rubble, which will be reused when possible in a reconstruction.

此外,危机小组的修复人员已经开始从废墟中挑拣古代砖石,重建工作一启动就可以派上用场。

“As much as possible, the idea is to build as it was, where it was,” the prefect said. “We want to render the idea that we are salvaging artifacts and construction materials” so that the towns will be as authentic as possible, he added. “That is the profound sense of what we’re doing.”

“我们的理念是尽可能在原地按原貌重建,”古图索说。“我们想要表达这样的想法:我们正抢救文物和建筑材料”,好让这些城镇尽可能地恢复原来的样子,他补充道。“这正是我们所做之事的深刻意义所在。”
Chinese History, Writ in Stunning Stone
“乱世绝响”:曼哈顿的中国六朝艺术展

What a shock to wake up one morning and find armed men, who spoke no language you knew and looked like no people you’d ever seen, roaming the streets of your city. And more shocking still to learn that your protectors — your leaders, your army — had fled in the night. This scene repeated itself many times in China beginning in the third century A.D., when the Han dynasty collapsed and non-Chinese nomads swept down from the north and breached the Great Wall.

一天早上醒来,你发现手持武器的人在你所住城市的街头走来走去,说着你从未听过的语言,长相跟你之前见过的人都不一样,那是多么可怕的事情。更可怕的是,你了解到保护者——你的领袖和军队——已经连夜逃跑了。从公元3世纪起,这一幕多次在中国上演,当时汉朝崩溃,非华夏的游牧民族从北方长驱直入,攻破长城。

They brought fear with them, but other things, too: knowledge, beliefs, and cultural curiosity, which turned into respect, or something like it. That respect worked two ways. Gradually, the invaders came to look, and sound, and be Chinese. And the Chinese began to have an expanded, sharper sense of themselves.

他们带来了恐惧,但也带来了其他东西:知识、信仰和文化好奇心,这些转化为尊重或某种类似的东西。这种尊重起到了两个作用。慢慢地,入侵者的长相、语言及其他方面与华夏民族无异。而华夏民族开始对自己有了一种更广泛、深刻的认识。

Exchange is the dynamic that animates “Art in a Time of Chaos: Masterworks From Six Dynasties China, 3rd-6th Centuries,” the inaugural exhibition at China Institute Gallery’s new home in Lower Manhattan, on Washington Street. The show is a jewel, and let me just say up front, I don’t know how China Institute Gallery, now 50 years old, does what it does.

华美协进社中国美术馆(China Institute Gallery)迁至曼哈顿下城华盛顿街后的首展“乱世绝响:六朝艺术,三至六世纪”(Art in a Time of Chaos: Masterworks From Six Dynasties China, 3rd-6th Centuries)背后的动力正是这种交流。这场展览是一块瑰宝,请允许我先说一句:我不知道已有50年历史的华美协进社中国美术馆是如何做到这一点的。

Season after season, it brings extraordinary treasures to New York, many directly from China, loans that even big-budget museums might have trouble nailing. With this material it creates exhibitions that advance scholarship (some of the catalogs are instant classics) but also give unalloyed pleasure, partly because the scale is always right. The galleries in the institute’s old Manhattan premises on East 65th Street were two tiny rooms. The new ones are larger, but still ideal. You spend your time and energy on looking, not on walking.

一季又一季,它给纽约带来非凡的珍宝,很多直接来自中国,有些甚至是连那些预算很高的博物馆可能都不易借到的。凭借这些资料,它做了不少既推动学术进步(有些展览目录立刻成为经典)又带来纯粹愉悦的展览,一个原因是它的规模总是恰到好处。该美术馆在曼哈顿东65街的旧址只有两个小展厅。新馆的展厅面积更大,但依然很理想。你可以把时间和精力用于观赏,而非奔波。

Yet within a compact space, the show covers a vast swath of history. After Han rule ended, political discord reigned. China was effectively split in half, with the north ruled by foreigners, the south by Chinese. Each half further splintered into successions of rival kingdoms fighting among themselves. The centerlessness lasted for nearly four centuries.

虽然空间紧凑,但该展览涵盖了一段很长的历史。汉朝统治结束后,出现了政治纷争。中国实际上分裂成两个部分,北部由外族人统治,南部由华夏民族统治。每个部分进一步交替分裂成战乱不断的敌对王国。这种没有中央集权的状态持续了近四个世纪。

This is the barest-bones version of a very tangled history, one to which even a large show couldn’t do full justice. This one doesn’t try. Instead, it views the period known as the Six Dynasties — or, in China, as the Northern and Southern Dynasties — through some of its distinctive cultural achievements, which included refinements in celadon porcelain, the growth of Buddhism, and advances in calligraphy and painting. And it draws its illustrative material from three of China’s major regional art institutions: the Shanxi Museum in the north, and the Nanjing Museum and Nanjing Municipal Museum in the south.

以上只是这段非常复杂的历史的基本框架,哪怕一场大型展览也无法展示它的全貌。该展览不做这方面的尝试,而是通过它的一些独特文化成就来审视这段被称为六朝或南北朝的历史,包括青瓷技术的改进、佛教的发展,以及书法和绘画的进步。它从中国三家重要的地方艺术机构借来具有阐释价值的资料:北方的山西博物院,以及南方的南京博物院和南京市博物馆。

With its elusively colored glazes — jade-green, kingfisher-blue, smoky-sunset-yellow — celadon was thought to have near-magical properties. Production of it exploded during the Six Dynasties, particularly in the south, answering the need for everyday tableware, collectibles, luxury items and grave goods.

青瓷色泽缥缈——翠绿、翠蓝和烟灰日落黄——被认为具有近乎神奇的特性。青瓷的产量在南北朝时期暴涨,尤其是在南方,用于满足日常餐具、收藏品、奢侈品和明器的需要。

A little asparagus-colored water container in the shape of a toad would have been equally suited to home or tomb. A splendid wine jar embossed all over with lotus petals must have been the prized possession of some Buddhist-minded owner. The Buddha himself appears on a chunky pot called a “soul urn.” Such vessels were made to accompany the dead in the afterlife, and this one is capped by a sculptural tableau. The Buddha sits in a mini-pavilion, amid flocks of sprites and birds, looking out with a smile as if to say: “No worries. Come join the fun.”

一个芦笋色、蟾蜍状盛水小容器既适合家用,也适合用作明器。一个周身装饰着莲花瓣图案的酒罐可能是某位信佛者珍贵的物品。佛本身出现在一种名为“翁棺”的厚实陶罐上。这种器皿用来陪伴往生后的死者,这一件的顶部是一个雕塑造型。佛坐在一个小亭子里,四周围绕着仙子和鸟,佛面带微笑望着外面,似乎在说:“不要担心。一起来享乐。”

Buddhism probably arrived from India during the Han dynasty, but was embraced with panicked intensity in the disordered and disorienting era that followed. Brought overland by Indian monks traveling the Silk Road, it entered China from the north, where it took monumental visual form in the giant cave sculptures of Shanxi province. Unsurprisingly, some of the show’s most beautiful images come from the museum there: the sandstone figure of a bodhisattva wrapped in a breeze-ruffled cloak, and the carved foot-high head of a gender-fluid spiritual being lost in a dream of peace.

佛教很可能是汉代从印度传入中国的,但在之后的混乱时代里,人们因为恐慌而热情接纳了它。印度僧人沿丝绸之路从北方将佛教传入中国,以巨大的石窟雕塑的恢宏视觉形式出现在山西。毫不意外,该展览最美丽的一些形象来自山西博物院:一尊砂岩雕像描绘的是一位菩萨,她的披风被微风吹出皱褶;一尊一英尺高的头像描绘的是一位迷失在平静梦中的性别模糊的神灵。

Buddhist art had a troubled run in China. It never entirely escaped suspicion as an alien import. Calligraphy, by contrast, was embraced as Chinese to the core, and found its most famous exemplar, Wang Xizhi (A.D. 303-361), in the Six Dynasties period. In the fourth century, he and his family were among the many upper-class northerners who relocated south to Nanjing. There he devoted himself to Buddhist and Daoist studies, which in his case entailed some serious partying. And one party made him immortal.

佛教艺术在中国有过曲折的经历。作为一个外来事物,它从未完全摆脱质疑。相比之下,书法在本质上被认为是中国艺术,南北朝时期出现了其最著名的代表人物王羲之(303年至361年)。他的家族是4世纪南迁到南京的很多北方上层家族之一。在那里,他潜心研究佛教和道教,还参加了一些严肃的聚会。其中一个聚会令他永垂不朽。

One bright day in 353, he and 41 of his scholarly friends gathered at a picnic spot, the Orchid Pavilion, to drink wine and compose poetry. The plan was to collect the poems in an album, and at some point in the hard-drinking day, Wang Xizhi decided to provide a preface for it. He called for ink and a brush and, in fluent script, wrote an account of the feelings the gathering inspired in him.

公元353年一个晴朗的日子里,王羲之和41名学者朋友在一个名叫“兰亭”的野餐地点聚会,饮酒作诗。他们打算把那些诗编成诗集。王羲之那天喝了很多酒,在某个时刻,他突然决定给这本诗集写个序。他要来笔墨纸砚,洋洋洒洒写了一篇文章,讲述那次聚会带给他的感受。

The result was a kind of lyric lamentation on the transient beauties of emotion, friendship and nature, and a call to turn attention toward those things, and away from the demands of professional ambition and civic life. The message sounded a note of political resistance in a Chinese culture shaped by Confucian ethics. Wang Xizhi’s validation of individualism and vulnerability, implied by the polygraphic movement of the brush in his hand, had deep resonance in an insecure time.

文章哀叹感情、友谊和大自然易逝的美丽,呼吁大家关注那些事物,不要理会职场野心和世俗生活的要求。在被儒家道德塑造的中国文化中,那听起来像是对政治的抗拒。在那个不安稳的时代,王羲之对个人主义和脆弱的肯定——这流露在他挥舞的笔尖下——引起了深刻共鸣。

The resonance lasted. “Preface to the Poems Composed at the Orchid Pavilion” became the most widely emulated work of calligraphy in Chinese history, the model for a new standard of expressive writing. Although Wang Xizhi’s original manuscript was lost long ago, the touch of his brush was preserved and replicated countless times in copies traced on silk or paper, or carved into stone tablets. Any link to his spirit, at whatever degree of separation, is valued, and the show has one in a different calligraphic text: the carved stone epitaph of the great calligrapher’s young cousin Wang Xingzhi (A.D. 310-340), unearthed in 1965 in the family burial ground near Nanjing.

这种共鸣一直延续下来。《兰亭序》成为中国历史上被模仿最多的书法作品,也成为抒情散文的一种新标准的典范。虽然王羲之的原稿早已遗失,但他的笔迹得到保存,并被无数次复制成丝质或纸质版本,或刻到石碑上。与他的精神的任何联系都得到珍视——不管存在多大程度的偏离。这次展览展出了另一种书法文本:这位伟大书法家的堂弟王兴之(310年至340年)的墓志铭,它是1965年从南京附近的家族墓地中出土的。

The expressive connection between calligraphy and painting was always close, though Six Dynasties painting, like writing, survives mostly in secondhand form. And the exhibition — organized by Willow Weilan Hai of the China Institute; Annette L. Juliano, an art historian at Rutgers University; Gong Liang, director of the Nanjing Museum; Bai Ning, former director of the Nanjing Municipal Museum; and Shi Jinming, director of the Shanxi Museum — concludes with a few examples.

书法与绘画在艺术表达上的关系总是很近,虽然南北朝时期的绘画和书法一样,大部分以二手形式留存下来。这次展览包含其中几个例子。该展览由华美协进社中国美术馆的海蔚蓝、罗格斯大学(Rutgers University)的艺术史学家朱安耐(Annette L. Juliano)、南京博物院院长龚良、南京市博物馆前馆长白宁,以及山西博物院院长石金鸣共同策划。

One is a dim image of cosmological creatures sketched on a scrap of tomb fresco. Another is a figurative tableau originally created in raised linear relief on a set of clay bricks, and preserved now as a pair of painting-size ink rubbings. Titled “Seven Sages of the Bamboo Grove,” the overall image recalls the Orchid Pavilion affair, but has fewer participants, with each — whether writer, musician, or celebrity lush — carefully personalized.

其中一件作品是画在一小块墓室壁画上的宇宙生物的模糊图形。还有一件作品是最初刻在一套灰砖上的生动的线条浮雕,现在则是以一对绘画大小的拓片进行保存。作品标题是《竹林七贤》,整个画面让人想起了兰亭聚会,不过它的参与者更少,每个人物的特征都得到精心描绘——不管是作家、音乐家还是著名酒鬼。

Like Wang Xizhi’s friends, they were historical figures and Daoist rebels, though, according to legend, more far out, more willing to say no to power and put themselves in danger. The most outrageous of the seven, the drunkard Liu Ling, hired a man to follow him everywhere with a shovel and gave him standing instructions: If I suddenly drop dead, bury me on the spot.

和王羲之的朋友们一样,他们都是历史上的著名人物和道教反叛者,不过,根据传说,他们更为叛逆,更敢于对权势说不,将自己置于危险境地。七人中最令人震惊的是酒鬼刘伶,他雇了一个人拿着铁锹跟着他,还下了一道长期有效的指示:如果我突然倒地而亡,就将我就地掩埋。

I like to imagine this sage as the one who was shocked by nothing; as the one who treated foreigners as, by definition, friends; and the one who regarded great walls as delusional, built to be breached, and would say so out loud to whoever. I bet he did.

我把这位贤人想像成一个无所畏惧的人;一个视外来者为朋友的人;一个视长城为妄想之物、修起来就是为了让人攻破的人;一个会对所有人大声宣布以上理念的人。我打赌他肯定这样做过。

On an Island Named for Ice, the Poets Are Just Getting Warmed Up
冰岛,一个盛产诗人的国度

Iceland, it seems, is full of hidden poets.

冰岛似乎到处都是隐藏的诗人。

When they’re not at their day jobs, a great many of the island’s 330,000 inhabitants dabble in verse, including politicians, businessmen, horse breeders and scientists who study the genetic isolation of the island in pursuit of medical breakthroughs. Even David Oddsson, who was prime minister in 2002 (when Iceland’s banks were privatized) and central bank governor in 2008 (when they collapsed), is a poet by training.

在从事本职工作之余,岛上33万居民中有许多人会寄情文字,包括政治人物、商人、马匹育种师和为追求医学突破而苦苦研究该岛屿遗传隔离性的科学家们 。即便是2002年(那一年冰岛的银行实行了私有化)当上冰岛首相、2008年(那一年冰岛的银行破产了)当上冰岛中央银行行长的大卫•奥德松(David Oddsson),也是科班出身的诗人。

Birgitta Jonsdottir, the leader of the anarchist-leaning Pirate Party, which did well in a recent general election, describes herself rather loftily as a “poetician.” Her first published poem, “Black Roses,” written when she was 14, is about a nuclear holocaust.

带有无政府主义倾向的海盗党(Pirate Party) 在近期的选举中表现良好,其领袖比吉塔•约恩斯多蒂尔(Birgitta Jonsdottir)颇为高傲地自称是“诗治家”(poetician)。她发表的第一首诗《黑玫瑰》(Black Roses)讲的是一场核灾难。

Kari Stefansson, one of the world’s leading geneticists and the founder of Decode Genetics, recalled a poem he wrote in 1996, a few months after the birth of Dolly, the cloned sheep.

卡里•斯特凡松(Kari Stefansson)是世界顶尖的遗传学家之一,也是解码遗传学的创始人,他回忆了1996年克隆羊多丽(Dolly)诞生几个月后他写下的一首诗。

“I was a little bit depressed,” Mr. Stefansson said in his office, which, with its slit windows and computer screens, looked a bit like the interior of a spaceship. “One of my ways to deal with that was to write a small poem,” he said, before proceeding to recite it:

“当时我有点郁闷,”斯特凡松在自己的办公室里说,狭长的窗子和电脑屏幕在一起,把这里变得有点像太空船的内部。 “我处理这种情绪的办法之一,就是写一首小诗,”接着他背诵起来:

Where do I find, lost in the brightness of a sunlit day,

The happiness of an unhappy man

Fortunate only to be just one copy of himself.

Everything else stinks.

明媚的日子里洒满了阳光,

不幸者的幸福却无处寻觅。

幸运只是他的一份复制品,

其余的一切全都散发臭气。

Poetry is a national pastime, but not a particularly “specialist activity,” said Sveinn Yngvi Egilsson, a professor of Icelandic literature at the University of Iceland. “It’s part of being an Icelander,” he said. “Yes, it’s charming, isn’t it?”

诗歌是一种全民消遣,但并不是什么特别的“专业活动”,冰岛大学冰岛文学教授斯温•伊格维•埃吉尔松(Sveinn Yngvi Egilsson)说。 “这是冰岛人的一部分,”他说。“是的,很迷人,不是吗?”

In earlier times, verses were an integral part of social gatherings and were often improvised, he said. Poetry contests were held, with the prizes going to the wittiest, sharpest verses. The most popular verse form, he said, is called “ferskeytla,” four rhymed lines that can be divided into two parts.

他说,在早年间,诗歌是冰岛社交聚会不可或缺的组成部分,经常是即兴创作的。还会举行诗歌比赛,最风趣、最犀利的诗歌会获得嘉奖。他说,最流行的诗歌形式名叫“ferskeytla”,它有四句押韵的诗句,可以分为两部分。

Icelanders are unusually prolific readers and writers, and books of verse tend to sell well in Iceland. Poetry was the third-largest category of books published in the country in 2014, after fiction and the arts, according to figures from the national library. Far more poetry books were published in Iceland that year than books about economics or public administration. (There were apparently none at all about finance.)

冰岛人在阅读和写作方面格外勤奋,诗歌类书籍在冰岛往往能够卖得很好。根据国家图书馆的统计,2014年该国家出版的书籍之中,诗歌类列第三,位居小说和艺术之后。那一年在冰岛出版的诗歌远远多于经济学或公共管理方面的书籍(金融类书籍似乎一本都没有)。

The cold oceanic climate and long winter nights may also have something to do with it. “People usually get bored, and they try to humor each other,” Professor Egilsson said. “One of those ways is poetry.”

这可能也同这里寒冷的海洋气候与漫长的冬夜有关。 “人们往往会觉得无聊,于是就试着相互逗个乐,”埃吉尔松说。 “其中一种方式就是诗歌。”
Carrie Fisher, Child of Hollywood and ‘Star Wars’ Royalty, Dies at 60
《星球大战》莱娅公主凯丽•费雪逝世

Carrie Fisher, the actress, author and screenwriter who brought a rare combination of nerve, grit and hopefulness to her most indelible role, as Princess Leia in the “Star Wars” movie franchise, died Tuesday. She was 60.

演员、作家、编剧凯丽•费雪(Carrie Fisher)周二去世,享年60岁。在扮演其最令人难忘的角色,即《星球大战》(Star Wars)系列电影中的莱娅公主(Princess Leia)时,费雪难能可贵地将勇敢、坚毅和充满希望这些特质融为了一体。

A family spokesman, Simon Hall, confirmed the death in a statement, saying Fisher died at 8:55 a.m. She had had a heart attack on a flight from London to Los Angeles on Friday and had been hospitalized in Los Angeles.

家族发言人西蒙•霍尔(Simon Hall)在一份声明中证实了这一消息,称其于上午8点55分去世。她在从伦敦飞往洛杉矶的航班上心脏病发作,随后在洛杉矶入院治疗。

Fisher, the daughter of pop singer Eddie Fisher and actress Debbie Reynolds, went on to use her perch among Hollywood royalty to offer wry commentary in her books on the paradoxes and absurdities of the entertainment industry.

费雪的父亲是流行歌手埃迪•费雪(Eddie Fisher),母亲是演员黛比•雷诺兹(Debbie Reynolds)。后来,她利用自己在好莱坞权贵阶层中的地位,在多部著作中对娱乐业的矛盾和荒诞进行了揶揄和评论。

“Star Wars,” released in 1977, turned her overnight into an international movie star. The film, written and directed by George Lucas, traveled around the world, breaking box-office records. It proved to be the first installment of a blockbuster series whose vivid, even preposterous characters became pop culture legends and the progenitors of a merchandising bonanza.

1977年发行的《星球大战》让她在一夜之间成了国际影星。由乔治•卢卡斯(George Lucas)编剧和导演的该片在全球上映,打破了多项票房纪录。它成为了一个大片系列的第一部。该系列生动乃至荒谬的角色成了流行文化传奇和电影周边衍生品富矿的鼻祖。

Fisher established Princess Leia as a damsel who could very much deal with her own distress, whether facing down the villainy of the dreaded Darth Vader or the romantic interests of the roguish smuggler Han Solo.

费雪把莱娅公主塑造成了一个完全能够应对自己痛苦的姑娘,不管是在打败可怕的达斯•维达(Darth Vader)的邪恶行为,还是在压制恣意妄为的走私犯汉•索罗(Han Solo)的爱意时。

She reprised the role in three more films — in “The Empire Strikes Back” in 1980, in “Return of the Jedi” in 1983 and, 32 years later, in “Star Wars: The Force Awakens,” by which time Leia had become a hard-bitten general.

之后,她又三次扮演莱娅公主,分别是在1980年的《帝国反击战》(The Empire Strikes Back)、1983年的《绝地归来》(Return of the Jedi)和32年后的《星球大战:原力觉醒》(Stars Wars: The Force Awakens)中。到最后一部时,莱娅已经成了一名顽强不屈的将军。

Offscreen, Fisher was open about her diagnosis of bipolar disorder. She channeled her struggles with depression and substance abuse into fiercely comic works, including the semiautobiographical novel “Postcards From the Edge” and the memoir and one-woman show “Wishful Drinking.”

在银幕外,费雪坦承自己患有躁狂抑郁性精神病。她将自己与抑郁症和滥用药物的斗争变成了喜剧效果强烈的作品,包括半自传体小说《来自边缘的明信片》(Postcards From the Edge)和回忆录、独角戏《怀着愿望畅饮》(Wishful Drinking)。

Carrie Frances Fisher was born on Oct. 21, 1956, in Beverly Hills, California. She was the first child of her highly visible parents (they later had a son, Todd).

费雪全名凯丽•弗朗西丝•费雪,1956年10月21日出生于加州贝弗利山。她的父母一举一动备受关注,她是他们的第一个孩子(后来,他们又有了儿子托德[Todd])。

Any semblance of a normal childhood was impossible for Fisher. At 15, she played a debutante in the Broadway musical “Irene,” which starred her mother, and appeared in Reynolds’ Las Vegas nightclub act. At 17, Fisher made her first movie, “Shampoo” (1975), Hal Ashby’s satire of Nixon-era politics and the libidinous Los Angeles culture of the time, in which she played the precocious daughter of a wealthy woman (Lee Grant) having an affair with a promiscuous hairdresser (Warren Beatty).

对费雪来说,难以拥有普通孩子那样的童年。15岁时,她在由母亲主演的百老汇音乐剧《艾琳》(Irene)中首次登台,并参与母亲在拉斯维加斯的夜总会表演。17岁时,费雪拍了自己的第一部电影《洗发水》(Shampoo)。该片由霍尔•阿什比(Hal Ashby)导演,是对尼克松时代的政治以及当时淫乱的洛杉矶文化的讽刺。她在片中扮演一名女富豪(李•格兰特[Lee Grant]饰)早熟的女儿,与放荡的理发师(沃伦•比提[Warren Beatty])有一段风流韵事。

She partied with the Rolling Stones during the making of “The Empire Strikes Back,” hosted “Saturday Night Live” and had romantic relationships with Dan Aykroyd (with whom she appeared in “The Blues Brothers”) and Paul Simon. She and Simon had a marriage that lasted less than a yearr.

她在拍摄《帝国反击战》期间与滚石乐队(the Rolling Stones)一起开派对,主持过《周六夜现场》(Saturday Night Live),还与丹•艾克罗伊德(Dan Aykroyd,两人合作过《布鲁斯兄弟》[The Blues Brothers])和保罗•西蒙(Paul Simon)有过交往。她和西蒙的婚姻维持了不到一年。

In “The Princess Diarist,” she admitted what many fans had long suspected: During the filming of the first “Star Wars” movie, she and Harrison Ford (who was married at the time) had an affair.

在《日记的公主》(The Princess Diarist)中,她证实了很多粉丝长期以来的怀疑:在拍摄第一部《星球大战》期间,她曾与哈里森•福特(Harrison Ford,当时已婚)相恋。

Her survivors include her brother, Todd; her daughter, Billie Lourd, from a relationship with the talent agent Bryan Lourd; and her half sisters, Joely Fisher and Tricia Leigh Fisher, the daughters of Eddie Fisher and Connie Stevens.

费雪仍在世的亲人包括弟弟托德、她与明星经纪人布莱恩•劳德(Bryan Lourd)所生的女儿比利•劳德(Billie Lourd),以及同父异母的妹妹朱莉•费雪(Joely Fisher)和特里西娅•利•费雪(Tricia Leigh Fisher),她们是她父亲埃迪•费雪和康妮•史蒂文斯(Connie Stevens)所生。

Sheryl Sandberg Finds Comfort for Herself and Offers It to Others
面对逆境,谢莉尔•桑德伯格的B选项

OPTION B

Facing Adversity, Building Resilience, and Finding Joy

By Sheryl Sandberg and Adam Grant

226 pp. Alfred A. Knopf. $25.95.

《B选项:面对逆境,建设恢复力,寻找快乐》(Option B: Facing Adversity Buildong Resilience, and Finding Joy)

谢莉尔•桑德伯格(Sheryl Sandberg)与亚当•格兰特(Adam Grant)著

226页,阿尔弗雷德•A•克诺夫(Alfred A. Knopf)出版,25.95美元

You could almost hear the collective gasp when news broke, in May 2015, that the internet entrepreneur Dave Goldberg had died suddenly while on vacation in Mexico with his wife, Sheryl Sandberg. Their marriage had become a public one ever since the publication, two years earlier, of “Lean In,” her book about women and leadership. In it she had written some revolutionary things about marriage (she called it having a “partner,” but the book was so much about redefining gender roles that she clearly seemed to be talking about husbands). Deciding to get married — and the choice of whom to marry — weren’t just central to one’s private life, she wrote. Together they made up the “most important career decision that a woman makes.” She observed that most women at the top aren’t the lonely, single women of clichés; they are married women whose husbands support their ambitions and take equal responsibility for making a home. She said that her great success (she is the chief operating officer of Facebook, which has made her a billionaire) would have been impossible without the unwavering support of her husband. Now, in the cruelest way, she had lost him.

2015年5月,当消息传来时,你几乎可以听到所有人都倒抽了一口气,与妻子谢莉尔•桑德伯格(Sheryl Sandberg)在墨西哥度假期间,互联网企业家戴夫•古德伯格(Dave Goldberg)突然去世。自从两年前桑德伯格出版了关于女性与领导力的《向前一步》(Lean In)一书以来,她的婚姻已经成为一个公开话题。书中她就婚姻写下了一些开创性的文字(她把婚姻叫做找一个“伴侣”,但是书里有大量内容都是关于重新界定性别角色,谈的显然是她的丈夫和前任)。她写道,结婚的决定以及结婚对象的选择不仅仅是私人生活的核心。它们共同构成了一个女人“最重要的职业决定”。她指出,大多数处于领导地位的女性不是老一套说法中的那种孤独的单身女性;她们是已婚女人,丈夫支持她们的抱负,承担平等的家庭义务。她表示,如果没有丈夫的坚定支持,自己就不可能取得这样大的成功(她是Facebook的首席运营官,这令她成为亿万富翁)。现在,她以最残酷的方式失去了他。

“Lean In” sparked a movement, but it had its critics, among them single mothers, women who worked outside corporate America, and those who could not afford to hire the nannies and helpers upon whom the Sandberg-Goldberg household clearly depended. There were also those who thought the principal value underlying the book was flawed. They didn’t want to find ways to make their work more exhilarating; they wanted to find ways to accommodate it to their lives as parents. The tragedy was a vicious reminder of the truth we work hard to forget: Life is cruel. It will casually take away the people we love the most. Even the vaunted “C-suite” job is cold comfort when it cost you hours with a lost loved one. Now, two years after Goldberg’s death, Sandberg has written a new book, “Option B,” which forthrightly addresses all of these issues. It is a remarkable achievement: generous, honest, almost unbearably poignant. It reveals an aspect of Sandberg’s character that “Lean In” had suggested but — because of the elitism at its center — did not fully demonstrate: her impulse to be helpful. She has little to gain by sharing, in excruciating detail, the events of her life over the past two years. This is a book that will be quietly passed from hand to hand, and it will surely offer great comfort to its intended readers.

《向前一步》引发了一场运动,但批评它的也大有人在,其中包括单身母亲、不在美国商企工作的女性,以及那些没有能力雇用保姆和帮工的人——桑德伯格-戈德伯格一家显然非常依赖保姆和帮工。也有人认为这本书所强调的主要价值是有缺陷的。他们不想找到办法让自己的工作更加激动人心;他们只想找到办法,让工作更适应他们为人父母的生活。这场悲剧恶毒地让我们想起那个我们努力去忘记的真相:生命是残酷的。它会漫不经心地带走我们最爱的人。当你在失去所爱之人的时候,即使是被大肆称赞的“企业高层”工作,也不能带来多少安慰。如今,戈德伯格去世已经两年,桑德伯格写了一本新书《B选项》,它直截了当地指出了所有这些问题。这是一部了不起的作品:宽宏、诚实,有着几乎令人难以忍受的辛酸。这本书显示出桑德伯格性格中乐于助人的冲动,这在《向前一步》中就有所表现,但是——由于那本书的核心是精英主义——并没有得到充分展示。她在书中分享了过去两年中她生活中的种种事情,有各种令人痛苦的细节,这样做并不会给她带来什么好处。这会是一本静静地在人们之间传递的书,肯定会为它的目标读者提供不少安慰。

“I have terrible news,” she told her children, after flying home from Mexico. “Daddy died.” The intimacy of detail that fills the book is unsettling; there were times I felt that I had come across someone’s secret knowledge, that I shouldn’t have been in possession of something that seemed so deeply private. But the candor and simplicity with which she shares all of it — including her children’s falling to the ground, unable to walk to the grave when they arrive at the cemetery — is a kind of gift. She was shielded from the financial disaster that often accompanies sudden widowhood, but in every other way she was unprotected from great pain.

“我有个可怕的消息,”她从墨西哥回家后告诉孩子们。“爸爸死了”。书中这些充满亲密感的细节是令人不安的;有时候我觉得自己进入了一个人的秘密领域,我本不应该拥有这些看起来很私密的东西。但是她分享所有这一切时显得坦率而朴实——比如他们来到墓园时,孩子们倒在地上,无法走到父亲的坟前——这是一种天赋。她没有遭受突然丧夫的女人往往会经历的财政灾难,但是在其他所有方面,她同样经历了巨大的痛苦打击。

As she did in the memorable Facebook post composed a month after the death, she reports turning in her misery to the psychologist Adam Grant, a friend who had flown to California to attend the funeral and is an expert in the field of human resilience. She told him that her greatest fear was that her children would never be happy again. He “walked me through the data,” she writes, and what she learns offers comfort. Getting “walked through the data,” is as modern a response to grief as the notion that “resilience” is some kind of science. The book includes several illustrative stories that seem to come from Grant’s research, but they are not memorable. It is Sandberg whose story commands our riveted attention, and it is her natural and untutored responses to the horror that are most moving. “This is the second worst moment of our lives,” she tells her sobbing children at the cemetery. “We lived through the first and we will live through this. It can only get better from here.” That is grief: Somehow, you find a language; somehow you get through it. No research could have helped her in that moment. She is the one who knew what to do and what to say. They were her children, and she knew how to comfort them.

正如她在丈夫去世一个月后所写的那篇令人难忘的Facebook帖子中那样,她向心理学家亚当•格兰特倾诉痛苦,这位飞往加利福尼亚参加葬礼的朋友是创伤后复原领域的专家。她告诉他,自己最大的恐惧是孩子们永远不会再有快乐。她写道,他“为我讲解数据,”她学到的东西为她带来了安慰。“讲解数据”是现代人对悲伤的回应,而“复原”则是某种科学的概念。这本书中讲了几个说明性的故事,似乎是来自格兰特的研究,但它们留下的印象并不深。桑德伯格本人的故事才吸引着我们深切的关注,她对这一可怕事件的自然与本真的反应是最动人的。“这是我们生命中第二个糟糕的时刻,”在墓园,她告诉哭泣的孩子们。“我们已经走过了第一个糟糕的时刻,我们也会走过这个时刻。从今以后,只会变得更好。”那是悲伤:不知怎么,你就可以找到一种语言;不知怎么,你就可以挺过去。没有任何研究可以在那一刻帮助她。她就是那个知道该怎么说、怎么做的人。他们是她的孩子,她知道该怎么安慰他们。

Death humbles each of us in different ways. Suddenly a single mother, Sandberg realized how hollow her “Lean In” chapter about the importance of fully involved husbands (“partners”) must have been to unmarried women. If only she had known how little time she would have with her husband, she thinks, she would have spent more of it with him. But that’s not the way life works; Dave Goldberg fell in love with a woman who wanted to lead, not one who wanted to wait for him to come home from the office. The unbearable clarity that follows a death blessedly fades with time. We couldn’t live with it every day.

死亡以不同的方式令我们每个人感到卑微。突然间成了单身母亲的桑德伯格意识到,她在《向前一步》中关于让丈夫(“伴侣”)充分参与的那一章,对于未婚女人们来说有多么空洞。她想,如果她早知道自己只能和丈夫共度这样一点时间,她就会花更多时间和他待在一起。但生活并不是这样的;戴夫•戈德伯格爱上了一个想做领袖的女人,而不是一个想等着他从办公室回家的女人。幸运的是,死亡之后那种令人无法忍受的清晰之感,会随着时间的推移而逐渐消失。我们不能每一天都这样生活。

Sheryl Sandberg followed the oldest data set in the world, the one that says: The children are young, and you must keep going. Slowly the fog began to lift. She found she had something useful to offer at a meeting; she got the children through their first birthdays without their father; she began to have one O.K. day and then another. She made it through a year, all of the “milestone days” had passed and something began to revive within her. Grief is the final act of love, and recovery from it is the necessary betrayal on which the future depends. There is only this one life, and we are the ones who are here to live it.

谢莉尔•桑德伯格依循了这世上最古老的数据组,它显示:孩子们还小,你必须继续前进。慢慢地,雾霭开始消散。她发现自己在会议上可以提供一些有用的东西;她为孩子们过了第一个没有父亲的生日;她度过了还不错的一天,接着又是一个还不错的一天。她挺过了一年的时间,所有的“纪念日”都过去了,她内心有什么东西开始复活了。悲伤是爱的最后行为,从中恢复则是走向未来所必需的背叛。生命只有一次,我们的人生要自己走完。
How ‘Star Wars’ Defined My Generation
我们这代人的《星球大战》

Three important things happened in the middle of 1977, each separated by a little more than a month: “Star Wars” was released, I celebrated my 11th birthday and Elvis Presley died. One of those things is not like the others, I know, and strictly speaking there wasn’t then and isn’t now anything beyond calendar coincidence that links them together. But those random events nonetheless go a long way toward explaining my relationship to popular culture.

1977年中期发生了三件重要的事,时间分别间隔一个月多一点:《星球大战》(Star Wars)上映、我庆祝11岁生日、还有埃尔维斯•普莱斯利(Elvis Presley)去世。我知道其中一件事和另外两件不大一样,而且严格来说,无论是在当时还是现在,除了日期上的巧合,这三件事之间其实没什么联系。不过,这些随机事件仍然可以在很大程度上解释我同流行文化之间的关系。

And not only mine, of course. Modern life is a series of generational milestones. We calibrate our collective identities according to the shared experience of public events, including hit movies and popular songs. Whether we like them or not, those become part of the architecture of our private selves and also a kind of currency we trade with our peers. Elvis, in his mid-40s at the time of his death, was for kids like me immutably the property of the old, a reminder of the moment in our parents’ youth when everything had changed. The Beatles represented a similar, slightly more recent earthquake: They too belonged to the past. We had sung their songs in nursery school and heard them on “Sesame Street.” Nostalgia had claimed them. “Star Wars” was different. It was ours — our own special tectonic shift, after which the landscape was forever altered.

当然,不仅仅是我一个人同流行文化的关系。现代生活由一系列不同世代的里程碑组成。我们用公共事件中的共同体验来精确调整我们的集体身份认同,热门电影和流行歌曲也在在这些公共事件之列。无论我们喜欢与否,它们都参与建构了我们的个人身份,也是我们与同龄人交流的一种硬通货。猫王去世时40多岁,对于我这样的孩子来说,他属于旧时代的产物,这一点是无可改变的,他提醒我们想起父母的年轻时代,那时候一切都变了。披头士(The Beatles)乐队象征着类似的文化地震,只是时间距现在更近一点:然而他们也属于过去。我们在幼儿园里唱他们的歌,在《芝麻街》(Sesame Street)里听到他们的歌。他们已经属于怀旧了。但《星球大战》是不同的。它是我们的——属于我们自己的地壳板块漂移,之后大陆的面貌永远改变了。

Or so the story goes, in both its heroic and tragic versions. The wild success of the film now known as “Episode IV — A New Hope” has been held responsible for much of what followed, the good along with the bad. “Star Wars” supposedly helped put an end to the risk-taking and artistic ambition of 1970s New Hollywood and ushered in an era of blockbuster domination that continues to this day. Twenty-first century grown-ups who bemoan the hegemony of fantasy-based franchise movies — which is to say most of us, at one time or another — have only our own youthful enthusiasms to blame. But the first “Star Wars” trilogy is also credited with opening up a dazzling world of fan culture, liberating nerds and geeks from the condescension of their elders and the mockery of their classmates and placing their passions at the center of the universe. Like rock ’n’ roll before it, this cultural dispensation may not have been immediately respectable, but it proved to be instantly profitable and endlessly renewable.

故事就这样发展下去,无论是其中英雄的一面还是悲剧的一面。这部电影如今被称为《星球大战第四集——新希望》(Episode IV — A New Hope),它的巨大成功导致了其后发生的许多事情,好坏参半。据说《星球大战》在终结1970年代新好莱坞的冒险精神与艺术野心方面发挥了作用,令我们迎来了持续至今的大片统治时代。21世纪的成年人——我是指我们当中的大多数人——时不时就会哀叹一下奇幻商业大片的霸权,但这只能怪到我们自己年轻时代热衷的东西。不过,第一个《星球大战》三部曲也被誉为开辟了一个令人目眩的粉丝文化世界,让那些怪胎和书呆们得以摆脱长辈的居高临下与同学们的嘲笑,在宇宙中心释放自己的激情。就像之前的摇滚乐那样,这种文化系统可能不会立即受到尊重,但它被证明可以很快带来利润,并且可以无休止地自我更新。

How new was it, really? History has a way of making novelty look secondhand. Elvis made his indelible mark on baby boomer consciousness by putting a white face and an adolescent pout on a style of black Southern music that had been around a long time. Beatlemania was built mostly on echoes of Elvis and Chuck Berry. “Star Wars” was, if anything, an even more self-conscious throwback, a film student’s act of promiscuous homage, a hodgepodge of styles and allusions.

这种事到底有多新鲜?历史有一种特点,可以让新奇的东西看上去像是二手货。猫王为一种南方黑人的音乐风格赋予了一张白人的面孔和青春期少男的阴郁神情,从而在婴儿潮一代心中留下了不可磨灭的印记。披头士狂热主要建立在猫王与查克•贝里(Chuck Berry)的回声之上。如果说有什么不一样的话,《星球大战》是一个更具自我意识的回归,是一个电影学生五花八门的致敬,是各种风格与典故的大杂烩。

In his generous, slightly patronizing New York Times review, Vincent Canby noted the movie’s evocation of “Flash Gordon” serials and “a variety of literature that is nothing if not eclectic: ‘Quo Vadis?,’ ‘Buck Rogers,’ ‘Ivanhoe,’ ‘Superman,’ ‘The Wizard of Oz,’ ‘The Gospel According to St. Matthew,’ the legend of King Arthur and the knights of the Round Table.” George Lucas’s fellow cinephiles could point out his debts to John Ford and Akira Kurosawa. “Star Wars” might have looked like science fiction and played like an aerial-combat film, but it was also a western, a samurai epic and, at least when Carrie Fisher and Harrison Ford were on screen together, a screwball comedy. An exemplary act of what some of us would learn, in college a few years later, to identify as the distinctive postmodern aesthetic strategy of pastiche.

文森特•坎比(Vincent Canby)当年在《纽约时报》上发表了一篇宽宏大量、略带降尊纡贵之感的评论,他指出,这部电影令人想起《飞侠哥顿》(Flash Gordon)系列,以及“各种各样的文学作品,只能说是无所不包:《暴君焚城记》(Quo Vadis?)、《巴克罗杰斯》(Buck Rogers)、《劫后英雄传》(Ivanhoe)、《超人》(Superman)、《绿野仙踪》(The Wizard of Oz)、《马太福音》(The Gospel According to St. Matthew)、还有亚瑟王和圆桌骑士传奇故事”。乔治•卢卡斯的影迷可以看出他对约翰•福特(John Ford)与黑泽明(Akira Kurosawa)的借鉴。《星球大战》看上去可能很科幻,又表现得像是空战片,但它同时也是西部片和日本武士片,当凯莉•费雪(Carrie Fisher)和哈里森•福特(Harrison Ford)在银幕上并肩而立的时候,看上去也像是怪诞喜剧。几年之后,我们当中的一些人将在大学里学到,这是一个典范之作,被视为独特的后现代美学集大成策略。

But what, at the time, did any of us know about any of that? If you were 11 in 1977, “Star Wars” was something new under the sun. Which doesn’t mean we thought it came out of nowhere. There were action-adventure movies, multi-sequel science-fiction allegories, comic books that had initiated generations of fans in the pleasures of serial narration. There was “The Lord of the Rings” (the books and Ralph Bakshi’s animated movie); “Planet of the Apes” (the movie and the animated Saturday morning cartoon spinoff); “Star Trek”; Mad magazine. Plenty of fuel to feed a fan’s budding imagination.

但在当时呢,我们当中有谁知道这些事?如果1977年的你是个11岁的孩子,《星球大战》对你来说就是这个世界上的新鲜事物。但这并不意味着我们认为它是凭空而来的。在这之前,动作冒险电影、系列科幻小说和漫画书已经吸引了好几代的粉丝享受连载叙事的乐趣。还有《指环王》(The Lord of the Rings,包括原著小说和拉尔夫•巴克希[Ralph Bakshi]的动画片);《猿人星球》(Planet of the Apes,包括电影和周六上午播放的漫画改编动画);《星际迷航》(Star Trek);以及《疯狂》(Mad)杂志。它们都为粉丝萌芽中的想象力提供了丰富的燃料。

All of those were the kindling, and it’s possible that if Mr. Lucas hadn’t struck the match, the explosion would have happened anyway. What ignited in the summer of 1977 may not have been only — even primarily — the love of a particular film. In retrospect, the larger phenomenon of “Star Wars” represented what looks like the inevitable product of demographic and social forces.

所有这些都能引发人们的激情,如果没有卢卡斯来点燃导火索,这场爆炸或许同样会发生。1977年夏天被点燃的东西可能不仅仅是——甚至也不主要是——对某一部电影的热爱。回想起来,《星球大战》所代表的更广泛的现象,看上去像是人口特征和社会力量的必然产物。

The “great man” theory of history always does battle with more deterministic accounts. Here was the nascent population not yet known as Generation X, hungry for novelty, distraction, comfort, order, mythology, heroism — whatever it was that our post-’60s, recessionary moment seemed not to be supplying. All we needed was a baby boomer to give it to us, get rich in the process and incur both our worship and our resentment for the rest of our lives. He would be the inventor, but we would be the end users, and we would make the thing ours. What was true of “Star Wars” would be true, a few years later, of the personal computer. And both would eventually provide a further generational bridge, between the now-graying X-ers and the ascendant millennials.

“伟人”史观总在与更具决定性的说法抗争。这是一个刚刚涌现的世代,还没有被命名为X世代,他们渴望新鲜的体验、消遣、慰籍、秩序、神话和英勇精神,即经济衰退的60后时期所没有的东西。只需要有一个婴儿潮一代的人把它带给我们,他会在这个过程中暴富,导致我们在余生里既崇拜又怨恨他。他会成为发明者,但我们才是最终的用户,我们会让这个东西成为我们的。《星球大战》是这样,几年后出现的个人电脑也是如此。这两样东西最终还会加大现在日益老去的X世代与正在蒸蒸日上的千禧一代之间的代沟。

But more about that in a minute. I’m the ancient mariner here, and this is still my story. I’m not sure how many times I saw “Star Wars” the year it came out, but I am certain that until the arrival of my children, a DVD player and a copy of “Toy Story 2,” there is no movie I have seen as often in such rapid succession.

但这点容我以后再讲。在这里,我是那名老水手,这依然是我的故事。我不确定《星球大战》上映那一年,我看了有多少遍,但我敢肯定,直到我的第二个孩子出世、DVD播放机出现,以及《玩具总动员2》(Toy Story 2)上映之前,我从来不曾以那么快的频率把一部影片看过那么多遍。

The novelist Jonathan Lethem, two years older than I am, has written (in a piercing essay called “13, 21, 1977”) about seeing it 21 times, usually by himself, during an especially painful period in his life. I can’t quite match that total, and there was no pattern to the viewings. I think my parents took me the first time. Later, I took my little sister. Another time I went with a girl from my sixth-grade class on some awkward early approximation of a date. At least one friend’s birthday party involved a “Star Wars” outing. Going to see it was, in my recollection, a casual habit. You would be in someone’s rec room playing air hockey, or trying to pop wheelies on your bike, and you’d get bored with that and, if you hadn’t already spent your allowance, you’d head to the theater where the movie had been playing continuously since the end of the previous school year. It was something to do.

比我大两岁的小说家乔纳森•莱瑟姆(Jonathan Lethem)曾经在一篇名为《13, 21, 1977》的文章中)写过,他看了21遍,通常是一个人,而且在他人生中尤其痛苦的一段时期。我看的次数没那么多,也没有什么观影规律。我想第一次应该是父母带我去的。后来,我带着妹妹去看。还有一次,是和我所在的六年级班级里的一个女孩一起去看,那算是我早期经历的一次有点尴尬的类似约会的活动。至少有一个朋友的生日会有安排去看《星球大战》。在我记忆里,去看这部电影就是一种习惯。你会在某人的娱乐室玩桌上曲棍球,或者尝试把车头抬起的自行车特技,但你会厌倦。要不是零花钱已经用完,你就去剧院了,那里从上个学年末开始就在连续播放这部电影。也算有事可干。

For some, like Mr. Lethem, it was also a gateway into more sophisticated cinematic pleasures, and a first step on a backward path through movie history. In his case, “Star Wars” was replaced first by “2001: A Space Odyssey” and then by “The Searchers,” both of them, not coincidentally, among the identifiable ancestors of “A New Hope.” Others held fast to childish things and formed a Rebel Alliance against the Empire of adulthood. It’s hardly an accident that J. J. Abrams, director of “Star Wars: The Force Awakens,” is one of us. He turned 11 about two weeks before I did.

对有些人来说——比如莱瑟姆——它是通往更高深的电影娱乐的大门,是回溯电影历史的第一步。对莱瑟姆来说,《星球大战》首先被《2001太空漫游》(2001: A Space Odyssey)、而后被《搜索者》(The Searchers)所取代。这两部电影显然都是《星球大战4:新希望》的鼻祖,这并非偶然。还有些人固守孩童的本真,组成了一个反叛者联盟,对抗成人的帝国。《星球大战7:原力觉醒》(Star Wars: The Force Awakens)的导演J•J•艾布拉姆斯(J.J. Abrams)也是我们中的一员,这也绝非偶然。他比我大约早两个星期度过11岁生日。

The legend of “Star Wars” was something that arose later. In 1977, we were innocent of Joseph Campbell and the further annotations Mr. Lucas and others would provide. The allegorical meanings — the battle of good and evil, the mystery of the Force — rest lightly on the jaunty surface of “A New Hope.” There would be richer intimations of depth and darkness in “The Empire Strikes Back” and “Return of the Jedi,” or maybe, since we were a few years older, we were more inclined to see them.

《星球大战》的传奇是后来才出现的。1977年,我们不了解约瑟夫•坎贝尔(Joseph Campbell),也没有体会到卢卡斯等人提供的进一步暗示。那些寓意——正邪之战,力量的神秘之处——肤浅地停留在《星球大战4:新希望》欢快的表面。《星球大战2:帝国反击战》(The Empire Strikes Back)和《星球大战3:绝地归来》(Return of the Jedi)对深度和黑暗的暗示更丰富,或者,也许是因为我们又年长了几岁,所以更容易看出这些。

And then we kind of moved on, at least until 1999, when Mr. Lucas returned with “The Phantom Menace” and the Gen X legacy of ambivalence and confusion blossomed anew. That movie was terrible! So was “Attack of the Clones.” But it didn’t seem to matter. Everyone went to see those movies anyway, and the awfulness cast a rosy and perhaps unmerited glow on the first trilogy. Those movies weren’t all that good either. And that didn’t matter. They existed — the whole cosmos, or gestalt, or whatever it is, exists — in a realm beyond such judgments, and also beyond the ordinary operations of nostalgia. “Star Wars” is an old movie now, older now than Elvis Presley’s first records were in 1977. The film moves slowly and shows its predigital seams. It’s more charming than sublime, a silly pop-culture throwaway full of funny creatures, terrible dialogue and breathless acting. It’s exactly the same as I remember it, and watching it again I wonder what I ever saw in it. I find my lack of faith disturbing. And yet, I’m still a believer.

然后,我们算是放下了,至少直到1999年,卢卡斯携《星球大战前传1:幽灵的威胁》(The Phantom Menace)回归,X一代的矛盾情绪和迷惑再次爆发。那部电影糟糕透了!《星球大战前传2:克隆人的进攻》(Attack of the Clones)也是如此。不过,这似乎无关紧要。反正大家都去看了那些电影,它们的糟糕给第一个三部曲带上了它不配有的美丽光环。其实,第一个三部曲也没有那么精彩。那无关紧要。它们——整个宇宙,或者说格式塔,或者随便叫什么——存在于另一个层面,它们超越这些判断,也超越寻常的怀旧。到现在,《星球大战》算是一部老电影了,比1977年时猫王的早期专辑还显得古老。这部电影推进得很慢,还暴露出前数字时代的破绽。它最多只能算是“迷人”,远谈不上“绝妙”,它就是一部愚蠢的流行文化消费品,充满好玩的生物、糟糕的对白和气喘吁吁的表演——和我记忆中的一样。我再次观看时,很想知道自己从前是看上了它哪一点。我为自己不再崇拜它感到不安。不过,我依然是一个拥有信仰的人。

To Stay in Love, Sign on the Dotted Line
爱情保鲜的秘方:和TA签一份亲密关系合同

A few months ago my boyfriend and I poured ourselves two beers and opened our laptops. It was time to review the terms of our relationship contract.

几个月前,我和男朋友给自己倒上两杯啤酒,打开我们的笔记本电脑。又到了审核我们的亲密关系合同的时候了。

Did we want to make changes? As Mark and I went through each category, we agreed to two minor swaps: my Tuesday dog walk for his Saturday one, and having me clean the kitchen counters and him take over the bathtub.

我们想做什么改变吗?在浏览各项类目的时候,我和马克同意进行两项小小的交换:我周二遛狗,他周六遛狗,我负责维持厨房台面的清洁,他则负责打扫浴缸。

The latest version of “Mark and Mandy’s Relationship Contract,” a four-page, single-spaced document that we sign and date, will last for exactly 12 months, after which we have the option to revise and renew it, as we’ve done twice before. The contract spells out everything from sex to chores to finances to our expectations for the future. And I love it.

最新版本的“马克与曼迪的亲密关系合同”是一份单行间距打印的四页文件,有效期为12个月整,末尾有我们的签名,并注明了日期,之后我们有权选择修订或续签,就像我们前两次所做的那样。这份合同涉及几乎所有事项,从性事、家务活,到财务问题,再到我们对未来的预期。我很喜欢它。

Writing a relationship contract may sound calculating or unromantic, but every relationship is contractual; we’re just making the terms more explicit. It reminds us that love isn’t somaething that happens to us — it’s something we’re making together. After all, this approach brought us together in the first place.

写一份亲密关系合同,听起来可能有些精于算计或不够浪漫,但每段亲密关系其实都是带有契约性质的;我们只不过把这些条款变得更明确了。它提醒我们,爱情不是随随便便发生在我们身上的事——而是我们在一起成就的事。毕竟,最初正是这种方式让我们走到了一起。

Two and a half years ago, I wrote a Modern Love column about how Mark and I had spent our first date trying a psychological experiment that used 36 questions to help two strangers fall in love. That experience helped us to think about love not as luck or fate, but as the practice of really bothering to know someone, and allowing that person to know you. Being intentional about love seems to suit us well.

两年半前,我为“摩登情爱”写过一篇专栏文章,讲述我和马克在第一次约会时尝试一项心理学实验的经历,那项实验用36个问题帮助两个陌生人坠入爱河。那个实验让我们觉得爱情不是运气或命运,而是一种实践:你要真的费心去了解某人,也允许这个人来了解你。在爱情这件事上刻意努力,这种方式似乎很适合我们。

In the past, expecting a relationship to work simply because the people involved loved each other had failed me. I spent my 20s with a man who knew exactly what he wanted and how he wanted to be. All I had wanted was for him to love me.

过去,我期待一段亲密关系仅仅因为彼此相爱就能维持,这种方式在我身上失败了。20多岁的时候,我一直和一个确切知道自己要什么、也知道自己想成为什么人的男人在一起。而我想要的,只是让他爱我。

We were together for almost a decade, and in that time I somehow lost track of my own habits and preferences. If I wanted to split the grocery bill, he suggested I buy only things we both liked. If I wanted to spend weekends together, I could go skiing with him and his friends. And so I did. I made my life look like his.

我们在一起近十年,这期间我不知怎么失去了自己的习惯和偏好。如果我想平摊日用品开销,他便会建议我只买我们都喜欢的东西。如果我想周末和他在一起,那就得跟他和他的朋友一起滑雪。我就这么做了。我让自己的生活看起来跟他的生活一样。

It wasn’t until I moved out that I began to see that there hadn’t been room for me in my relationship. And not merely because my ex hadn’t offered it — it had never occurred to me to ask. I was in love, and love meant making compromises, right? But what if I had loved him too much?

直到搬出去,我才开始明白,这段关系当中没有我的空间。这不仅是因为我的前男友没有提供这种空间——我自己也从来没想过去要求这些。我恋爱了,而爱就意味着妥协,对吧?但如果我爱他太多怎么办?

Years earlier I had read Virginia Woolf’s “A Room of One’s Own” and thought I understood it, but I hadn’t. At 20, I gave myself over to love, and it wasn’t until the relationship ended, when I was 29, that I discovered what it meant to fully inhabit my days and the spaciousness of my own mind. It was such a joy to find that my time was mine, along with every decision from what to cook to when to go to bed.

多年前,我曾经读过弗吉尼亚•伍尔夫(Virginia Woolf)的《一个人的房间》(A Room of One’s Own),当时我觉得自己看懂了,其实并没有。在20岁的年纪,我放手让自己去爱,直到那段关系终结。到了29岁,我明白了完全享有自己的时间意味着什么,知道了我内心的想法有多么丰富。发现时间完全属于自己,从什么时候做饭到什么时候睡觉,这一切都可以由自己决定,这真让人开心。

I resolved that in my next relationship I would love more moderately, keeping more of me for myself.

我决定在下一段亲密关系中爱得更适度一些,把更多的自我留给自己。

When I met Mark, he fit into my life so easily it surprised me. My friends liked him. My dog, Roscoe, yelped with happiness at the sight of him. But when we started talking about living together, I was wary.

遇到马克后,他轻松地融入了我的生活,这让我非常吃惊。我的朋友们都喜欢他。我养的狗罗斯科(Roscoe)一看到他就高兴地叫起来。但是当我们开始讨论同居时,我有些谨慎。

I worried that the minutiae of domesticity would change us into petty creatures who bickered over laundry. More than that, I worried I might lose myself again, to a man and a relationship, overtaken by those old ideas about how love conquers all.

我担心家庭生活的细枝末节会把我们变成小气的人,会为洗衣服这种事吵嘴。更重要的是,我担心自己可能会再次在一个男人面前、在一段亲密关系当中迷失自己,被爱情战胜一切的旧观念吞噬。

Mark had his own reservations. “I don’t want to do it just because it’s what we’re supposed to do,” he said. “I only want to live together if it’ll make our lives better.”

马克也有自己的顾虑。“我不想仅仅因为我们应该这么做,所以才这么做,”他说。“除非这能让我们的生活变得更好,否则没有必要住在一起。”

We spent weeks anxiously enumerating the pros and cons of cohabitation.

我们花了几周时间,焦虑地列举同居的优点和缺点。

Months earlier we had come across a book — “The New I Do: Reshaping Marriage for Skeptics, Realists and Rebels” — that recommends short-term marriage contracts. We liked the idea and realized we could take this approach to living together.

几个月前,我偶然看到一本书——《“我愿意”新解:为怀疑者、现实主义者和叛逆者重塑婚姻》(The New I Do: Reshaping Marriage for Skeptics, Realists and Rebels)——其中建议签订短期的婚姻合同。我们喜欢这个主意,也意识到我们可以用这种方式一起生活。

Many of us don’t notice the ways romantic love acts as an organizing force in our lives, but it is powerful. Some use the term “relationship escalator” to describe the way we tend to follow familiar scripts as we proceed in a relationship, from casual dating to cohabitation to marriage and family. These scripts that tell us what love should look like are so ubiquitous they sometimes seem invisible.

我们当中有许多人注意不到浪漫爱情在生活中扮演着一种规划组织的力量,但它其实很强大。有些人用“亲密关系自动扶梯”这个词来形容亲密关系的发展,我们倾向于依照熟悉的剧本,从轻松的约会到同居,到迈入婚姻和组成家庭。这些剧本告诉我们爱情应该是什么样,它们如此普遍,以致于我们有时候注意不到它们。

In my last relationship, I had spent a lot of time worrying about whether we were moving up the escalator. I wasn’t even sure what I wanted, but trying to figure that out through conversation seemed terrifying. Instead, I picked fights, about money or chores or how to spend the weekend. If I was angry, it was somehow easier to be honest.

在上一段亲密关系中,我经常担心我们是否在随着自动扶梯上升。我甚至不确定自己想要什么,也没有试图通过看似很可怕的对话搞清楚这一点。相反,我会就金钱、家务活或如何过周末等问题挑起争执。如果我发怒,是因为那样多少会更容易做到诚实。

With Mark, I wanted to do better.

和马克在一起时,我想要做得更好。

Our contract addresses much of what must be negotiated in any relationship, especially when cohabitating. It begins with our reasons for being together: “We aspire to help each other be more ethically-minded and generous friends, community members and global citizens.” I know it sounds idealistic, but I’ve had relationships that left me feeling lonely and small. This time I wanted to be more intentional about looking outward as much as we look in.

我们的合同涉及在任何亲密关系中都必须协商的大多数问题,尤其是在同居的时候。开头是我们在一起的原因:“我们渴望彼此协助,成为更有道德意识、更宽宏大量的朋友、社区成员和全球公民。”我知道这听起来有点理想主义,但我曾经经历过让我感觉孤独和渺小的亲密关系。这一次,我希望在审视我们内部关系的同时,也更加自觉地对外部世界给予同样的关注。

The terms range from the familiar (“We will take care of each other when one of us is sick”) to the fanciful (“If we’re both sick, it’s all up to the dog”). In fact, Roscoe gets an entire section, detailing his walking schedules, vet visits and even how sweet we think he is.

条款中有常见的内容(“我们会在其中一人生病的时候照顾对方”),也有不太现实的(“如果我们都病了,那就全靠狗了”)。实际上,罗斯科占据了一整块内容,其中详述了遛它的时间,带他去看兽医的安排,甚至包括我们觉得他有多可爱。

We have a houseguest section (guests can stay for up to two weeks but must be mutually vetted) and an item that deals with Mark’s sweaty running clothes (“He agrees to hang these up in the spare room or on the back of the bathroom door but he wants Mandy to know that this may be a fairly common occurrence”).

有一部分是关于住家客人的(客人最多可以住两周,但必须经过双方考察),还有一项条款是关于如何处理马克浸透汗水的运动服(“他同意将其挂在闲置房间或浴室门后,但他希望曼迪知道,这种情况可能相当常见”)。

We agree to split the bill when eating out with one exception: “Special meals (date night, celebrations, etc.) will not be split so one person can treat the other.”

我们同意外出吃饭时分摊帐单,但有一个例外:“特别大餐(约会的晚上、庆祝活动等)不会分摊账单,由一个人请另一个人吃饭。”

It was important to me to eat breakfast together because this was something my family did growing up, so we put that in writing. It’s amazing how empowering this can feel: to name your desires or insecurities, however small, and make space for them. It’s such a simple thing, but it wasn’t easy. I wasn’t used to knowing what I wanted in a relationship, much less saying it aloud. Now, I have to do both.

对我来说,一起吃早餐是很重要的,因为我小时候家里就是这样,所以我们把这一项落实到了合同里。具体说出你的欲望或不安,不管它们有多不值一提,然后为它们留出空间,这么做所带来的自主的感觉真是让人惊叹。这听起来很简单,但并不容易做到。过去,我在一段关系中往往并不知道自己想要什么,更不用说大声把它说出来。现在,我两件事都必须做。

We wanted to take nothing for granted, which has meant having the kinds of conversations I previously avoided.

我们不想把一切都视为理所当然,这意味着要进行我之前避免的那种对话。

Our contract isn’t infallible, or the solution to every problem. But it acknowledges that we each have desires that deserve to be named and recognized.

我们的合同不是绝对有效的,也不可能解决所有的问题。但是它承认了,我们两人都有值得被道出和认可的欲望。

As we concluded the recent renewal of our contract, Mark typed a new heading near the end: Marriage. “So what do you think?” he asked, sitting back as if he had just asked where I want to get takeout.

在我们即将完成最近这次续签合同时,马克在快到结尾的地方打上了一个新的标题:婚姻。“你怎么想?”他身子向后一靠问道,好像只是在问我想叫什么外卖。

I stared into my beer. This wasn’t the first time we had talked about marriage, but now, with the contract open, it felt official. I squirmed, knowing that part of me wanted to say, “Let’s do it,” while another part wanted to reject the institution altogether and do love and commitment on our own terms.

我盯着面前的啤酒。这不是我们第一次谈到婚姻这个话题,但现在正在谈合同,因此感觉非常正式。我有点局促不安,觉得有一部分的自我想说:“结吧”,另一部分自我又想完全抗拒这种成规,想以自己的方式去爱,去做出承诺。

“What would marriage offer us that we don’t already have?” I asked.

“婚姻能带来什么我们现在还没有的东西?”我问。

“Good question,” he said.

“这是个好问题,”他说。

“It would be nice to hear our friends make funny and heartwarming speeches about us,” I told him. “But I don’t really want to plan a wedding, or pay for it.”

“听朋友们发表有关我们的、有趣又暖心的致辞,倒是很不错,”我告诉他。“但我不太想筹划一场婚礼,也不想花这个钱。”

He agreed. And yet, we like this thing we have created.

他表示同意。不过,我们喜欢我们创造出来的这个东西。

I know that a lifetime commitment is supposed to involve a surprise proposal, a tearful acceptance and a Facebook slide show of happy selfies. But if it’s the rest of our lives, I want us to think it through, together.

我知道一生的承诺应该包含一次让人惊喜的求婚,含泪接受,以及在Facebook上展示的快乐自拍幻灯秀。但如果这涉及我们的余生,我希望我们能一起考虑清楚。

Finally Mark typed: “We agree that marriage is an ongoing topic of conversation.”

最终,马克在电脑上打出:“我们一致认为,婚姻是一个需要继续讨论的话题。”

It seemed a trivial thing to put in writing, but talking — instead of just waiting and wondering — has been a relief to us both.

这看起来似乎是很小的事,不值得写下来,但对我们两人而言,讨论——而非等待和猜测——一直都是解决问题的办法。

As I type this, Mark is out for a run and the dog is snoring at a volume that is inordinately sweet, and I am at home in the spaciousness of my own mind. I have failed at my goal of loving more moderately, but for the first time in my life I feel as if there is room for me in my relationship, and space for us to decide exactly how we want to practice love.

在我敲下这些字的时候,马克出去跑步了,狗在打鼾,声调可爱极了,而我在家里,在自己的脑海中畅游。我没能达成爱得更适度这个目标,但在人生中,我第一次感到,我在亲密关系中有了自己的空间,有了让我们能够具体决定如何去实践爱的空间。

It may look as though we’re riding the relationship escalator, but I prefer to think we’re taking the stairs.

看起来或许像是我们正乘着亲密关系的自动扶梯徐徐上升,但我觉得我们更像是在自己爬楼梯。
Today in 1930, a dancing frog set a new standard in animation.
1930年的今天,一只会跳舞的青蛙为动画设立了新标杆。

“Fiddlesticks,” featuring Flip the Frog, was a stand-alone cartoon with synchronized sound.

《Fiddlesticks》是一部有声卡通片,主角是“青蛙弗利浦”(Flip the Frog)。

By that year, music had been widely used to accompany animations. Some of the more laborious animations were even in color. Then around 1930, those two features were combined.

但在当年,音乐普遍被用来为动画伴奏。一些更为耗时耗力的动画甚至是彩色的。到了1930年,这两项特色结合到了一起。

In Germany, Lotte Reiniger’s character silhouettes of the 1920s used changing background colors to create atmospheric scenes. In the U.S., “King of Jazz” in 1930 featured a short color animation with synchronized sound.

在德国,1920年代洛特•赖尼格(Lotte Reiniger)的角色造型使用了不断变化的背景色,以创造出独特场景。在美国,1930年的《爵士之王》(King of Jazz)则展现了一部声音同步化的彩色动画短片。

In “Fiddlesticks,” Flip the Frog tap-dances his way through a world of merry animals, but then is moved to tears as he plays the piano alongside a violin-playing rodent that resembled Mickey Mouse.

在《Fiddlesticks》里,青蛙弗利浦一路跳着踢踏舞,穿过一群欢乐的动物,然后当他在一个形似米老鼠(Mickey Mouse)、拉着小提琴的老鼠旁弹起钢琴,他落泪了。

The animation was released by Ub Iwerks, who had helped produce Mickey Mouse, shortly after he left Walt Disney’s growing enterprise. The Flip franchise ended in 1933, and Mr. Iwerks returned to work at Disney.

这部动画是乌布•伊沃克斯(Ub Iwerks)在离开华特•迪士尼(Walt Disney)这家不断成长的企业后推出的,他还曾帮助制作《米老鼠》(Mickey Mouse)。青蛙弗利浦系列于1933年结束,伊沃克斯也随即回归迪士尼工作。

But he never stopped innovating.

但他从未停下创新的脚步。

His obituary noted that he invented “a panoramic camera arrangement.” Imagine his excitement if he could see today’s 360-degree cartoons.

他的讣告指出他发明了“一种能进行全景摄像的装置”。想像一下,他如果能见到如今的360度卡通的话,该有多么兴奋吧。
Forty years ago today, Earth received a transmission from aliens. Maybe.
40年前的今天,地球收到了可能是外星人传来的东西。

Scientists are still debating a signal 30 times louder than the background noise of space that was picked up by a radio telescope at Ohio State University on Aug. 15, 1977.

科学家如今仍在就一个信号展开争论,该信号是1977年8月15日由俄亥俄州立大学(Ohio State University)的射电望远镜接收到的,比太空的背景噪声分贝要高30倍。

A few days later, a volunteer astronomer named Jerry Ehman was reviewing a printout of data from the telescope, called Big Ear, which was scanning for alien messages.

几天之后,一个名叫杰瑞•伊曼(Jerry Ehman)、志愿工作的天文学家正在评估这台名为“大耳”(Big Ear)的射电望远镜收集到数据的打印资料,当时“大耳”在扫描寻找来自外星人的信息。

He noticed a series of letters and numbers that represented a crescendo in the surrounding static. He circled the sequence and wrote an exclamation next to what became known as the “Wow!” signal.

他注意到了一系列字母和数字,它们代表着在静止环境中逐渐增强的音量。他圈出了这一排列组合,并在旁边写下了自己的感叹,后来这个信号被称为“哇!”(Wow)信号。

The signal’s bandwidth was off-limits to human broadcasts. Even weirder, the frequency was about 1420 megahertz, the same as that emitted by hydrogen, the most common element in the universe. As such, scientists have reasoned that alien civilizations might use it to communicate.

这一信号的频带宽度是人类的广播所无法达到的。更奇怪的是,信号的频率约为1420兆赫,与宇宙中最常见的元素氢发出的频率相同。这么一来,科学家们认定外星文明可能通过这种信号进行交流。

The possible origin was narrowed to somewhere in the constellation Sagittarius, but despite many searches the noise was never heard again.

信号可能的来源范围被缩小至射手座,但尽管不少人对这个噪声进行了搜寻,但人们再也没有听到过它。

What was it? Theories include a military broadcast, a sound deflected off orbiting space junk, a malfunction, a yet-to-be-understood space phenomenon — and aliens. Scientists sent a reply to the signal in 2012, but it has — as yet — gone unanswered.

它是什么?各种说法不一,其中包括军事广播、从按照轨道运行的太空垃圾偏分出来的声音、仪器失灵、我们还未理解的太空现象——还有外星人。2012年,科学家对这个信号发出了回复,但目前还未收到答复。
The Smithsonian Institution, which Congress created on this day in 1846, is now composed of 19 museums and galleries that are devoted to “the process of developing an American national identity.”

史密森学会(The Smithsonian Institution)由国会在1846年的今天设立,如今已经拥有19座博物馆和画廊,致力于“发展美国国家认同的这一过程”。

It is intriguing, then, that the Smithsonian’s founding patron, James Smithson, never set foot in the U.S.

这么一来,为史密森学会创立提供资助的詹姆斯•史密森(James Smithson)从未踏足美国的这一点,就十分有趣了。

Smithson was born in Paris as Jacques-Louis Macie, the illegitimate son of a wealthy English duke. He eventually changed his name, became a British citizen and built a solid reputation as a scientist. (A mineral, smithsonite, is named for him, and he is credited with coming up with the term “silicates.”)

史密森生于巴黎,原名雅克-路易•梅西(Jacques-Louis Macie),是一名富有的英国公爵的私生子。最终,他改了名字,成为了英国公民,作为科学家树立起了良好的声誉(有一种矿物菱锌矿[smithsonite]正是以他来命名的,据称他也是为硅酸盐[silicates]命名的人)。

When Smithson died in Italy in 1829, he left behind an unusual will: If his nephew, his sole heir, died without children, his entire estate would go to the U.S. to found “at Washington, under the name Smithsonian Institution, an establishment for the increase and diffusion of knowledge.”

1829年,当史密森于意大利去世时,他留下了一个不同寻常的遗嘱:如果他的侄子,即其唯一继承人去世时没有后代,他的全部财产会捐给美国,用来“在华盛顿以史密森学会的名称,为知识的增加和传播”建立“一个机构”。

Only theories exist to explain why Smithson gave the U.S. his wealth, which amounted to more than $500,000, about 1/66th of the U.S. budget at the time.

史密森将其财富赠予美国的原因众说纷纭。他的财富逾50万美元,相当于当时美国1/66的预算。

Even the Smithsonian concedes that “we are left to speculate on the ideals and motivations of a gift that has had such significant impact on the arts, humanities and sciences of the United States.”

就连史密森学会都承认“对于这个对美国艺术、人文学科和科学具有重大影响力的馈赠,我们也只能揣测其背后的想法和动机”。

As Alibaba’s Profit Surges, Its Shares Catch Up With U.S. Online Giants’
阿里巴巴盈利翻番,估值逼近美国科技巨头

HONG KONG — This year may finally be the year that global investors put Chinese internet companies alongside American giants like Facebook and Amazon.

香港——今年也许最终将成为全球投资者把中国互联网公司与Facebook和亚马逊等美国巨头相提并论的一年。

On Thursday, Alibaba Group, the Chinese e-commerce giant, said its profit for the three months that ended in June almost doubled, while its revenue rose more than half. But just as impressive a jump was its stock price, which has increased more than 80 percent so far this year. Now Alibaba and its biggest Chinese rival, Tencent Holdings, have valuations that hover around $400 billion.

周四,中国电子商务巨头阿里巴巴集团表示,公司利润在6月份结束的三个月里几乎翻了一番,同时,公司营收增长了50%以上。但公司股价的增长同样令人赞叹,今年的涨幅迄今已超过80%。目前,阿里巴巴及其最大的中国对手腾讯控股的估值都徘徊在4000亿美元上下。

By contrast, Amazon.com has a valuation of about $470 billion, while Facebook is at about $490 billion.

作为对比,Amazon.com的估值约为4700亿美元,而Facebook的则约为4900亿美元。

Investors are becoming more aware that Alibaba and Tencent have become central to the day-to-day entertainment, shopping and spending habits of China’s middle class. Tencent, which offers extremely popular video games and social media services, reported on Wednesday its own surge in quarterly profit, sending its shares higher still.

投资者越来越多地意识到,阿里巴巴和腾讯已成为中国中产阶层日常娱乐、购物和消费习惯的重要部分。提供非常受欢迎的视频游戏和社交媒体服务的腾讯周三也报告了自己季度利润的急剧上升,致使其股价进一步上涨。

But like its American peers, high valuations lead to high expectations.

但是,与其美国同行一样,高估值也带来了高期待。

The Numbers

季度数字

Alibaba said its fiscal first-quarter profit rose 94 percent to $2.2 billion, thanks to strong sales. Sales across its e-commerce businesses rose 56 percent.

阿里巴巴说,其财政年度第一季度的利润增长94%,达到了22亿美元,主要是因为销售强劲。其电子商务业务的销售总额增长了56%。

Alibaba’s sales have surged as Chinese statistics show consumers in the country continue to do more and more of their shopping online. In that sense, Alibaba’s growth is tracking China’s efforts to transform its economy to rely more on American-style consumption and less on government spending.

随着中国统计数据显示,国内消费者越来越多地到网上购物,阿里巴巴的销售额也在急剧上升。从这个意义上来看,阿里巴巴的增长反映了中国经济改革的努力,中国正在让其经济更多地依赖于美国式的消费,而不是政府的支出。

That does not make it infallible. Alibaba’s results rely on its online marketplaces, which face growing competition and could someday be hit by a slowdown in growth either from the Chinese economy or from internet adoption in a still-developing country. To diversify, Alibaba has been expanding into entertainment and cloud computing and looking for new opportunities overseas, where it faces competition from its American peers.

这不会让其万无一失。阿里巴巴的业绩依赖于它的在线市场,这个市场面临着日益激烈的竞争,有朝一日会受到来自中国经济、或者来自仍在发展的国家里互联网采纳速度的影响,导致增长放缓。为了多元化,阿里巴巴一直在向娱乐和云计算等领域扩展,同时也在海外寻找新机会,但在海外面临着来自美国同行的竞争。

The Technology

阿里的技术

The strong growth also cloaks a more complicated picture. Over the past year, Alibaba’s increase in revenue has outstripped the actual value of the goods being sold on its e-commerce websites. That means that the company has been able to earn more off the vendors who sell everything from name brands to knickknacks on its sites.

强劲的增长也掩盖了一个更复杂的局面。过去一年来,阿里巴巴的营收增长超过了在其电子商务网站上销售的商品的实际价值的增长。这意味着,阿里一直能够从在其网站上销售从名牌到小摆设等各种商品的商家身上获得更多的收入。

Alibaba makes money from vendors by charging them for advertising on its platforms, among other services. New technology and some of its corporate deals have given it access to new and better data that give it more power to target those vendors.

阿里巴巴从商家赚钱的方式包括,向商家征收在其平台上发布广告和其它服务的费用。新技术、以及公司的一些交易让它获得了新的、更好的数据,让阿里得到了更好地瞄准这些商家的能力。

That approach has kept Alibaba’s results strong despite a slowdown in growth of the total value of goods being sold on its platform. But it is not clear how long it can keep that phenomenon going, fueling its effort to find new consumers and expand into new businesses.

尽管在阿里平台上销售的商品总价值的增长放缓,但阿里的做法让公司保持了强劲的业绩。但目前尚不可知,阿里能让这种情况持续多久,从而为其加紧寻找新消费者、扩大新业务的努力提供资金。

Jack Ma Goes to Washington

马云涉足华盛顿

As part of that push, Jack Ma, Alibaba’s charismatic founder, has been barnstorming across the American political landscape over the past year. A sort of ambassador for the company, Mr. Ma met with President Trump and held a conference in Detroit. His goal has been to persuade more American vendors to get on Alibaba and sell to a Chinese middle class that craves foreign goods.

作为扩展业务努力的一部分,阿里巴巴富有魅力的创始人马云在过去一年中,一直在美国各地进行巡回政治游说。马云以类似阿里大使的身份与特朗普总统见了面,还在底特律举行了一次会议。他的目标是劝说更多的美国商家入住阿里巴巴,对渴望外国商品的中国中产阶层进行销售。

By attracting more vendors from overseas, Alibaba is able to bring in more big advertising spenders, and support its revenue growth.

通过吸引更多的海外销售商,阿里巴巴将能够为自己找到更大的广告买家,从而支持公司收入的增长。

Helping his cause was a settlement announced this month between Alibaba and Kering, the luxury goods giant that owns the Gucci brand and had filed a lawsuit in 2015 charging counterfeit goods had been sold from Alibaba’s e-commerce websites.

有利于马云事业的是,阿里巴巴与开云集团本月宣布达成了一项解决方案,开云集团是拥有古驰等名牌奢侈品的巨头,它曾在2015年起诉阿里巴巴,指控阿里的电子商务网站上有假冒商品出售。

The Amazon Aspect

亚马逊方面

As Alibaba looks abroad, it may finally directly compete with that other e-commerce giant, Amazon. In Southeast Asia, where Alibaba owns an online commerce platform called Lazada, it will probably face a new Amazon initiative in the region.

随着阿里巴巴转向海外,它也许最终会与另一个电子商务巨头亚马逊直接竞争。阿里巴巴在东南亚拥有一个名为拉扎达(Lazada)的在线商务平台,很可能将在该地区面临亚马逊的新攻势。

Some have wondered whether Mr. Ma is simply following Amazon’s game plan. Just as Amazon has done, Alibaba has started a cloud computing business, bought into a high-profile newspaper, worked to begin creating its own entertainment content, and more recently made bold predictions about unmanned retail stores that will use smartphones to automatically charge customers.

有些人想知道,马云是否仅仅是在仿效亚马逊的行动计划。正如亚马逊所做的那样,阿里巴巴已开始了一个云计算业务,收购了一家受关注的报纸,启动了创造自己的娱乐内容的工作,最近还对无人售货商店进行了大胆的预测,这种商店将通过智能手机自动向客户收钱。

Still, there are some ways in which Alibaba is different. The biggest one is its financial affiliate, Ant Financial, which is responsible for trillions of dollars in money transfers each year. As it looks to expand the business overseas, it has bid for MoneyGram, a remittance company that would give it new exposure to America. As American regulators review that deal, much will depend on Mr. Ma’s political maneuverings.

不过阿里巴巴还有一些不同之处。最大的一个是其金融分支机构蚂蚁金服,蚂蚁金服每年承担着数万亿美元的转帐汇款。随着它开始向海外拓展业务,它已出价收购MoneyGram,这家汇款公司将让蚂蚁金服与美国市场发生新的接触。美国监管机构正在对这项交易进行审查,结果如何将在很大程度上取决于马云的政治能力。
马克斯•加维(Marcus Garvey)诞辰130周年
Today is the 130th anniversary of the birth of Marcus Garvey, a founder of the black nationalist movement and the Rastafari prophet.
今天是马克斯•加维(Marcus Garvey)诞辰130周年。他是黑人民族主义运动的创始人和拉斯塔法里的先知。

Born in Jamaica, Garvey throughout his life advocated for black people to return to Africa and reclaim it as their own.

加维生于牙买加,终其一生倡导黑人应回到非洲,并让非洲重回自己手中。

“He was the first man to give Negroes a sense of dignity and destiny,” the Rev. Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. said in 1965.

“他是第一个给了黑人尊严和命运之感的人,” 1965年,马丁•路德•金牧师曾这样说。

But in preaching his message, Garvey unintentionally spawned a religion when he said: “Look to Africa, when a black king shall be crowned, for the day of deliverance is near.”

但是在宣扬自己的理念时,加维无意中衍生出了一种宗教,他说:“看向非洲,当一位黑人国王被加冕之时,救赎的日子就近了。”

In 1930, Ras Tafari Makonnen — known thereafter as Haile Selassie — ascended to Ethiopia’s throne, which was taken as a fulfillment of Garvey’s words. Rastafarians immediately hailed Selassie as Jah, the Black Messiah.

1930年,拉斯•塔法里•马科宁(Ras Tafari Makonnen)——后来被称为海勒•塞拉西(Haile Selassie)——登上了埃塞俄比亚的王位。这被看作是实现了加维的话。拉法塔西亚成员立即将塞拉西敬为Jah——黑人的救世主。

Garvey was not a follower himself, but Rastafari spread across the globe several decades later with the help of reggae musicians, most prominently Bob Marley.

加维本人不是追随者,但几十年后,拉斯塔法里在雷鬼音乐人的帮助下传遍全球,其中最突出的是鲍勃•马利(Bob Marley)。

Selassie died in 1975, but Rastafarians remained convinced he was the living God. As Marley explained in an interview with The Times in 1977, “Many people, dey scoffers.”

塞拉西于1975年去世,但拉斯塔法里教徒仍然相信他曾是活着的上帝。正如马利在1977年时报的采访中解释的,“很多人,很多嘲笑者。”

“How can God die, mon?” Marley continued. “That’s why I wrote ‘Jah Live.’ ”

“上帝怎么会死呢,蒙?”马利接着说。“这就是为什么我写了《上帝活着》(Jah Live)这首歌。”
What Are the Purple Dots on Michael Phelps? Cupping Has an Olympic Moment
菲尔普斯肩膀上的秘密:拔罐

RIO DE JANEIRO — Olympics trivia: What has 19 gold medals and a bunch of purple circles?

里约热内卢——奥运会琐事:谁拥有19枚金牌和一堆紫色圆形痕迹?

If you watched a certain swimmer’s Rio Games debut on Sunday night, when he propelled the United States 4×100-meter relay team to a gold medal, you know the answer: Michael Phelps.

如果你看了周日晚上某位游泳运动员在里约奥运会上的首秀,看到他力助美国队赢得4×100米接力赛冠军,你就知道我在说谁:迈克尔•菲尔普斯(Michael Phelps)。

While it may look like the athletes have been in a bar fight, the telltale purple dots actually are signs of “cupping,” an ancient Chinese healing practice that is experiencing an Olympic moment.

虽然这些醒目的紫色圆圈看起来像是运动员在酒吧打过架,但它们实际上是拔罐的印记;这是中国古代的一种治疗方法,它正在经历自己的奥运时刻。

In cupping, practitioners of the healing technique — or sometimes the athletes themselves — place specialized cups on the skin. Then they use either heat or an air pump to create suction between the cup and the skin, pulling the skin slightly up and away from the underlying muscles.

拔罐时,治疗师——有时是运动员自己——把特制的杯子放在皮肤上。然后通过加热或抽气,让杯子和皮肤之间产生吸力,然后把皮肤从下层肌肉轻轻拉起。

The suction typically lasts for only a few minutes, but it’s enough time to cause the capillaries just beneath the surface to rupture, creating the circular, eye-catching bruises that have been so visible on Phelps as well as members of the United States men’s gymnastics team. If the bruising effect looks oddly familiar, it’s because it’s the same thing that happens when someone sucks on your neck and leaves a hickey.

这种吸力通常只能维持几分钟,但是足以让表皮下的毛细血管破裂,造成引人注目的圆形淤痕——我们在菲尔普斯以及美国男子体操队队员身上都看到了它们。如果这种淤痕效果让你觉得意外地熟悉,那是因为它跟有人在你脖子上吸吮留下的吻痕是一回事。

Physiologically, cupping is thought to draw blood to the affected area, reducing soreness and speeding healing of overworked muscles. Athletes who use it swear by it, saying it keeps them injury free and speeds recovery. Phelps, whose shoulders were dotted with the purple marks as he powered his 4×100 freestyle relay team to a gold medal Sunday, featured a cupping treatment in a recent Under Armour video. He also posted an Instagram photo showing himself stretched on a table as his Olympic swimming teammate Allison Schmitt placed several pressurized cups along the back of his thighs. “Thanks for my cupping today!” he wrote.

从生理学上讲,拔罐是为了把血吸到患部,减轻酸痛,加速过度疲劳的肌肉恢复。用过这种方法的运动员称,它能让他们免于受伤,加速康复。周日菲尔普斯力助美国队赢得4×100自由泳接力赛金牌时,他的肩上布满这种紫色印记。在前不久发布的Under Armour运动服装品牌的视频中,他在接受拔罐治疗。他还在Instagram上发了一张照片,展示自己平躺在桌子上,他的奥运会游泳队队友艾莉森•施米特(Allison Schmitt)在他的大腿后侧放置了几个加压的罐子。“谢谢今天给我拔罐!”他写道。

While there’s no question that many athletes, coaches and trainers believe in the treatment, there’s not much science to determine whether cupping offers a real physiological benefit or whether the athletes simply are enjoying a placebo effect.

毫无疑问,很多运动员、教练和训练师相信这种治疗,但是从科学上不太能确定拔罐带来的,是生理上的切实益处还是心理上的安慰。

One 2012 study of 61 people with chronic neck pain compared cupping to a technique called progressive muscle relaxation, or PMR, during which a patient deliberately tenses his muscles and then focuses on relaxing them. Half the patients used cupping while the other half used PMR. Both patient groups reported similar reductions in pain after 12 weeks of treatment. Notably, the patients who had used cupping scored higher on measurements of well-being and felt less pain when pressure was applied to the area. Even so, the researchers noted that more study is needed to determine the potential benefits of cupping.

2012年,一项涉及61名慢性颈痛患者的研究比较了拔罐和一种名为渐进肌肉放松(PMR)的治疗方法——后者是让患者故意绷紧肌肉,然后集中精神放松肌肉。其中一半患者采用拔罐疗法,另一半采用PMR疗法。经过12周的治疗,两组患者都表示疼痛减轻。值得注意的是,采用拔罐疗法的患者对自己健康状况的评分更高,脖颈受压时感到的疼痛更轻。尽管如此,研究者们指出,需要更多研究来确定拔罐的潜在益处。

Another experiment involving 40 patients who suffered from knee arthritis found that people who underwent cupping reported less pain after four months compared to arthritis sufferers in a control group who were not treated. But the cupped group knew they were being treated — it’s not easy to blind people about whether a suction cup is being attached to their leg or not — and so the benefits might have been due primarily to a placebo effect.

另一项涉及40名膝关节炎患者的实验发现,与没有接受治疗的对照组相比,经过四个月拔罐治疗的患者表示疼痛减轻。不过,拔罐组的患者知道自己在接受治疗——很难不让一个人知道自己腿上吸着一个罐子——所以这些效果也可能主要来自安慰作用。

Still, a placebo effect can be beneficial, and for athletes at the Olympic level, any legal edge, however tenuous, may be worth a few eye-catching bruises.

不过,安慰作用也是有益的,对于奥运会水平的运动员来说,任何合法的优势——不管多么微弱——都值得拥有,几处引人注目的淤痕不算什么。

“A placebo effect is present in all treatments, and I am sure that it is substantial in the case of cupping as well,” said Leonid Kalichman, a senior lecturer at Ben-Gurion University of the Negev in Israel, who recently co-authored a commentary reviewing cupping research in the Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies. “A patient can feel the treatment and has marks after it, and this can contribute to a placebo effect.”

“所有治疗都有安慰作用,我确信它在拔罐中也占很大成分,”以色列内盖夫本-古里安大学(Ben-Gurion University)的高级讲师列昂尼德•卡利切曼(Leonid Kalichman)说。前不久,他在《身体锻炼和运动治疗报》(Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies)上与他人联合发表了一篇拔罐研究的述评文章。“患者能感觉到治疗,而且会留下印记,这会起到安慰作用。”

Even so, Kalichman said he believes the treatment has a real physiological effect as well. It may be that cupping, by causing local inflammation, triggers the immune system to produce cytokines, small proteins that enhance communication between cells and help to modulate the immune response.

尽管如此,卡利切曼说,他认为这种疗法也具有切实的生理作用。可能是因为拔罐会导致局部发炎,促使免疫系统产生细胞活素——这种微小的蛋白质能促进细胞之间的交流,有助于调节免疫反应。

A few years ago the Denver Broncos player DeMarcus Ware posted a photo on Instagram showing his back covered with 19 clear cups as a therapist held a flame used to heat the cup before placing it on the skin. Celebrities including Jennifer Aniston and Gwyneth Paltrow have also been photographed with cupping marks on their skin.

几年前,丹佛野马橄榄球队(Denver Broncos)的球员德马库斯•韦尔(DeMarcus Ware)在Instagram上发了一张照片,展示自己的背部放着19个透明杯子,治疗师用火把杯子加热,放到皮肤上。詹妮弗•安妮斯顿(Jennifer Aniston)和格温妮丝•帕特罗(Gwyneth Paltrow)等名人也被拍到皮肤上有拔罐的印记。

Last year, Swimming World magazine noted that some college programs had begun using cupping therapy as well as the former Olympian Natalie Coughlin, who has posted a number of photos of herself undergoing the treatment.

去年,《游泳世界》杂志(Swimming World)指出,有些大学项目开始使用拔罐疗法,前奥运会游泳选手纳塔莉•考夫林(Natalie Coughlin)也发了几张自己接受拔罐治疗的照片。

The American gymnast Alexander Naddour was sporting the purple dots during the men’s qualifying rounds on Saturday in Rio de Janeiro. He told USA Today that he bought a do-it-yourself cupping kit from Amazon. “That’s been the secret that I have had through this year that keeps me healthy,” Naddour told USA Today. “It’s been better than any money I’ve spent on anything else.”

周六,美国体操运动员亚历山大•纳道尔(Alexander Naddour)在参加里约奥运会的男子体操预选赛时,也露出紫色圆圈。他在接受《今日美国》(USA Today)采访时说,他在Amazon上买了一套自助拔罐器具。“那是我今年保持健康的秘诀,”纳道尔对《今日美国》说。“它比我在其他任何东西上花的钱都值。”
Zika, a Formidable Enemy, Attacks and Destroys Parts of Babies’ Brains
令人心碎的图像:兹卡对婴儿大脑造成严重损害

The images tell a heartbreaking story: Zika’s calamitous attack on the brains of babies — as seen from the inside.

这些图片讲述了一个令人心碎的故事:从大脑内部观察兹卡病毒对婴儿大脑的灾难性损害。

With a macabre catalog of brain scans and ultrasound pictures, a new study details the devastation done to 45 Brazilian babies whose mothers were infected with Zika during pregnancy. The study, published Tuesday in the journal Radiology, is the most comprehensive collection of such images so far, and it reveals a virus that can launch assaults beyond microcephaly, the condition of unusually small heads that has become the sinister signature of Zika.

通过一系列令人毛骨悚然的脑部扫描和超声波影像,一项新的研究详细展示了45名巴西婴儿的大脑遭遇的损伤。她们的母亲在怀孕期间曾感染兹卡病毒。周二发表于《放射学》(Radiology)杂志的这项研究,是此类影像收集中最全面的,揭示了一种可以在引发小头畸形之外造成其他损伤的病毒。小头畸形是头异常小的一种症状,已经成为受兹卡病毒侵害的典型特征。

Most of the babies in the study were born with microcephaly, but many of them also suffered other impairments, including damage to important parts of the brain: the corpus callosum, which connects the two hemispheres of the brain; the cerebellum, which plays a significant role in movement, balance and speech; the basal ganglia, which are involved in thinking and emotion.

这项研究中的婴儿出生时大多都有小头畸形症,不过他们中有不少也遭受了其他损伤,包括大脑重要部分的损伤:连接两个大脑半球的脑胼胝体;对运动、平衡和速度至关重要的小脑;以及与思维和情绪有关的基底神经节。

“It’s not just the small brain, it’s that there’s a lot more damage,” said Dr. Deborah Levine, an author of the study and a professor of radiology at Harvard Medical School in Boston. “The abnormalities that we see in the brain suggest a very early disruption of the brain development process.”

“不只是脑袋小,还有许多其他损伤,”这项研究的作者之一、位于波士顿的哈佛医学院(Harvard Medical School)放射学教授黛博拉•莱文(Deborah Levine)博士说。“我们在大脑中看到的异常表明对大脑发育的阻碍出现得非常早。”

The findings also raised worrisome concerns about whether babies born without such obvious impairments could develop brain damage as they grow. For example, almost all the babies in the study had problems in the cortex, including clumps of calcium and neurons that did not reach the right location in the brain. Because the cortex keeps developing after birth, Levine said, “we’re concerned that there might be mild cases that we haven’t seen yet, and we should keep monitoring the babies after birth to see if they have cortical abnormalities.”

这项发现引发了这样的担忧,即出生时没有此类明显损伤的婴儿,是否会随着生长出现脑损伤。比如,参与研究的婴儿的脑皮层几乎都存在问题,包括无法到达大脑正确方位的钙和神经元出现聚集。莱文表示,因为脑皮层在出生后会持续生长,“我们担心可能存在我们还没有发现的轻度损伤,我们应该在这些婴儿出生后对他们进行持续的监测,以判断他们是否存在脑皮层异常。”

The images studied came from 17 babies whose mothers had a confirmed Zika infection during pregnancy and from 28 without laboratory proof but with all indications of Zika.

被拍摄脑部影像的婴儿,有17名的母亲在怀孕期间被确认感染兹卡病毒,另有28名缺乏化验证明,但具备感染兹卡病毒的所有症状。

The images include scans of twin girls, who both developed microcephaly. The pictures show folds of overlapping skin and a sloping forehead, indications not only that the brain is smaller, but also that the forebrain has not developed normally, Levine said.

这些图像中有一些来自两名双胞胎女孩,她们都有小头畸形症。莱文表示,在两人的脑部图像中可以看到重叠的脑皮层褶皱和倾斜的前额,这表示她们不仅脑部比较小,而且前脑发育不正常。

How to Be Mindful While Brushing Your Teeth
刷牙的同时,“洗洗脑”

“Everyone should be brushing their teeth twice a day, bookending the day,” says Dr. Fern White, a dentist in Australia who practices mindful dentistry. “If you do so mindfully, you can also be ‘brushing your brain.’”

“每个人每天应该刷两次牙,标记一天的开始和结束,”澳大利亚执业的正念牙科牙医弗恩•怀特博士(Fern White)说,“如果你用心去做,还可以同时‘清洗你的头脑’”。

Apply the toothpaste to your toothbrush.

把牙膏挤到牙刷上。

Begin to brush. Breathe through your nose, slowly and deliberately.

开始刷牙。缓慢、从容地用鼻子呼吸。

Relax your neck and jaw.

放松脖子和下巴。

Loosen your grip on the toothbrush. Feel the bristles moving over your teeth and the gums.

握牙刷的手放松。感受刷毛在你的牙齿和牙龈上移动。

Taste the toothpaste.

品尝牙膏的味道。

As you rinse, breathe deeply through your nose. Notice your clean teeth.

漱口时,用鼻子深呼吸。留意你干净的牙齿。

Feel gratitude for your teeth and all that they allow you to do — chewing, smiling, speaking.

感激牙齿以及它们能让你做的事——咀嚼、微笑和讲话。

Mindful brushing, says Dr. White, gives your brain a chance to rest and “sets a peaceful tone for the day ahead or the night ahead.”

怀特博士说,正念刷牙让你的大脑有机会休息,“为即将开始的一天或一晚奠定平静的基调。”

No time to work out? Try exercising on the job
每天抽出几分钟,工作时也能锻炼

Young people frequently say that they want to exercise, but they just can’t find the time.

年轻人经常说他们想锻炼,但就是找不到时间。

The solution just might be in-office interval training. That means taking part in short bursts of intense exercise — while in the office. Recent studies show that very short but intense exercise rapidly builds and maintains fitness and health, even when the workout is only a few minutes long.

也许只要利用办公室里的零碎时间进行间歇性训练就可以了。那意味着在公司里做短时间的剧烈运动。最近有研究表明,时间短但强度大的运动,会快速增进体能与健康,即便锻炼时间只有几分钟。

Work the stairs

跑楼梯

You can complete an excellent, effective — and very brief — workout in an office stairwell, says Martin Gibala, a professor of kinesiology at McMaster University in Canada and an expert on interval training.

加拿大麦克马斯特大学(McMaster University)运动机能学教授、间歇性训练专家马丁•吉巴拉(Martin Gibala)说,你可以在公司的楼梯间内出色地完成短时高效的锻炼。

Stairwell interval training requires only one minute of strenuous exertion, he says.

他说在楼梯间里做间歇性训练,只需要进行一分钟的高强度运动。

For a study that he and his colleagues presented earlier this year, they asked 12 out-of-shape women in their 20s to warm up for two minutes by slowly walking up and down stairs in a campus office building. Then the women ran up the steps “as fast as safely possible,” Dr. Gibala says, for 20 seconds. They walked down and along a flat corridor for two minutes, ran back up the stairs for another 20 seconds, walked for two minutes, and ran up for a final 20 seconds. They then cooled down with three minutes of stair and corridor walking. The entire session lasted 10 minutes, which would easily fit into a lunch break. (If you do this, you may want to bring and change into workout clothing to avoid sweating in your work clothes and freshen up afterward with a bird bath in an office restroom.)

他和同事于今年早些时候发表了一篇研究论文,为了开展相关研究,他们曾让12名年龄为20多岁、体型不佳的女士,在一个学校办公大楼的楼梯间里花两分钟时间慢慢地走上走下,进行热身。接着,这些女士以自己“最快最安全”的方式,用20秒跑上楼梯,吉巴拉博士说。她们随后走下楼梯,走在一条平坦的楼道里,历时两分钟,再折回去,用20秒跑上楼梯,然后行走两分钟,再用20秒最后一次跑上楼梯。接下来,女士们花三分钟时间通过走楼梯和楼道进行放松。整次训练持续10分钟,午餐时间便可完成。(如果要这样锻炼,你也许可以换上运动装,避免因出汗弄脏工作服,结束后可以在办公室卫生间的洗脸池前梳洗一番。)

They completed three of these abbreviated stair workouts per week for six weeks. By the end, their aerobic fitness had improved substantially, the researchers reported, by about as much as if they had been running or cycling each week for hours.

她们每周在楼梯间里做三组这样的简短锻炼,历时六周。研究人员报告说,到最后,女士们的有氧适能获得了很大的改善,效果犹如她们在这六周内每周都花好几个小时跑步或骑自行车。

Lift weight at your desk

在办公桌旁举重

To change body shape, you almost certainly need to also perform some type of weight training, exercise scientists agree. As with the stair training, weight work can be done during your workday. Keep a five-pound dumbbell near your desk and perform arm curls while you are on the phone. Stand on the edge of a stair during a midmorning break and let your heels drop, then slowly rise up until you are standing on your tiptoes on the stairs. Repeat that exercise 10 times and you can strengthen and tighten muscles throughout your legs.

运动科学家们一致认为,要改变体型,你几乎一定得做一些重量训练。跟楼梯间里的锻练一样,重量训练也可以在上班期间完成。在办公桌附近放一个五磅(约合2.27公斤)重的哑铃,打电话时可以做手臂弯举。在上午的中间休息时间,可以站在一级楼梯边缘,让脚跟下沉,然后身体慢慢向上提起,直到踮起脚尖。重复该训练10次,就能达到强化和收紧腿部肌肉的效果。

Fidget your way to fitness

通过“坐立不安”改善身体机能

Parents and teachers may once have urged you to sit still, but wiggling, tapping your toes, standing briefly, and otherwise fidgeting as much as possible at your desk is in fact good for your body. In one recent study, college students showed healthier blood flow in their lower legs if they fidgeted than if they did not. Even better, a 2008 study found that among office workers, those who frequently fidgeted burned as many as 300 calories more each day than those who resolutely stayed still.

家长和老师也许曾敦促你坐着别动,但在办公桌旁尽量扭动、敲击脚趾,短时间站立,或者以其他方式尽可能地保持坐立不安的状态,事实上对你的身体有益。近期的一项研究显示,比起处于安静状态时,大学生处于坐立不安状态时的下肢血液循环更为健康。更妙的是,2008年的一项研究发现,在办公室一族当中,那些经常动来动去的比起那些静止不动的,每天可以多燃烧多达300卡路里的热量。

Find seven minutes to exercise

找出7分钟来锻炼

For a fast, full-body weight-training and interval program, close your office door and cue up the Scientific 7-Minute Workout. The program targets muscles in the upper body, lower body and core, improves aerobic endurance, and can be completed in less time than most of us spend dithering about how to get to the gym.

要利用零碎时间快速做全身性重量训练,不妨关上办公室的门,准备进行“7分钟科学健身”。这个锻炼计划针对的是上下身的肌肉和核心肌群,有助于改善有氧耐力,所用时间比我们大部分人为了怎么去健身房而纠结的时间还要短。

Good News for Older Mothers
做高龄妈妈,也许是一件好事

The first time I got pregnant, I was a comparatively young mother, for my demographic: I was 25, in medical school, surrounded by classmates who, for the most part, were not reproducing yet. By the third pregnancy, 11 years later, I was over 35, which classified me, in the obstetric terminology I had learned in medical school, as an “elderly multigravida,” that is, someone who was having a child but not her first child, after 35. (If it was your first child, you were an “elderly primigravida,” or “elderly primip” for short — even as a medical student, I had a strong sense that no woman had invented this terminology.)

第一次怀孕时,就我所在的群体——25岁、医学院学生、身边的同学大部分都还没生孩子——而言,我是一个相对年轻的妈妈。到11年后第三次怀孕时,我已经过了35岁了。按照我在医学院学到的产科术语,我属于“高龄经产妇”(elderly primigravida),即在35岁之后生孩子但不是第一个孩子的人(如果是第一个孩子,那就是“高龄初产妇”——即便作为一名医学院的学生,我也强烈地觉得发明这个术语的人不是女性)。

So by certain standards, I have experience as both a somewhat younger mother and a somewhat older mother, though not at the extremes in either direction.

因此,按照某些标准,我既有作为比较年轻的母亲,又有作为年纪较大的母亲的经历,尽管在这两个方面都不算极端。

National Vital Statistics Reports data released in January showed that in the United States, birthrates shifted in 2015: The birthrate for teenagers dropped to 22.3 births per 1,000 females ages 15 to 19 that year, a record low for the nation. And for women 30 through 44, the birthrates were the highest they have been since the baby boom era of the 1960s.

1月公布的《国家生命统计报告》(National Vital Statistics Reports)数据显示,2015年美国的出生率发生了变化:青少年中的出生率跌至每1000名15到19岁的女性生育22.3个孩子,创下美国历史最低水平。而在30到44岁的女性中,出生率达到了60年代婴儿潮时期以来的最高点。

And as birthrates shift toward somewhat older mothers, researchers continue to look at what that says, both about who is getting pregnant when, and how that is associated with how their children do, especially when it comes to cognitive outcomes. (There’s also been some interesting research recently on paternal age, but these studies focused on the mothers.)

随着出生率向年纪较大的母亲转移,研究人员继续研究这意味着什么——关于什么人在什么时候怀孕,以及这对孩子的表现的影响,尤其是在认知能力方面的影响(最近也有关于父亲年龄的有趣研究,但这些研究的重点却是母亲)。

The trend all over the developed world in recent years has been more women having more children later; mean age in the United States at birth of a first child increased from 24.9 to 26.3 from 2000 to 2014. And whether it’s a first child or a later child, more women giving birth are 35 and older, which is still classified as “advanced maternal age” (well, it beats “elderly”).

近年来,发达国家的趋势是,更多女性会在年龄大一些的时候要更多的孩子。美国生第一个孩子的年龄中位数从2000年的24.9岁增大到了2014年的26.3岁。无论是不是第一个孩子,在35岁及以上的年纪生孩子的女性增加了。这些人依然被归为“高龄产妇”(advanced maternal age,好吧,advanced好歹比elderly好一点)。

In a study published in February in the International Journal of Epidemiology, researchers looked at evidence from three different large longitudinal studies in Britain, from 1958, 1970 and 2000-2, each involving around 10,000 children. They were looking at the association between maternal age at children’s birth and children’s cognitive ability when tested at age 10-11.

在2月刊登在《国际流行病学杂志》(International Journal of Epidemiology)上的一项研究中,研究人员研究了来自英国三项不同的大型纵向研究的证据。这三项研究分别是在1958年、1970年和2000~2002年之间进行,各自都有大约1万名儿童参加。他们研究了母亲生孩子时的年龄,和孩子在10到11岁时所测得的认知能力之间的关系。

In the two earlier studies, there was a negative association; maternal age 35-39 at birth was associated with poorer cognitive scores in the children, tested a decade later; the children who had been born to mothers 25-29 did better. On the other hand, for the most recent study, that association was reversed; the children born to the 35- to 39-year-olds did significantly better on the cognitive testing than the children born to the younger mothers.

前两项研究显示两者呈负相关;孕母年龄在35至39岁之间,孩子于十年后接受认知测试,分数较低;孕母年龄在25至29岁之间,孩子的分数较高。另一方面,在最近一项研究中,两者的关系出现了逆转,孕龄在35至39岁之间的母亲生下的孩子参加认知测试时的表现,大大好于较年轻的母亲生下的孩子。

What had changed over time? The researchers found that they could explain this reversal by correcting for the social and economic characteristics of the mothers; different women, in different circumstances, were having their children later in life.

是什么随着时间的推移发生了变化?研究人员发现,通过把母亲的社会经济特征纳入考量,可以解释这种逆转;在年岁较大时生孩子的,是有着不同条件的不同女性。

Alice Goisis, a research fellow at the London School of Economics and Political Science and the Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research in Germany, and the lead author on the study, said, “the characteristics of older mothers have changed drastically over time.” In the older studies, she said, the women who were having children into their late 30s were more likely to be women who had many children, and possibly poorer, whereas in the later study, the millennium cohort study done in 2000-2, the older mothers were more likely to be educated, and socioeconomically better off. Twenty-six percent were giving birth to their first child at ages 35-39, as opposed to 11 percent in the 1958 study.

这篇论文的第一作者、在伦敦政治经济学院(London School of Economics and Political Science)以及德国罗斯托克的马克斯•普朗克人口研究所(Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research)担任研究员的艾丽斯•寇希斯(Alice Goisis)说,“随着时间的推移,高龄母亲的特征发生了巨大变化。”她说,在早前的研究中,那些在30多岁的年纪生孩子的女性,更有可能育有多个子女且较为贫穷,而在后一项研究,也就是于2000至2002年开展的千禧世代研究中,大龄母亲更有可能受过良好教育,有着较高的社会经济地位。在35至39岁之间生育第一个子女的女性占比26%,相比之下,在1958年的研究中这一比例是11%。

“One question I am often asked is whether these results are suggesting that women should wait to have children so they will have smarter children, and the answer is that our results are not addressing that,” Dr. Goisis said. “These women tend to be advantaged,” she said, and to take better care of themselves during pregnancy; they were less likely to smoke and more likely to breast-feed, compared to the younger mothers.

“我经常被问及,这些研究结果是否意味着女性应当推迟生育,以便拥有更聪明的孩子,我的答案是,我们的研究结果不能回答该问题,”寇希斯说。“这些女性往往生活优越”,能在孕期更好地照料自己,她说;比起较年轻的母亲,她们吸烟的可能性更小,以母乳喂养婴儿的可能性更大。

“Nowadays children of older mothers have, on average, better outcomes because of the characteristics of women who tend to have children at older ages,” Dr. Goisis said.

“现如今的大龄母亲生下的孩子平均而言表现较好,是由倾向于在年级较大时生育的那些女性的特征决定的,”寇希斯说。

Other researchers have looked at the question of how parenting attitudes and practices change as mothers grow older. In a study published online in December, researchers looked at how parenting practices and children’s development varied with maternal age in a group of 4,741 families in Denmark. Older mothers were less likely to be harsh with their 7- and 11-year-old children, either in terms of scolding or of physical discipline, they found, and their children were less likely to have behavioral, social and emotional problems.

其他一些研究人员关注的问题是:随着母亲年纪变大,其管教态度和方法有何变化。在一篇于去年12月发表在网上的论文中,研究人员以丹麦的4741个家庭为样本,探讨了管教方法以及孩子的成长发育状况如何因孕母年龄的差异而有所不同。他们发现,年纪较大的母亲以训斥或体罚的形式严厉对待7至14岁子女的可能性较低,其子女出现行为、社会和情感问题的可能性也较低。

“Older mothers seem to thrive better,” said Tea Trillingsgaard, an associate professor of psychology at Aarhus University in Denmark, who was the lead author on the study. “The mothers have more psychological flexibility, more cognitive flexibility, more ability to tolerate complex emotional stimuli from the children.”

“年纪较大的母亲似乎能更好地养育子女,”该论文的第一作者、丹麦奥胡斯大学(Aarhus University)心理学助理教授迪•特里林斯戈德(Tea Trillingsgaard)说。“这些母亲有着更强的心理适应能力,更强的认知能力,更能包容来自子女的复杂情绪刺激。”

Again, the researchers looked to see whether these differences were explained by another factor, by educational level or socioeconomic status, but even after controlling for all the demographic and socioeconomic factors they had, they still found that older maternal age itself continued to be associated with these more positive outcomes. “Emotional well-being tends to increase with age,” Dr. Trillingsgaard said. “Age in itself may be an advantage.”

研究人员又一次评估了能否用另一个因素,也就是教育程度或社会经济地位来解释这些差异,但即便是在剔除了其所掌握的所有人口统计学和社会经济因素后,他们仍然发现,较高孕龄本身仍然和这些较为积极的结果之间有关联。“情绪状态似乎会随着年龄的增长而得到改善,”特里林斯戈德博士说。“年龄本身就是一种优势。”

We all know that fertility issues increase with older childbearing, with a large and complex fertility industry growing up in part to meet the needs of women who may have more difficulty conceiving later in life. But since having children is for most of us a huge and complicated decision, involving relationships, socioeconomic factors, geography, and the whole package of individual factors roughly summed up as life, love and the pursuit of happiness, decision making often doesn’t allow for simple planning where you target one age or another.

我们都知道,大龄生育会带来更多生育问题。在某种程度上,正是为了满足那些或许会遭遇更多困难的大龄生育女性的需求,庞大复杂的生育产业才会不断发展。但对大多数人来说,生育子女是一项重大而又复杂的决定,涉及种种关系、社会经济因素、地理影响,以及大致可以被归结为生活的所有个人因素之和,因此在决策过程中,你往往无法简单规划要在这个或那个年龄生孩子。

The clear message is that the children of women with more support and better health habits do better cognitively, so it’s important to support mothers of any age. What you learn as you grow up, intellectually and emotionally, may help you in the complicated job of taking care of your own children. And after all, growing up and helping people grow up is what this is all about.

有一点很清楚,女性如果得到更多支持、拥有更好的健康习惯,其子女的认知能力会更强,因此给予母亲支持是很重要的,不论她们处于哪个年龄段。你在心智和情感上走向成熟的过程中学到的东西,或许有助于应对照顾你自己的子女这一复杂的工作。不管怎么说,成长以及帮助人成长,生活不就是这么回事吗?
Researchers Track an Unlikely Culprit in Weight Gain
中年发福?这可能是激素惹的祸

For middle-aged women struggling with their weight, a recent spate of scientific findings sounds too good to be true. And they may be, researchers caution.

对于苦苦减肥的中年女性来说,最近涌现的一批科学发现听上去太美好了,简直不像真的。而研究人员也告诫,可能的确是这样。

Studies in mice indicate that a single hormone whose levels rise at menopause could be responsible for a characteristic redistribution of weight in middle age to the abdomen, turning many women from “pears” to “apples.” At the same time, the hormone may spur the loss of bone.

对小鼠进行的研究表明,于更年期开始升高的一种激素可能是导致体重向腹部重新分配这一中年人典型特征的重要原因,将许多女性从“梨形身材”转为“苹果形身材”。与此同时,这种激素可能导致骨质疏松。

In mouse studies, blocking the hormone solves those problems, increasing the calories burned, reducing abdominal fat, slowing bone loss and even encouraging physical activity.

在小鼠研究中,阻断这种激素可以解决这些问题,增加热量燃烧,减少腹部脂肪,减缓骨质疏松,甚至可以激发身体活力。

The notion that such a simple intervention could solve two big problems of menopause has received the attention of researchers and has prompted commentaries in prestigious journals like The New England Journal of Medicine and Cell Metabolism.

这种据称可以解决更年期两大问题的简单干预措施,得到了研究人员的关注,并得到《新英格兰医学杂志》(New England Journal of Medicine)和《细胞-代谢》(Cell Metabolism)等著名期刊的报道。

“It’s a super interesting idea,” said Dr. Daniel Bessesen, an obesity expert and professor of medicine at the University of Colorado School of Medicine. With obesity rising, “we definitely need some new ideas.”

“这是一个超级有趣的想法,”科罗拉多大学医学院肥胖问题专家和医学教授丹尼尔•贝塞森(Daniel Bessesen)说。随着肥胖问题的增加,“我们肯定需要一些新的想法。”

The work began when Dr. Mone Zaidi, a professor of medicine at the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai in New York City, became curious about whether a reproductive hormone — F.S.H., or follicle-stimulating hormone — affects bone density.

这项工作始于纽约市西奈山伊坎医学院(Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai)的医学教授莫尼•扎伊迪(Mone Zaidi),他对FSH生殖激素(或称促卵泡激素)给骨密度带来的影响感到好奇。

It had long been assumed that the hormone’s role was limited to reproduction. F.S.H. stimulates the production of eggs in women and sperm in men.

长期以来,人们认为这种激素的作用仅限于繁殖。FSH激素可以促进女性卵子和男性精子的产生。

Researchers knew that blood levels of F.S.H. soar as women’s ovaries start to fail before menopause. At the same time, women rapidly lose bone — even when blood levels of estrogen, which can preserve bone, remain steady.

研究人员已经知道,当女性的卵巢在更年期前开始逐渐丧失功能之际,血液中FSH的含量会上升。与此同时,女性开始出现骨质疏松——即便血液中能维持骨质的雌激素水平保持稳定也是如此。

Dr. Zaidi reasoned that F.S.H. could be a culprit in bone loss. So he and his colleagues created an antibody that blocked F.S.H. in female mice whose ovaries had been removed.

扎伊迪认为FSH激素可能是骨质疏松的罪魁祸首。所以他和同事们创造了一种阻断FSH激素的抗体,对已被切除卵巢的雌性小鼠使用。

Since the mice were making no estrogen at all, they ought to have been losing bone. Indeed, the bone marrow in such mice usually fills with fat instead of developing bone cells. Much the same happens in women: That’s why their bones become less dense.

由于小鼠根本不会产生雌激素,所以应该已经开始出现骨质疏松。事实上,这样的小鼠中的骨髓中通常充满脂肪,而不是产生骨骼细胞。女性也是如此:所以她们的骨密度会下降。

But in Dr. Zaidi’s lab, the mice that received the antibody did not developed fat-filled bone marrow — and, to his enormous surprise, they lost large amounts of fat.

但是在扎伊迪的实验室中,接受抗体的小鼠没有产生充满脂肪的骨髓,而且令他惊讶的是,它们还丧失了大量的脂肪。

“This is a weird, weird finding,” he recalled telling his friend Dr. Clifford J. Rosen, a bone specialist at Maine Medical Center Research Institute. Dr. Zaidi persuaded Dr. Rosen to help repeat the experiments independently, each in his own lab.

“这是一个非常奇怪的发现,”他回忆自己当时把这个发现告诉了朋友、缅因州医学中心研究所(Maine Medical Center Research Institute)的骨科专家克利福德•J•罗森(Clifford J. Rosen)。扎伊迪劝说罗森,在后者的实验室中独立地重复这一实验。

At first, Dr. Rosen was dubious: “I said, ‘I don’t believe it, I think it’s not going to work, and it will cost a lot of money.’” But he received a grant for the research, and the two labs got started.

起初,罗森表示怀疑:“我说,‘我不相信,我觉得行不通,而且会花掉很多钱。’”但是他获得了研究资助,两个实验室得以开始研究。

Two and a half years later, they had their results — and they replicated Dr. Zaidi’s original findings. The researchers also came up with a theory that might explain increased metabolic rates in mice in which F.S.H. is blocked.

两年半后,他们取得了成果——他们复制了扎伊迪的最初发现。研究人员还提出了一种可能解释FSH被阻断时小鼠代谢率升高的理论。

There are two kinds of fat in the body: White fat primarily stores energy, and brown fat burns calories and throws off heat.

动物和人体内有两种脂肪:白脂肪主要储存能量,棕脂肪燃烧卡路里,释放热量。

Brown fat is more common in children, but researchers have found that adults also carry small amounts. In the experimental mice, white fat was being converted to brown fat.

棕脂肪在儿童中更为常见,但研究人员发现,成年人也携带少量棕色脂肪。在接受实验的小鼠当中,白脂肪被转化为棕脂肪。

At the moment, Dr. Rosen is withholding judgment about whether the results will apply to humans. “I think the idea has some credibility,” he said. “But does it mean anything? I don’t know.”

目前,罗森尚未对结果是否适用于人类做出判断。“我认为这个想法有一定的可信度,”他说。“但它有什么样的意义?我不知道。”

But these are not the only researchers to find a link between obesity and the strange interplay of hormones.

但他们不是唯一在肥胖和激素的怪异作用之间找到关联的研究人员。

Wendy Kohrt, a professor of medicine at the University of Colorado, has been studying the effects of menopause on women’s body fat and the amount of calories women burn.

科罗拉多大学医学教授温迪•柯尔特(Wendy Kohrt)一直在研究更年期对女性体脂以及女性卡路里燃烧的影响。

Dr. Kohrt has given healthy premenopausal women a drug that blocks production of estrogen and F.S.H., putting them into a reversible state of menopause.

柯尔特给予健康的更年期前女性一种阻止雌激素和FSH生产的药物,使她们处于可逆的更年期状态。

Within five months, she found, the women’s fat moves to their abdomens, increasing by 11 percent on average. And they burn 50 fewer calories per day.

她发现在五个月内,这些女性的脂肪向腹部的移动平均增长了11%。她们每天的热量燃烧减少了50卡路里。

The effect is reversed when the participants stop taking the drug or when Dr. Kohrt gives them estrogen.

当参与者停止服用药物,或者柯尔特给她们雌激素时,这种效应会被逆转。

Why Does Hair Turn Gray at a Young Age?
为何人会早生华发?

Q. What causes hair to turn gray? Why do some people go gray at a young age? Is there any evidence that rapid weight loss, slow weight loss or intense exercise accelerates graying? I’ve noticed that women in dieting “after” pictures commonly have a new hair color, while older male marathon runners are more gray and haggard than average.

问:是什么原因导致头发变白?为什么有些人年纪轻轻就华发早生?有没有证据表明,快速减肥、慢速减肥或是剧烈运动会加速头发变白?我发现,在女性节食前后的对比照片中,头发颜色通常会发生变化,而年长的男子马拉松运动员比一般人有更多白头发,也更憔悴。

A. Hair goes gray as cells called melanocytes at the base of each hair follicle get damaged by disease, environmental exposures or simply age.

答:头发变白,是因为头发毛囊底部的黑素细胞(melanocytes)因疾病、暴露在某些环境中,或者单纯因为老化而受到了损害。

Everyone has some gray hairs throughout life, but the balance tends to tip in the 40s or 50s, with the rate of change varying by genetics, gender and ethnicity, said Dr. James Kirkland, director of the Robert and Arlene Kogod Center on Aging at the Mayo Clinic. Blacks tend to go gray later than Caucasians, with Asians falling somewhere in between. Women generally gray later than men. The age you go gray is determined primarily by genetics, so if one or both parents went gray at an early age, you would be more likely to go gray at a younger age as well.

梅奥医院罗伯特和艾琳娜•克哥特老龄化中心(Robert and Arlene Kogod Center on Aging at the Mayo Clinic)的主任詹姆斯•柯克兰(James Kirkland)博士说,每个人在一生之中都会出现白发,但变化通常发生在四五十岁的时候,而头发变白的速度和基因、性别和种族有关。黑人头发变白的时间往往比白种人晚,亚洲人则介于两者之间。女性头发变白往往比男性晚。你到了什么岁数时头发开始变白是由基因决定的,所以如果你父母其中一人或者双方的头发都是早早变白,那么你就很有可能在比较年轻的时候有白头发。

Smoking can also accelerate color change, and early graying could be a sign of autoimmune, thyroid or heart disease. “If you’ve got heart disease and your hair is gray, it’s a sign of worse heart disease,” Dr. Kirkland said.

吸烟也可以加速头发变白,头发过早变白也可能是免疫、甲状腺或心脏疾病的征兆。柯克兰克博士说:“如果你有心脏病,而你的头发是白色的,这是心脏病比较严重的迹象。”

Some people held in concentration camps during World War II who were deprived of proper nutrition also went prematurely gray, said Dr. Wilma Bergfeld, a dermatologist at the Cleveland Clinic, who specializes in hair disorders. “Everything is determined by the health of the pigment-producing cell,” she said.

克利夫兰医疗中心(Cleveland Clinic)的皮肤科医生、威尔玛•贝格费尔德(Wilma Bergfeld)博士专门研究头发问题,她说,“二战”期间被关在集中营的一些人由于得不到适当的营养补充,头发很早变白。“它完全是由生产色素的细胞是否健康决定的,”她说。

Dr. Bergfeld said she doesn’t know of anyone who has gone gray because of weight loss or exercise. Most activities that are damaging to the hair, like rapidly losing more than 20 pounds or getting chemotherapy treatment, will cause hair loss rather than a change of color, she said.

贝格费尔德博士说,她没有听说过有人因为减肥或运动而头发变白。她说,大多数对头发有伤害的做法,比如快速减肥超过20磅(约9公斤),或接受化疗,它们会导致脱发,而不是头发颜色的变化。

Unfortunately, there are no medications approved to restore hair color, though in early testing of the anti-hair-loss drug minoxidil, Dr. Bergfeld said that she and other researchers noticed the drug sometimes also restored hair color, suggesting it was rejuvenating the melanocytes.

遗憾的是,尚没有药物证明可以恢复头发的颜色,尽管在防脱发药物米诺地尔(minoxidil)的早期试验中,贝格费尔德博士说,她和其他研究人员注意到,这种药物有时候也会恢复头发的颜色,这表明它能让黑素细胞恢复活力。

It’s not clear whether chronic stress turns hair gray. Although President Obama’s hair turned gray during his time in office, studies that have looked at stress and hair color have been inconclusive, Dr. Kirkland said. (He also aged from 47 to 55, a time when many people’s hair turns gray.) “The consensus is that stress possibly does it,” he said. “But that’s a gut feeling rather than convincing evidence.”

柯克兰说,尚不清楚长期的压力会不会让头发变白。尽管奥巴马总统的头发在他当政期间变白了,但观察压力和头发颜色的研究一直没有定论(柯克兰博士的年龄也处在很多人的头发都会变白的47到55岁之间)。“共识是压力可能会,”他说。“但这是一种直觉,而不是有说服力的证据。”

Why It’s So Hard to Admit You’re Wrong
为什么承认错误这么难

Despite your best intentions and efforts, it is inevitable: At some point in your life, you will be wrong.

不管你的意愿如何强烈,又做出多大努力,这是不可避免的:在生命的某个时候,你会犯错。

Mistakes can be hard to digest, so sometimes we double down rather than face them. Our confirmation bias kicks in, causing us to seek out evidence to prove what we already believe. The car you cut off has a small dent in its bumper, which obviously means that it is the other driver’s fault.

错误难以消化,所以我们有时会孤注一掷,而非面对它们。这时候,我们在确认事务的认知上会有偏误,导致我们寻求证据来证明自己已有的信念。比如,被你加塞挡在后面的车的保险杠上有一个小凹痕,这显然意味着是那个司机的错。

Psychologists call this cognitive dissonance — the stress we experience when we hold two contradictory thoughts, beliefs, opinions or attitudes. For example, you might believe you are a kind and fair person, so when you rudely cut someone off, you experience dissonance. To cope with it, you deny your mistake and insist the other driver should have seen you, or you had the right of way even if you didn’t.

心理学家称之为认知失调,即当我们持有两种相互冲突的想法、信念、观点或态度时所感受的压力。比如,你可能认为自己是个善良、公正的人,那么当你粗暴地加塞到其他人前面时,便会经历这种失调。为了应对它,你会否认自己的错误,坚称那个司机本该看见你,或你有先行权,尽管事实并非如此。

“Cognitive dissonance is what we feel when the self-concept — I’m smart, I’m kind, I’m convinced this belief is true — is threatened by evidence that we did something that wasn’t smart, that we did something that hurt another person, that the belief isn’t true,” said Carol Tavris, a co-author of the book “Mistakes Were Made (But Not by Me).”

“认识失调是我们在自我认知——我是聪明、善良的,我坚信这是真的——受到证据挑战时产生的感受,这些证据显示我们做了不聪明的、伤害其他人的事,证明我们之前的想法是错的,”《错不在我》[Mistakes Were Made (But Not by Me)]一书的作者之一卡罗尔•塔夫里斯(Carol Tavris)说。

She added that cognitive dissonance threatened our sense of self.

她还表示,认知失调威胁到了我们的自我感知。

“To reduce dissonance, we have to modify the self-concept or accept the evidence,” Ms. Tavris said. “Guess which route people prefer?”

“为了消除这种失调,我们必须修正自我认知,或接受面前的证据,”塔夫里斯说。“猜猜人们愿意选哪条路?”

Or maybe you cope by justifying your mistake. The psychologist Leon Festinger suggested the theory of cognitive dissonance in the 1950s when he studied a small religious group that believed a flying saucer would rescue its members from an apocalypse on Dec. 20, 1954. Publishing his findings in the book “When Prophecy Fails,” he wrote that the group doubled down on its belief and said God had simply decided to spare the members, coping with their own cognitive dissonance by clinging to a justification.

或许你会为自己的错误去辩解,以此作为应对。心理学家利昂•费斯廷格(Leon Festinger) 在上世纪50年代提出了认知失调理论,当时他研究了一个小型宗教团体,该团体认为飞碟能在1954年12月20日世界末日来临时拯救其信众。他在发表这项研究发现的《预言破灭时》(When Prophecy Fails)一书中写道,这个团体进一步强化了自己的信仰,称上帝只是决定饶其成员一命,这是通过死死抓住一种解释来应对自己的认知失调。

“Dissonance is uncomfortable and we are motivated to reduce it,” Ms. Tavris said.

“失调让人不适,我们会想要消除它,”塔夫里斯说。

When we apologize for being wrong, we have to accept this dissonance, and that is unpleasant. On the other hand, research has shown that it can feel good to stick to our guns. One study, published in the European Journal of Social Psychology, found that people who refused to apologize after a mistake had more self-esteem and felt more in control and powerful than those who did not refuse.

当我们为错误道歉,就必须接受这种失调,那是令人不快的。另一方面,研究显示固执地坚持自己的观点则让会人感觉良好。一项发表于《欧洲社会心理学杂志》(European Journal of Social Psychology)的研究发现,相比于不拒绝道歉的人,犯错后拒绝道歉的人自尊心更强,也会感觉自己更有掌控力、更强大。

“In a way, apologies give power to their recipients,” said Tyler Okimoto, an author of the study. “For example, apologizing to my wife admits my wrongdoing; but apologizing also gives her the power to choose whether she wants to alleviate my shame through forgiveness, or increase my shame by holding a grudge. Our research has found that people experience a short-term increase in their feelings of personal power and control after refusing to apologize.”

“从某种程度讲,道歉是把力量交给了接受道歉的一方,”这项研究的作者泰勒•冲本(Tyler Okimoto)说。“比如,向妻子道歉等于承认我的错误;但道歉也让她有权选择是否通过原谅来减轻我的耻辱感,还是心怀怨念继而加重我的羞耻感。我们的研究发现,在拒绝道歉之后,人们的力量感和控制感会在短时间内上升。”

Feeling powerful may be an attractive short-term benefit, but there are long-term consequences. Refusing to apologize could potentially jeopardize “the trust on which a relationship is based,” Mr. Okimoto said, adding that it can extend conflict and encourage outrage or retaliation.

短期看,感觉强大或许是一个有吸引力的好处,但它也会带来长期的后果。拒绝道歉可能会危及“一段关系赖以存在的信任”,冲本说。他还表示,它会扩大冲突,容易引发愤怒情绪或招致报复。

When you refuse to admit your mistakes, you are also less open to constructive criticism, experts said, which can help hone skills, rectify bad habits and improve yourself over all.

专家们表示,当你拒绝承认自己的错误时,你对建设性批评的开放心态也会减弱,而后者有利于磨练技能,修正错误的习惯和从整体上提升自我。

“We cling to old ways of doing things, even when new ways are better and healthier and smarter. We cling to self-defeating beliefs long past their shelf life,” Ms. Tavris said. “And we make our partners, co-workers, parents and kids really, really mad at us.”

“我们固守已有的处事方式,尽管新方式更好,更健康,更明智。我们坚持那些早已过时、难以自圆的观点,”塔夫里斯说。“我们让自己的伴侣、同事、父母和孩子感到非常恼火。”

Another study, from the Stanford researchers Carol Dweck and Karina Schumann, found that subjects were more likely to take responsibility for their mistakes when they believed they had the power to change their behavior. This is easier said than done, though, so how exactly do you change your behavior and learn to embrace your mistakes?

斯坦福大学研究者卡萝尔•德韦克(Carol Dweck)和卡林娜•舒曼(Karina Schumann)的另一项研究发现,人们在相信自己有能力改变自己的行为时,更可能为自己的错误承担责任。不过,这个说起来容易,做起来难,所以你到底该如何改变自己的行为,学会接受自己的错误呢?

The first step is to recognize cognitive dissonance in action. Your mind will go to great lengths to preserve your sense of identity, so it helps to be aware of what that dissonance feels like. Typically, it manifests as confusion, stress, embarrassment or guilt. Those feelings do not necessarily mean you are in the wrong, but you can at least use them as reminders to explore the situation from an impartial perspective and objectively question whether you are at fault.

第一步是意识到行动上的认知失调。你的思想会竭尽全力维持你的一致感,所以,了解失调的感觉是怎样的会有所帮助。通常情况下,失调感的表现是迷惑、压力、尴尬或愧疚。这些感受不一定都意味着你有过失,但你至少可以用它们来提醒自己公正地思考当时的情况,客观地询问自己是否有错。

Similarly, learn to recognize your usual justifications and rationalizations. Think of a time you were wrong and knew it, but tried to justify it instead. Remember how it felt to rationalize your behavior and pinpoint that feeling as cognitive dissonance the next time it happens.

同样地,你还要意识到你通常会怎样为自己的行为辩解。想想过去的一个例子:你做了错事,也知道自己错了,却还努力辩解。记住你为自己的行为辩解时的感觉,下次再出现这种感觉时,能意识到它就是认知失调的感觉。

Mr. Okimoto said it also helped to remember that people were often more forgiving than you might think. Traits like honesty and humility make you more human and therefore more relatable. On the flip side, if it is undeniably clear that you are in the wrong, refusing to apologize reveals low self-confidence.

冲本表示,记住人们往往比你以为的更宽容这一点可能有所帮助。诚实和谦逊等品质让你更有人情味,也因此更易亲切。另一方面,如果你毫无疑问是过错方,那么拒绝道歉反而会显得你不够自信。

“If it is clear to everybody that you made a mistake,” Mr. Okimoto said, “digging your heels in actually shows people your weakness of character rather than strength.”

“如果大家都明显看出你做了错事,”冲本说,“拒不道歉实际上会暴露出你的性格弱点,而不是优点。”

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Coffee May Protect Against Cancer, W.H.O. Concludes
世卫组织为咖啡“翻案”:不仅不致癌,还防癌

An influential panel of experts convened by the World Health Organization concluded on Wednesday, June 15, that regularly drinking coffee could help protect against some types of cancer, a decision that followed decades of research pointing to the beverage’s many health benefits.

6月15日(周三),世界卫生组织(World Health Organization)一个颇有影响力的专家小组得出结论,经常喝咖啡有助于预防某些癌症。数十年来,很多研究发现这种饮料具有很多健康益处。

The announcement marked a rare reversal for the panel, which had previously described coffee as “possibly carcinogenic” in 1991 and linked it to bladder cancer. But since then a large body of research has portrayed coffee as a surprising elixir, finding lower rates of heart disease, Type 2 diabetes, neurological disorders and several cancers in those who drink it regularly.

这一结论标志着这个研究小组罕见的逆转,1991年它曾认为咖啡“可能致癌”,认为它与膀胱癌有关。但是后来,很多研究发现咖啡是一种令人惊喜的灵丹妙药,经常喝咖啡的人患心脏病、II型糖尿病、神经障碍和数种癌症的几率较低。

In their report issued Wednesday, the scientists did identify one surprising risk for coffee and tea drinkers. They said that drinking “very hot” beverages was “probably carcinogenic” because the practice was linked to esophageal cancer in some studies. But researchers say that may be caused by excessively hot beverages inflaming the lining of the throat — something that people could easily avoid by letting their hot tea or coffee cool off for a few minutes before drinking them.

在周三发布的报告中,科学家们也指出了喝咖啡和茶的一项意外风险。他们说,喝“很热的”饮料“可能致癌”,因为某些研究发现这种行为与食道癌有关。但是研究者称,那可能是因为过热的饮料会导致喉咙外壁发炎,这很好避免,喝热茶或咖啡前晾几分钟就行了。

Much of the evidence for coffee’s health benefits stems from observational studies, which cannot prove cause and effect. But the favorable findings on coffee consumption have been so consistent across so many studies that numerous health authorities have endorsed it as part of a healthy diet.

咖啡健康益处的很多证据来自观察性研究,不能证明因果关系。但是大量研究得出的饮用咖啡的乐观发现是如此一致,很多权威卫生机构都已经认可它是健康饮食的一部分。

Last year, a panel of scientists that shaped the United States government’s 2015 dietary guidelines said there was “strong evidence” that three to five cups of coffee daily was not harmful, and that “moderate” consumption might reduce chronic disease. Another group, the World Cancer Research Fund International, reported in recent years that coffee protects against multiple cancers. And the authors of one systematic review of studies said that coffee consumption should be encouraged in people with chronic liver disease because it seems to lower their risk of dying.

去年,为美国政府2015年膳食指南提供咨询的一个科学家小组称,“有力的证据”表明,每天喝三至五杯咖啡是无害的,“适度”喝咖啡也许能减少慢性病。另一个名叫世界癌症研究基金会(World Cancer Research Fund International)的组织称,咖啡能预防多种癌症。一项系统性研究回顾的作者们称,应该鼓励慢性肝病患者饮用咖啡,因为咖啡似乎能降低他们的死亡风险。

The World Health Organization is the latest group to suggest a daily cuppa Joe might be good for health. The organization’s International Agency for Research on Cancer, or IARC, said it assembled a team of 23 scientists who reviewed more than 1,000 studies and found no conclusive proof that coffee causes cancer. But the studies did suggest it was protective against some types of cancer, such as liver and uterine cancers.

世界卫生组织是最近一个表明每天喝咖啡可能有益健康的组织。该组织的国际癌症研究机构(International Agency for Research on Cancer)称,它召集了一个由23名科学家组成的团队,回顾了1000多项研究,发现没有确定性证据表明咖啡致癌。但是,那些研究表明,它能预防某些癌症,比如肝癌和子宫癌。

It is not entirely clear why. But scientists say coffee contains many antioxidants and other compounds that are being studied for their anti-cancer properties. Studies have linked decaffeinated coffee consumption to lower rates of chronic disease too, suggesting coffee’s benefits are not simply due to caffeine.

原因不太明确。不过,科学家们称,咖啡包含很多抗氧化物以及其他化合物,后者的抗癌功能正得到研究。很多研究还发现,饮用无咖啡因咖啡可以降低患慢性病的几率,这表明咖啡的益处不只是因为咖啡因。

Whatever the mechanism, the news is sure to be welcomed by many Americans — about half of whom drink coffee every day. Around the world, more than 1.6 billion cups of coffee are consumed daily, making it one of the world’s most popular drinks behind tea.

不管背后的机制是什么,这条新闻无疑会受到很多美国人欢迎——差不多有一半美国人每天都喝咖啡。全世界每天消耗逾16亿杯咖啡,咖啡是世界上最受欢迎的饮品之一,仅次于茶。
Helpless to Prevent Cancer? Actually, Quite a Bit Is in Your Control
从改变生活方式做起,有7成几率可预防癌症

Americans seem very afraid of cancer, with good reason. Unlike other things that kill us, it often seems to come out of nowhere.

美国人似乎非常惧怕癌症,而且有着充分的理由。跟其他那些杀死我们的东西不一样,癌症仿佛总是从天而降。

But evidence has increasingly accumulated that cancer may be preventable, too. Unfortunately, this has inflamed as much as it has assuaged people’s fears.

不过,有越来越多的证据表明,癌症或许也可以预防。不幸的是,这一发现引发的恐惧,和它驱除的一样多。

As a physician, I have encountered many people who believe that heart disease, which is the single biggest cause of death among Americans, is largely controllable. After all, if people ate better, were physically active and stopped smoking, then lots of them would get better. This ignores the fact that people can’t change many risk factors of heart disease like age, race and family genetics.

作为一名医生,我遇到的很多人相信,美国人的单一最大死因——心脏病——在很大程度上是可控的。毕竟,如果吃得更健康,多做运动,并停止吸烟,大多数心脏病人的情况会好转。但一个事实被忽略了,人们无法改变诱发心脏病的许多风险因素,比如年龄、种族和家族基因。

People don’t often seem to feel the same way about cancer. They think it’s out of their control. A study published in Science in January 2015 seemed to support that view. It tried to explain why some tissues lead to cancer more often than others. It found a strong correlation between the number of times a cell divides in the course of a lifetime and the risk of developing cancer.

对于癌症,人们似乎往往并不这样看,而是认为自己无法控制它。一项于2015年1月发表在《科学》杂志(Science)上的研究,似乎为这种观点提供了支撑。它试图解释,为什么相比之下,某些组织更容易发展出癌症。文中发现,细胞在一生当中的分裂次数与罹患癌症的风险之间存在很强的相关性。

In other words, this study argued that the more times DNA replicates, the more often something can go wrong. Some took this to mean that cancer is much more because of “bad luck” than because of other factors that people could control.

换句话说,该研究认为,DNA复制次数越多,出问题的可能性就越大。有人据此认为,带来癌症的主要是“坏运气”,远超其他一些人为可控的因素。

Unfortunately, this simple explanation is not really what the study showed. Lung cells, for instance, divide quite rarely, and still account for a significant amount of cancer. Cells in the gastrointestinal tract divide all the time and account for many fewer cancers. Some cancers, like melanoma, were found to be in the group of cancers influenced more by intrinsic factors (or those we can’t control), when we clearly know that extrinsic factors, like sun exposure, are a major cause.

不幸的是,这个简单的解释并非该研究真正表明的东西。举例来说,肺部细胞很少分裂,但肺癌在癌症中占有很大的比重。胃肠道的细胞时时都在分裂,那里生癌的几率却要小得多。有些癌症,比如黑色素瘤,被发现属于受内在因素影响更大的一类癌症(也就是我们无法控制的那种);与此同时我们也清楚地知道,一些外在因素,比如阳光暴晒,是它的一大诱因。

Further, this study was focused more on the relative risks of cancer in one type of tissue versus another. What we really care about is how much we can reduce our own risk of cancer by changing our behavior.

此外,该研究更为关注的是,一类组织与另一类组织相比,生癌的相对风险有多大。而我们真正关心的是,通过改变自己的行为,我们可以在多大程度上降低罹患癌症的风险。

A more recent study published in Nature argues that there is a lot we can do. Many studies have shown that environmental risk factors and exposures contribute greatly to many cancers. Diet is related to colorectal cancer. Alcohol and tobacco are related to esophageal cancer. HPV is related to cervical cancer, and hepatitis C is related to liver cancer.

发表在《自然》杂志(Nature)上的一项更为近期的研究称,我们能做的事其实很多。许多研究表明,环境风险因素及风险暴露会大大促进许多种癌症的发生。节食与大肠癌有关。酒精和烟草与食道癌有关。人乳头瘤病毒(HPV)与宫颈癌有关。丙型肝炎与肝癌有关。

And you’d have to be living under a rock not to know that smoking causes lung cancer and that too much sun can lead to skin cancer.

只要不是与世隔绝的人应该都知道,吸烟会导致肺癌,日晒过多可能会导致皮肤癌。

Using sophisticated modeling techniques, the researchers argued that less than 30 percent of the lifetime risk of getting many common cancers was because of intrinsic risk factors, or the “bad luck.” The rest were things you can change.

通过使用精密的建模技术,研究人员提出,罹患癌症的终生风险有不到30%由内在因素导致,或说“坏运气”。其他的都属于你可以改变的东西。

Most recently, in JAMA Oncology, researchers sought to quantify how a healthful lifestyle might actually alter the risk of cancer. They identified four domains that are often noted to be related to disease prevention: smoking, drinking, obesity and exercise.

最近,在《美国医学会期刊•肿瘤学》(JAMA Oncology)上发表的论文显示,研究者试图量化健康的生活方式可以如何实质性地改变罹患癌症的风险。他们找出了四个经常被指出与疾病预防有关的因素:抽烟、喝酒、肥胖和运动。

They defined people who engaged in healthy levels of all of these activities as a “low risk” group. Then they compared their risk of getting cancer with people who weren’t in this group. They included two groups of people who have been followed and studied a long time, the Nurses’ Health Study and the Health Professionals Follow-up Study, as well as national cancer statistics.

他们把在这四个方面保持健康水平的人列为“低风险”人群,然后把他们患癌症的风险与不在此列的人作比较。其中包括被追踪和研究了很长时间的两组人,即护士健康研究(Nurses’ Health Study)和医药卫生从业人员随访研究(Health Professionals Follow-up Study)的参与者,还参考了全美的癌症数据。

Of the nearly 90,000 women and more than 46,000 men, 16,531 women and 11,731 men fell into the low-risk group. For each type of cancer, researchers calculated a population-attributable risk, which is the percentage of people who develop cancer who might have avoided it had they adopted low-risk behaviors.

总共有将近9万名女性和逾4.6万名男性参与者,其中16531名女性和11731名男性属于低风险人群。研究人员计算了每种癌症的人群归因风险——即当初如果采取低风险行为模式,或许本可以避免患上癌症的病人的比例。

About 82 percent of women and 78 percent of men who got lung cancer might have prevented it through healthy behaviors. About 29 percent of women and 20 percent of men might have prevented colon and rectal cancer. About 30 percent of both might have prevented pancreatic cancer. Breast cancer was much less preventable: 4 percent.

当初如果秉承健康的生活方式,大约82%的女性肺癌病人和78%的男性肺癌病人或许可以避免患上这种疾病。大约29%的女性和20%的男性或许本可以避免罹患结直肠癌。大约30%的男性和30%的女性或许本可以避免罹患胰腺癌。原本或许可以避免患上乳腺癌的病人比例要低得多,只有4%。

Over all, though, about 25 percent of cancer in women and 33 percent in men was potentially preventable. Close to half of all cancer deaths might be prevented as well.

不过,总体而言,大约25%的女性癌症病人和大约33%的男性癌症病人或许本可以把癌症拒之门外。此外,所有死于癌症的人中,大约有一半或许本可以避免这种结局。

No study is perfect, and this is no exception. These cohorts are overwhelmingly white and consist of health professionals, who are not necessarily like the population at large. But the checks against the national data showed that if anything, these results might be underestimating how much cancer is preventable by healthy behaviors.

没有哪项研究是完美的,该研究也不例外。这些参与者均为医护专业人员,而且大多数都是白人,这和人口的整体结构有所不同。但与全国数据比对显示,如果这有什么影响的话,那就是:上述结论或许低估了通过采取健康的行为模式预防癌症的成功率。

As we talk about cancer “moonshots” that will most likely cost billions of dollars and might not achieve results, it’s worth considering that — as in many cases — prevention is not only the cheapest course, but also the most effective.

我们在谈论癌症“登月计划”这一极有何能耗费数十亿美元资金,但却可能一无所获的项目之际,有必要考虑一下——在许多情况下——预防不仅仅是最便宜的解决方案,而且是最有效的。

Simple changes to people’s behaviors have the potential to make sure many cancers never occur. They have a side benefit of preventing health problems in many other areas, too. Investment in these efforts may not be as exciting, but it may yield greater results.

人们只要改变自己的行为方式,就有可能永远把癌症拒之门外。这样做还有附带的好处:可以让其他许多领域的健康问题得到预防。对这些预防工作的投资或许没有那么令人振奋,但却可能带来更大的回报。

Plumes From Saturn’s Moon Enceladus Hint That It Could Support Life
NASA:土卫二含氢气,可能存在生命

Could icy moons like Saturn’s Enceladus in the outer solar system be home to microbes or other forms of alien life?

在土星的恩塞拉多斯(Enceladus,通称土卫二。——编注)等被冰层覆盖的外太阳系卫星上,会有微生物或其他外星生命存在吗?

Intriguing new findings from data collected by NASA’s Cassini spacecraft suggest the possibility.

美国航天局(NASA)的卡西尼号(Cassini)太空船收集的数据带来的引人入胜的新发现显示,的确存在这种可能性。

Plumes of gas erupting out of Enceladus — a small moon with an ocean of liquid water beneath its icy crust — contain hydrogen. Scientists infer a lot from that: that there are hydrothermal chemical reactions similar to those that occur at hot fissures at the ocean bottoms on Earth.

从恩塞拉多斯冒出的一缕缕气体中含有氢,那是一颗有冰层覆盖大片液态水海洋的小卫星。科学家们由此做出诸多推断:那里存在与地球海洋底部的热裂缝里发生的类似的热液化学反应。

On Earth at least, hydrothermal vents thrive with microbial life, offering up the potential that icy moons far from Earth — called “ocean worlds” by NASA — could be habitable.

有热液排放的地方会产生大量微生物——至少在地球上是如此——这让人不由得推想,被NASA称为“海洋世界”、远离地球的多个冰冷卫星有可能是适于居住的。

“That’s just going to be a tremendous opportunity to test our theories and see if there’s life there,” said James L. Green, director of planetary science at NASA.

“这将是我们检验理论的一个难得的机会,看看那里是不是真的有生命存在,”NASA行星科学部主任詹姆斯•L•格林(James L. Green)说。

This is the latest discovery by Cassini, which is heading into its final months after 13 years of exploring Saturn, its moons and rings. On April 22, Cassini begins a journey that will take it between the planet and its rings for 22 orbits before its mission finally ends with a crash into Saturn’s atmosphere in September.

这是卡西尼号的最新发现,这艘飞船对土星、它的卫星和土星环的探索已经进行了13年,还有几个月就将结束。4月22日,卡西尼号将开启一趟旅程,在土星和土星环之间穿行22次,然后在9月坠入土星的大气层,由此结束自己的使命。

Cassini’s findings also show that levels of carbon dioxide, hydrogen and methane measured in the Enceladus plume were out of equilibrium, an imbalance that could provide an energy source that organisms could tap into for food, according to a paper published Thursday in the journal Science.

据周四发表在《科学》(Science)期刊上的一篇论文分析,卡西尼号的发现还显示,在恩塞拉多斯排放的气体中测量出的二氧化碳、氢和甲烷的水平并不均衡,这种不平衡可以提供一种能量源,令有机物从中获得养分。

“It indicates there is chemical potential to support microbial systems,” said J. Hunter Waite Jr., program director for the space science and engineering division at the Southwest Research Institute in San Antonio and lead author of the Science paper.

“它表明那里有支持微生物系统的化学势,”发表在《科学》的那篇论文的主要作者、位于圣安东尼奥的西南研究院(Southwest Research Institute)的太空科学与工程部项目主管小J•亨特•韦特(J. Hunter Waite Jr.)说。

In a separate paper published Thursday in The Astrophysical Journal Letters, another team of researchers, using the Hubble Space Telescope, once again spotted what appears to be a similar plume rising from Europa, one of Jupiter’s big moons that also possesses an ocean beneath an icy exterior.

在周四发表于《天体物理期刊通讯》(Astrophysical Journal Letters)的另一篇论文中,另一组研究人员用哈勃太空望远镜(Hubble Space Telescope)又一次观测到木星的大型卫星之一欧罗巴(Europa)似乎也在释放类似的气体,这个卫星也有包裹在冰冻外层之下的海洋。

Cassini had earlier found that there are seas of methane on Saturn’s largest moon, Titan, a discovery that has inspired some scientists to suggest sending a boat there.

早些时候,卡西尼号曾发现土星最大的卫星泰坦(Titan)上存在大片的甲烷,这促使一些科学家提议派一艘太空船前去探测。

At a mere 310 miles wide, Enceladus was considered too small to be geologically interesting; scientists suspected that its interior had frozen solid long ago. But 11 years ago, Cassini spotted plumes rising from the south pole region, one of the biggest, most surprising discoveries of the mission.

之前,只有310英里(约合499公里)宽的恩塞拉多斯因体积太小,不曾引发科学家的地质探测兴趣;他们怀疑它的内部早已冻结成固体。但是在11年前,卡西尼号发现了从南极地区冒出的烟缕,那是这项太空探测任务最大、最让人意外的发现之一。

The tidal forces of Saturn pulling and squeezing Enceladus appear to generate enough heat to melt the ice. From additional Cassini observations, scientists concluded that not only is there a pool of water near the south pole of Enceladus to generate the plumes, but a global ocean that lies beneath the moon’s ice.

土星的潮汐力拉扯和挤压恩塞拉多斯,似乎产生了足够的热量,由此融化了冰层。科学家们还依据卡西尼号的另一项观测结果得出结论,称不止是恩塞拉多斯靠近南极地区的部分有一大片水产生烟缕,这颗卫星表面冰层下隐藏的一整片海洋都是如此。

In October 2015, Cassini swooped to within 30 miles of the surface of Enceladus, and one of its instruments collected and identified particles in the plume spray. It was mostly water molecules, but Dr. Waite and his colleagues also found hydrogen molecules, up to 1.4 percent by volume.

2015年10月,卡西尼号俯冲到距离恩塞拉多斯表面不足30英里的地方,它的一台仪器在那里收集和辨认了烟雾中的粒子。其中大部分为水分子,但韦特和他的同事们也发现了氢分子,其体积占比达到1.4%。

While hydrogen is the most common element in the universe, it was not expected to be found in any quantity on a moon as small as Enceladus, where the gravity is too slight to hold on to the gas for long.

尽管氢是宇宙中最常见的元素,但没人料到会在恩塞拉多斯这么小的卫星上发现它——不管是多是少——因为这个卫星重力太小,难以长时间留住气体。

“Just finding hydrogen was a surprise,” said Christopher R. Glein, a geochemist at the Southwest Research Institute and another author of the Science paper.

“单单发现氢就已经是个意外,”发表在《科学》杂志那篇论文的另一位作者、西南研究院地球化学家克里斯托弗•R•格莱茵(Christopher R. Glein)说。

After considering a variety of ways that could continually generate hydrogen, the scientists concluded that hydrothermal reactions offered the most likely explanation for producing that much of the gas. Each water molecule consists of two hydrogen atoms and one oxygen atom. Geophysical models indicated that as hot water flows past the rocks, minerals in the rocks were grabbing the oxygen atoms and releasing hydrogen, the scientists reported.

在考虑了持续产生氢的多种可能性后,科学家们得出结论,称最有可能导致那里产生那么多气体的因素是热液反应。每个水分子都包含两个氢原子和一个氧原子。科学家们表示,依据地球物理模型,当热水流过岩石,岩石中的矿物质会吸取其中的氧原子,释放氢气。

There appeared to be enough energy to support microbes. “This is the first time we’ve been able to make a calorie count of an alien ocean,” Dr. Glein said. Asked what that calorie count was, Dr. Glein said it was the equivalent of 300 pizzas per hour.

那里似乎有足够的热量支持微生物生存。“这是我们第一次能够从一个外太空海洋得到卡路里读数,”格莱茵说。在被问到卡路里测量的结果时,格莱茵表示每小时产生的热量相当于300个披萨的卡路里。

“This is a great result for the habitability of Enceladus,” said Christopher P. McKay, a planetary scientist at the NASA Ames Research Center in Mountain View, Calif., who was not involved with the research.

“对衡量恩塞拉多斯的可居住性而言,这是个很不错的结果,”与这项研究无关的加州山景市NASA艾姆斯研究中心(Ames Research Center)行星科学家克里斯托弗•P•麦凯(Christopher P. McKay)说。

Dr. McKay said the hydrogen levels are far above what microbes need.

麦凯表示,其中的氢含量远高于微生物生存所需的水平。

Still, the presence of hydrogen does not prove that life exists on Enceladus. It might suggest the opposite.

不过,氢的出现并不代表恩塞拉多斯一定存在生命。情况或许正好相反。

At hydrothermal vents on Earth, the hydrogen is quickly gobbled up by microbes. That so much hydrogen is rising through Enceladus’s ocean and reaching space could mean there is no life on the little moon to take advantage of it. At a department meeting, say, “if you have those stacks of pizzas, they disappear,” said Mary A. Voytek, head of NASA’s astrobiology program.

在地球上的热液排放处,氢很快就会被微生物吸收。有那么多氢从恩塞拉多斯的海洋中产生、升至太空,有可能意味着这个小卫星上没有生命体可以利用这些氢气。比方说,在开部门会议时,“你叫了很多的披萨,它们便会被消灭掉”,NASA天体生物项目负责人玛丽•A•沃伊泰克(Mary A. Voytek)说道。

Or life could exist, but is limited by other factors. “If there is biology there, it isn’t very active,” Dr. Voytek said.

又或许生命的确存在,但却被其他因素抑制了。“就算那里有生物存在,也不是很活跃,”沃伊泰克博士说。

Scientists will not get any more data for a long time.

在很长时间里,科学家们将无法得到更多的数据。

Cassini will make no more close flybys of Enceladus. The spacecraft is low on fuel, and the mission will come to a close in September. For the last few months, Cassini has shifted to a different orbit that will allow it to probe the interior properties of Saturn and take a close look at the inner part of its rings.

卡西尼号不会再做近恩塞拉多斯飞行。这艘太空船的燃料即将用尽,这项任务也会在9月结束。在最后的几个月里,卡西尼号会转入不同的轨道,对土星的内部属性进行探测,近距离观察土星环的内部情况。

NASA has at present no plans to return to Saturn or Enceladus. But it is currently soliciting proposals for a mission with a price tag of up to $850 million, and one of the areas in which NASA specified an interest is a mission to explore Enceladus and Titan.

NASA目前没有重返土星或恩塞拉多斯的计划。但它正在为一项费用高达8.5亿美元的任务征求建议,NASA在其中明确表示出兴趣的一个领域是一项勘察恩塞拉多斯和泰坦的任务。

The Enceladus findings also aid the design of Europa Clipper, NASA’s next big planetary mission, which is to launch in the 2020s to study Europa.

恩塞拉多斯的发现也会对NASA下一个重要行星飞行任务欧罗巴快船(Europa Clipper)的设计有所帮助,后者将于本世纪20年代发射,对欧罗巴卫星进行探测。

In the new Astrophysical Journal Letters paper, researchers led by William B. Sparks of the Space Telescope Science Institute in Baltimore report on a Hubble Space Telescope observation in 2016 that revealed a likely plume of water vapor rising from the same spot on Europa where the researchers saw a similar plume two years earlier.

在发表于《天体物理期刊通讯》的那篇新论文中,由巴尔的摩太空望远镜科学研究所(Space Telescope Science Institute)的威廉•B•斯巴克斯(William B. Sparks)领导的研究团队报告了他们2016年用哈勃太空望远镜观测到的情况,其中显示卫星欧罗巴上有类似水蒸气的东西升起,地点就在研究人员两年前看到类似烟缕的地方。

In addition, NASA’s Galileo spacecraft in the 1990s found that this location on Europa was unusually warm, and scientists would not be surprised to find hydrothermal vents there, too. “The geophysics is similar everywhere,” Dr. Voytek said.

此外,NASA上世纪90年代的发射的伽利略太空船曾发现,欧罗巴上的那个地方异常温暖,如果在那里也发现热液排放,科学家们不会感到意外。“地球物理学在哪里都差不多,”沃伊泰克说。

In ‘Enormous Success,’ Scientists Tie 52 Genes to Human Intelligence
科学家确定52个与智力相关的基因

In a significant advance in the study of mental ability, a team of European and American scientists announced Monday that they had identified 52 genes linked to intelligence in nearly 80,000 people.

周一,欧洲和美国的一个科学家团队宣布,他们在心理能力研究方面取得了重大进展,在近8万人中确定了52个与智力相关的基因。

These genes do not determine intelligence, however. Their combined influence is minuscule, the researchers said, suggesting that thousands more are likely to be involved and still await discovery. Just as important, intelligence is profoundly shaped by the environment.

不过,这些基因并不能决定智力。研究人员称,它们的综合影响微不足道,很可能还有数千个基因也参与其中,等待被发现。同样重要的是,智力深受环境影响。

Still, the findings could make it possible to begin new experiments into the biological basis of reasoning and problem-solving, experts said. They could even help researchers determine which interventions would be most effective for children struggling to learn.

不过专家表示,这些发现可以让他们开始对推理和解题的生物基础进行新的实验。它们甚至可以帮助研究者确定哪些干预方式会对学习不好的儿童最有效。

“This represents an enormous success,” said Paige Harden, a psychologist at the University of Texas, who was not involved in the study.

“这是巨大的成功,”德克萨斯大学(University of Texas)的心理学家佩奇•哈登(Paige Harden)说。她没有参与这项研究。

For over a century, psychologists have studied intelligence by asking people questions. Their exams have evolved into batteries of tests, each probing a different mental ability, such as verbal reasoning or memorization.

一个多世纪以来,心理学家通过问人们问题来研究智力。他们的测试发展为一系列测验,每项测验针对不同的心理能力,比如口头推理能力或记忆力。

In a typical test, the tasks might include imagining an object rotating, picking out a shape to complete a figure, and then pressing a button as fast as possible whenever a particular type of word appears.

一项典型的测试可能包括的任务是想像一个物体的旋转;选出一个图形,补全一个图像;每当特定类型的单词出现时,尽可能快地按下一个按钮。

Each test-taker may get varying scores for different abilities. But overall, these scores tend to hang together — people who score low on one measure tend to score low on the others, and vice versa. Psychologists sometimes refer to this similarity as general intelligence.

每位受试者在不同的能力测试中可能获得不同的分数。但总体来讲,这些分数趋于一致——在某项测试中得分较低的人,往往在其他测试中的得分也比较低,反之亦然。心理学家有时将这种类似性称为一般智力。

It’s still not clear what in the brain accounts for intelligence. Neuroscientists have compared the brains of people with high and low test scores for clues, and they’ve found a few.

尚不清楚大脑的哪个方面决定智力。神经系统科学家对比了得分较高和较低的人的大脑,找到了一些线索。

Brain size explains a small part of the variation, for example, although there are plenty of people with small brains who score higher than others with bigger brains.

比如,大脑的大小可以解释一小部分变量,虽然有很多大脑较小的人得分比大脑较大的人更高。

Other studies hint that intelligence has something to do with how efficiently a brain can send signals from one region to another.

还有一些研究表明,智力与大脑可以将信号从一个区域传递到另一个区域的效率有关。

Danielle Posthuma, a geneticist at Vrije University Amsterdam and senior author of the new paper, first became interested in the study of intelligence in the 1990s. “I’ve always been intrigued by how it works,” she said. “Is it a matter of connections in the brain, or neurotransmitters that aren’t sufficient?”

阿姆斯特丹自由大学(Vrije University Amsterdam)遗传学家、这篇新论文的责任作者丹妮耶勒•波斯杜马(Danielle Posthuma)从上世纪90年代开始对智力研究产生兴趣。“我一直想知道它是如何运转的,”她说,“它与大脑内部的连接有关,还是与神经递质是否充足有关?”

Posthuma wanted to find the genes that influence intelligence. She started by studying identical twins who share the same DNA. Identical twins tended to have more similar intelligence test scores than fraternal twins, she and her colleagues found.

波斯杜马想找出影响智力的基因。她先是研究具有相同DNA的同卵双胞胎。她和同事们发现,同卵双胞胎在智力测试中的得分往往比异卵双胞胎更接近。

Hundreds of other studies have come to the same conclusion, showing a clear genetic influence on intelligence. But that doesn’t mean that intelligence is determined by genes alone.

成百上千项其他研究也得出了相同的结论,表明基因对智力有明显影响。但那并不意味着,智力完全是由基因决定的。

In 2014, Posthuma was part of a large-scale study of more than 150,000 people that revealed 108 genes linked to schizophrenia. But she and her colleagues had less luck with intelligence, which has proved a hard nut to crack for a few reasons.

2014年,波斯杜马参与了一项涉及逾15万人的大规模研究,发现了108个与精神分裂症有关的基因。但她和同事们在智力研究方面就没有这么幸运,后者被证明是个很难解决的问题,原因包括多个方面。

Standard intelligence tests can take a long time to complete, making it hard to gather results on huge numbers of people. Scientists can try combining smaller studies, but they often have to merge different tests together, potentially masking the effects of genes.

标准的智力测试要花很长时间完成,所以很难收集大量人群的测试结果。科学家可以尝试把更小规模的研究结果综合起来,但他们因此不得不经常把不同的测试融合起来,这有可能掩盖基因的效果。

As a result, the first generation of genome-wide association studies on intelligence failed to find any genes. Later studies managed to turn up promising results, but when researchers turned to other groups of people, the effect of the genes again disappeared.

结果,第一代关于全基因组与智力关系的研究没有找到任何基因。后来,有些研究得出了前景不错的结果,但是当研究者转向其他群体时,这些基因的效果又消失了。

But in the past couple years, larger studies relying on new statistical methods finally have produced compelling evidence that particular genes really are involved in shaping human intelligence.

但在过去几年里,依靠新统计方式的更大规模的研究最终得出了令人信服的证据,表明某些基因的确与人类智力相关。

“There’s a huge amount of real innovation going on,” said Stuart J. Ritchie, a geneticist at the University of Edinburgh who was not involved in the new study.

“出现了大量真正的创新,”爱丁堡大学(University of Edinburgh)的遗传学家斯图尔特•J•里奇(Stuart J. Ritchie)说。他没有参与这项新研究。

Posthuma and other experts decided to merge data from 13 earlier studies, forming a vast database of genetic markers and intelligence test scores. After so many years of frustration, Posthuma was pessimistic it would work.

波斯杜马和其他专家决定把之前13项研究的数据融合起来,组成一个庞大的关于基因标记物和智力测试分数的数据库。经过这么多年的挫折,波斯杜马一度对它能否奏效感到悲观。

“I thought, ‘Of course we’re not going to find anything,’” she said.

“当时我心想,‘我们当然不会有任何发现,’”她说。

She was wrong. To her surprise, 52 genes emerged with firm links to intelligence. A dozen had turned up in earlier studies, but 40 were entirely new.

她错了。出乎她的意料,他们发现52个基因与智力存在确定的联系。其中十几个是在之前的研究中就已经被发现的,但还有40个完全是新发现的。

But all of these genes together account for just a small percentage of the variation in intelligence test scores, the researchers found; each variant raises or lowers IQ by only a small fraction of a point.

不过研究者发现,所有这些基因加在一起,只占智力测试分数变量的一小部分,每个变量对智商分数的影响还远远不到1%。

“It means there’s a long way to go, and there are going to be a lot of other genes that are going to be important,” Posthuma said.

“那意味着,还有很多工作要做,还会发现其他很多重要的基因,”波斯杜马说。

Christopher F. Chabris, a co-author of the new study at Geisinger Health System in Danville, Pennsylvania, was optimistic that many of those missing genes would come to light, thanks to even larger studies involving hundreds of thousands, perhaps millions, of people.

该研究的合作者克里斯托弗•F•查布里斯(Christopher F. Chabris)对此表示乐观,他认为很多遗失的基因会被发现,因为会出现涉及数十万甚至数百万人的更大型的研究。这项新研究是宾夕法尼亚州丹维尔市的盖辛格健康系统(Geisinger Health System)组织进行的。

“It’s just like astronomy getting better with bigger telescopes,” he said.

“这就像是有了更好的望远镜,天文研究也进展得更好,”他说。

In the new study, Posthuma and her colleagues limited their research to people of European descent because that raised the odds of finding common genetic variants linked to intelligence.

在这项新研究中,波斯杜马和同事们仅研究了欧洲裔,因为这样能增加发现与智力相关的共同基因变量的几率。

But other gene studies have shown that variants in one population can fail to predict what people are like in other populations. Different variants turn out to be important in different groups, and this may well be the case with intelligence.

不过,其他基因研究表明,一个人群中的变量可能无法预测其他人群的情况。结果证明,不同的变量在不同人群中的重要程度不同,关于智力的情况很可能也是这样的。

“If you try to predict height using the genes we’ve identified in Europeans in Africans, you’d predict all Africans are 5 inches shorter than Europeans, which isn’t true,” Posthuma said.

“如果你试图用我们在欧洲人身上找到的基因预测非洲人的身高,你得到的预测结果是非洲人整体上比欧洲人矮五英寸,但那不是事实,”波斯杜马说。

Studies like the one published today don’t mean that intelligence is fixed by our genes, experts noted. “If we understand the biology of something, that doesn’t mean we’re putting it down to determinism,” Ritchie said.

专家们指出,今天出版的这类研究并不意味着,智力是由基因决定的。“我们了解某项活动的生物基础,并不意味着我们认为那是决定性的,”里奇说。

As an analogy, he noted that nearsightedness is strongly influenced by genes. But we can change the environment — in the form of eyeglasses — to improve people’s eyesight.

他举例说,近视深受基因的影响。但我们可以通过改变环境来提高人们的视力,比如戴上眼镜。

Harden predicted that an emerging understanding of the genetics of intelligence would make it possible to find better ways to help children develop intellectually. Knowing people’s genetic variations would help scientists measure how effective different strategies are.

哈登预测,新出现的对智力的遗传学理解将有助于我们找到帮助儿童开发智力的更好方式。知道人们的基因变量将帮助科学家衡量不同策略的效果。

Still, Harden said, we don’t have to wait for such studies to change people’s environments for the better. “We know that lead harms children’s intellectual abilities,” she said. “There’s low-hanging policy fruit here.”

不过,哈登表示,我们不必等待这些研究的结果,就可以改善人们的环境。“我们知道,铅损害儿童的智力,”她说,“在这方面,很容易取得一些政策成果。”

Large Sections of Australia’s Great Reef Are Now Dead, Scientists Find
科学家称大堡礁三分之二珊瑚已死亡

SYDNEY, Australia — The Great Barrier Reef in Australia has long been one of the world’s most magnificent natural wonders, so enormous it can be seen from space, so beautiful it can move visitors to tears.

澳大利亚悉尼——澳大利亚的大堡礁一直被认为是世界上最为壮丽的自然奇观之一。它如此庞大,可以从太空中眺见;又如此美丽,令游客感动落泪。

But the reef, and the profusion of sea creatures living near it, are in profound trouble.

但是这片礁石以及生活在它周围的大量海洋生物陷入了巨大的麻烦。

Huge sections of the Great Barrier Reef, stretching across hundreds of miles of its most pristine northern sector, were recently found to be dead, killed last year by overheated seawater. More southerly sections around the middle of the reef that barely escaped then are bleaching now, a potential precursor to another die-off that could rob some of the reef’s most visited areas of color and life.

因为去年海水过热,在大堡礁最为原始的北部地区蔓延数百英里的区域里,有相当多的部分最近被发现已经死亡。当时侥幸存活下来的中部更靠南区域现在出现了白化现象,这是又一次大面积死亡的征兆,可能会让大堡礁最受游客青睐的充满色彩与生命的区域消失。

Severe bleaching last year on the northern Great Barrier Reef affected even the largest and oldest corals.
澳大利亚的大堡礁每年都吸引了众多来自世界各地的游客。但是,随着气候变暖加剧,过热的海水导致珊瑚礁大量死亡,继而影响了其他海洋生物的生存。

“We didn’t expect to see this level of destruction to the Great Barrier Reef for another 30 years,” said Terry P. Hughes, director of a government-funded center for coral reef studies at James Cook University in Australia and the lead author of a paper on the reef that is being published Thursday as the cover article of the journal Nature. “In the north, I saw hundreds of reefs — literally two-thirds of the reefs were dying and are now dead.”

“我们原以为再过30年大堡礁也不会出现这种程度的毁坏,”澳大利亚詹姆斯库克大学(James Cook University)一个由政府资助的珊瑚礁研究中心的主任、《自然》杂志周四将要发表的一篇有关珊瑚礁的封面文章的主要作者特里•P•休斯(Terry P. Hughes)说。“之前我看到北部基本占到大堡礁三分之二的成百上千的珊瑚礁快要死亡,现在它们真的死了。”

The damage to the Great Barrier Reef, one of the world’s largest living structures, is part of a global calamity that has been unfolding intermittently for nearly two decades and seems to be intensifying. In the paper, dozens of scientists described the recent disaster as the third worldwide mass bleaching of coral reefs since 1998, but by far the most widespread and damaging.

对世界上最大的生命结构大堡礁的破坏,是过去近20年里陆续展现而且似乎在逐渐加重的全球灾难的一部分。在这篇论文中,几十位科学家将最近发生的这场灾难描述为自1998年以来第三次全球性的珊瑚礁大规模白化,但它是迄今为止范围最广、危害最大的一次。

The state of coral reefs is a telling sign of the health of the seas. Their distress and death are yet another marker of the ravages of global climate change.

珊瑚礁的状况是显示海洋健康程度的一个很有说服力的指征,但它们的危机与死亡也是全球气候变化带来的破坏的另一个标记。

If most of the world’s coral reefs die, as scientists fear is increasingly likely, some of the richest and most colorful life in the ocean could be lost, along with huge sums from reef tourism. In poorer countries, lives are at stake: Hundreds of millions of people get their protein primarily from reef fish, and the loss of that food supply could become a humanitarian crisis.

如果世界上的大部分珊瑚礁都死亡——如同科学家们所日益担心的——海洋中一些最丰富、最多姿多彩的生命将不复存在,一同损失的还有珊瑚礁旅游带来的巨额收入。在更贫穷的国家,人命也受到威胁:有数亿人主要依靠珊瑚礁鱼类获得蛋白质,这种食物供应消失可能会变成一场人道主义危机。

With this latest global bleaching in its third year, reef scientists say they have no doubt as to the responsible party.

随着最近这场全球性白化进入第三年,珊瑚礁科学家表示,他们十分肯定这应该由谁来负责。

They warned decades ago that the coral reefs would be at risk if human society kept burning fossil fuels at a runaway pace, releasing greenhouse gases that warm the ocean. Emissions continued to rise, and now the background ocean temperature is high enough that any temporary spike poses a critical risk to reefs.

几十年前他就曾发出警告,表示如果人类社会继续以失控的速度持续燃烧矿物燃料,释放会让海洋温度上升的温室气体,珊瑚礁将面临危险。排放持续增加,现在背景海洋温度已经高到任何暂时性的骤升都会给珊瑚礁构成重大威胁的程度。

“Climate change is not a future threat,” Professor Hughes said. “On the Great Barrier Reef, it’s been happening for 18 years.”

“气候变化不是未来的威胁,”修斯说。“在大堡礁,它已经存在18年了。”

Corals require warm water to thrive, but they are exquisitely sensitive to extra heat. Just two or three degrees Fahrenheit of excess warming can sometimes kill the tiny creatures.

珊瑚需要在温暖的海水里才能生存,但它们也对过高的温度极其敏感。哪怕只是高出两三华氏度有时也会导致这种微生物死亡。

Globally, the ocean has warmed by about 1.5 degrees Fahrenheit since the late 19th century, by a conservative calculation, and a bit more in the tropics, home to many reefs. An additional kick was supplied by an El Niño weather pattern that peaked in 2016 and temporarily warmed much of the surface of the planet, causing the hottest year in a historical record dating to 1880.

按保守估计,全球海洋温度自19世纪末以来已经上涨了大约1.5华氏度,在热带地区还会略微高一些,那里存在着许多珊瑚礁。另一个打击来自在2016年达到顶峰的厄尔尼诺天气模式,它让星球表面温度短暂升高,造就了1880年有历史记录以来最热的一年。

It was obvious last year that the corals on many reefs were likely to die, but now formal scientific assessments are coming in. The paper in Nature documents vast coral bleaching in 2016 along a 500-mile section of the reef north of Cairns, a city on Australia’s eastern coast.

许多珊瑚礁有可能死亡的迹象在去年就已经很明显,但正式的官方科学评估现在出现了。在《自然》杂志上发表的那篇论文记录了2016年澳大利亚东海岸城市凯恩斯北部延续500英里的珊瑚礁群大量白化的情况。

Bleaching indicates that corals are under heat stress, but they do not always die and cooler water can help them recover. Subsequent surveys of the Great Barrier Reef, conducted late last year after the deadline for inclusion in the Nature paper, documented that extensive patches of reef had in fact died, and would not be likely to recover soon, if at all.

白化表明珊瑚在承受高温的压力,但它们并不一定会死亡,温度更低的海水能帮助它们恢复。在《自然》杂志那篇论文的统计截止时间过后,于去年年末对大堡礁进行的几次后续调研显示,数量庞大的一块块珊瑚礁实际上已经死亡,就算能再度恢复,也不会很快实现。

Professor Hughes led those surveys. He said that he and his students cried when he showed them maps of the damage, which he had calculated in part by flying low in small planes and helicopters.

修斯教授领导了这些调研。他表示,看到显示损害情况的地图时,他和他的学生们都哭了。绘制地图的数据是他统计出来的,部分依据乘坐小型飞机和直升机低空飞行观察到的结果。

Professor Hughes said he hoped the die-off this time would not be as serious as last year’s, but “back-to-back bleaching is unheard-of in Australia.” The central and southern part of the reef had already been badly damaged by human activities like dredging and pollution.
修斯表示他希望这次的死亡不会像去年那么严重,但“接二连三的白化在澳大利亚是前所未闻的”。大堡礁中部和南部已经被清淤和污染等人类活动损害得非常厉害。

The Australian government has tried to combat these local threats with its Reef 2050 plan, restricting port development, dredging and agricultural runoff, among other risks. But Professor Hughes’s research found that, given the high temperatures, these national efforts to improve water quality were not enough.

澳大利亚政府一直在竭力应对当地的这些威胁,它制定了《大堡礁2050年计划》(Reef 2050),限制港口发展、清淤和农田径流等威胁。但修斯的研究发现,考虑到现在海水温度比较高,单单依靠这些改善水质的全国性举措不足以解决问题。

“The reefs in muddy water were just as fried as those in pristine water,” Professor Hughes said. “That’s not good news in terms of what you can do locally to prevent bleaching — the answer to that is not very much at all. You have to address climate change directly.”

“原始海水里的珊瑚和浑水里的珊瑚一样有问题,”修斯说。“就你可以在地方层面做些什么来阻止白化而言,这不是什么好消息——能解决这个问题的答案并不多。你必须直面气候变化。”

With the election of Donald J. Trump as the American president, a recent global deal to tackle the problem, known as the Paris Agreement, seems to be in peril. Australia’s conservative government also continues to support fossil fuel development, including what many scientists and conservationists see as the reef’s most immediate threat — a proposed coal mine, expected to be among the world’s largest, to be built inland from the reef by the Adani Group, a conglomerate based in India.

随着唐纳德•J•特朗普(Donald J. Trump)当选美国总统,最近达成的一项应对这个问题的全球协议《巴黎协议》(Paris Agreement)似乎面临危险。澳大利亚的保守派政府还在继续支持矿物燃料发展,包括一项在许多科学家和环保人士看来对珊瑚礁构成最急迫威胁的计划——提议建造的一座有可能为全世界最大的煤矿,由总部位于印度的大企业集团阿达尼集团(Adani Group)从大堡礁向内陆建造。

“The fact is, Australia is the largest coal exporter in the world, and the last thing we should be doing to our greatest national asset is making the situation worse,” said Imogen Zethoven, campaign director for the Australian Marine Conservation Society.

“事实是,澳大利亚是世界上最大的煤炭出口国,对于这个国家最宝贵的资产,我们最不应该做的事情就让情况恶化,”澳大利亚海洋保护协会的宣传主管伊莫金•扎托文(Imogen Zethoven)说。

Australia relies on the Great Barrier Reef for about 70,000 jobs and billions of dollars annually in tourism revenue, and it is not yet clear how that economy will be affected by the reef’s deterioration. Even in hard-hit areas, large patches of the Great Barrier Reef survived, and guides will most likely take tourists there, avoiding the dead zones.

大堡礁为澳大利亚提供了约7万个就业机会和每年数十亿美元的收入,目前尚不清楚珊瑚礁退化会给这种经济带来何种影响。即便是在退化很严重的地区,也仍然有大片大片的珊瑚礁生存下来,导游很可能会带游客前往那里,避开死亡区。

The global reef crisis does not necessarily mean extinction for coral species. The corals may save themselves, as many other creatures are attempting to do, by moving toward the poles as the Earth warms, establishing new reefs in cooler water.

全球珊瑚礁危机并不一定意味着珊瑚物种的灭绝。珊瑚可以自救,就像很多其他生物试图做的那样,地球温度上升的时候,它们可以向极点移动,在温度较低的水域形成新的珊瑚礁。

But the changes humans are causing are so rapid, by geological standards, that it is not entirely clear that coral species will be able to keep up. And even if the corals do survive, that does not mean individual reefs will continue to thrive where they do now.

但是,以地质标准而论,人类导致的变化节奏太快,珊瑚物种能否跟上这个速度还不清楚。即使珊瑚确实可以存活下去,也不意味着个别珊瑚礁将在它们现在繁荣生长的地方长存。

Within a decade, certain kinds of branching and plate coral could be extinct, reef scientists say, along with a variety of small fish that rely on them for protection from predators.

珊瑚科学家说,在十年内,某些种类的分叉珊瑚和飞碟珊瑚就可能灭绝,依靠它们避开捕食者的各种小鱼也会随之灭绝。

“I don’t think the Great Barrier Reef will ever again be as great as it used to be — at least not in our lifetimes,” said C. Mark Eakin, a reef expert with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, in Silver Spring, Md.

“我不觉得大堡礁会重新变得像以前一样壮美——至少在我们有生之年不会,”国家海洋与大气管理局的礁石专家C•马克•埃金(C. Mark Eakin)在马里兰州银泉说。
A New Formula to Help Tame China’s Yellow River
新研究揭黄河高效运送沉积物原因,有助于防洪

Each year thousands of tourists flock to a reservoir along the Yellow River in China to witness a ritual cleansing so violent that it can look as if the earth just exploded. At the end of June and the start of July, for as long as two weeks before the flood season, Chinese officials open large portals along the walls of the Xiaolangdi Dam, releasing clear and muddy water simultaneously from the reservoir above to the river below. It gushes out, and in some years clouds the color of doom ascend beyond the dam’s walls.

每年,成千上万的游客蜂拥来到中国黄河边的一个水库,观看一场例行的泄洪,整个过程非常激烈,状似山崩地裂。在六月底、七月初汛期前的两周里,中国官方会打开小浪底大坝的巨大闸门,同时从上方的水库中放出清水和浊水,流入下方的河中。水喷涌而出,在有些年份,大坝上方显现出末日的颜色。

The Yellow River is considered the cradle of China’s civilization — but also its sorrow. Its vast floodplains coaxed people in for agriculture. Yet its violent floods have killed millions.

黄河被认为是中华文明的摇篮,但也是苦难之源。它广阔的泛滥平原吸引人们来这里从事农业。但它凶猛的洪水也导致了成百上千万人丧生。

The precautionary purging at the Xiaolangdi Dam, which has occurred annually since 2002, is the latest high-tech attempt to prevent flooding and tame the Yellow River, which today threatens more than 80 million people. It carries sediment more concentrated than in any other river in the world — so much that tiny particles of sand and silt clog reservoirs, raise riverbeds, break levees and cause potentially catastrophic floods. During what is called the Water and Sediment Regulation Discharge Project at Xiaolangdi Dam, muddy water evacuates sediment from the reservoir, and clear water washes sand out from the channel below to reduce flood risk.

小浪底大坝的预防性泄洪从2002年起每年进行一次,是预防洪水、制服黄河的最新高科技尝试。如今,黄河威胁着8000多万人的生命。它携带的沉积物含量超过世界上任何一条河流,微小的沙砾和淤泥阻塞水库,抬高河床,冲破堤坝,可能导致灾难性洪水。在小浪底的调水调沙工作中,浊水将水库中的沉积物排出,清水把下方渠道中的沙子冲走,以减少发生洪水的风险。

The annual purge can lower the riverbed by about six feet a year on average, but a surprising discovery about the river’s bottom, as well as its unusual capacity to carry high loads of sediment, could one day mean that the purge may not be as effective at preventing floods. In a study published last month in the journal Science Advances, researchers suggest new considerations to take into account when conducting this yearly event.

泄洪能把河床平均每年降低约六英尺,但是一项关于河底的意外发现,以及黄河运送大量沉积物的不寻常能力,可能意味着将来有一天,这种泄洪方式在防洪方面不会产生同样的效果。在上个月《科学前沿》(Science Advances)杂志发表的一项研究中,研究人员建议在今年的泄洪工作中,将一些新的因素考虑在内。

Previous models couldn’t explain how the Yellow River transports about a billion tons of sediment thousands of miles to the sea each year. Compared with the Mississippi River, it holds three times as much sediment and just a tenth of the water. But Hongbo Ma and Jeffrey A. Nittrouer, both geologists at Rice University and lead authors of the study, examined historical data and scanned the bed of the river with 3-D sonar.

之前的模型不能解释黄河如何每年携带约10亿吨沉积物,奔流数千英里,运到海里。黄河运送的沉积物量是密西西比河的三倍,而运送的水量仅为它的十分之一。不过,赖斯大学(Rice University)的地质学家、这项研究的主要作者马宏博和杰弗里•A•尼特劳尔(Jeffrey A. Nittrouer)研究了历史数据,用3D声纳设备扫描了黄河河床。

“It was very striking to see that the Yellow River bottom is basically flat,” Dr. Ma said.

“我们非常意外地看到,黄河的河底基本上是平的,”马宏博说。

It was assumed that the river’s flow produced relatively tall, closely spaced dunes that slowed the water and sucked up energy that might otherwise be available for sediment transport. But the Yellow River, with its fine sediment particles, had low dunes spaced far apart, freeing more energy to move the sediment.

人们曾经认为,河水的流动会产生相对较高、密集排列的沙丘,它们会降低水速,减少本来可用于运送沉积物的动能。但是,黄河沉积物的颗粒很小,所产生的沙丘较低,而且相距较远,所以保留了更多推动沉积物的动能。

With this discovery, the researchers and their colleagues developed a universal formula that could be used on all kinds of rivers to predict the exact sediment amounts traveling in the fluid. They can better predict where and when floods will occur or new land will be formed.

这两位研究者和同事们根据这项发现得出了一个通用公式,用于精确推算各种河流在流动中运送的沉积物量。他们可以更好地预测洪水或新的土地会于何时在哪里形成。

“We want to make the Yellow River the poster child of rivers and deltas around the world,” Dr. Nittrouer said.

“我们想把黄河变成世界各地河流和三角洲的典型代表,”尼特劳尔说。

At the Xiaolangdi Dam, competing systems may simultaneously lower the riverbed as clear water flushes away sediment and raise it as sandy water forms dunes that slow the sediment flow. Combining the new formula with the old model could help operators prevent more floods by achieving a better balance between the systems.

在小浪底大坝,相互冲突的系统可能同时降低和抬高河床,前者是因为清水能冲走沉积物,后者是因为含有沙子的河水会形成沙丘,减缓沉积物的流动。新公式和旧模型的结合可以帮助管理者在这些系统之间实现更好的平衡,从而预防洪水。

Last year, officials unexpectedly canceled the release because there wasn’t enough water or muck to need flushing, possibly because of lighter rainfall.

去年,官方出人意料地取消了泄洪,因为当年没有足够的水或淤泥需要冲刷,可能是因为降雨量较少。

To not disappoint tourists, they released clear water from the dam for just 15 minutes.

为了不让游客失望,他们仅从坝上放了约15分钟清水。

It’s unclear what to expect this year. “It would have to be the end of June or July,” Dr. Ma said, “but honestly we’re not aware of whether this event will happen or not.”

尚不清楚今年会是什么情况。“要等到六月底或七月才知道,”马宏博说,“不过坦白地讲,我们并不确定这项工作是否会进行。”
English Village Becomes Climate Leader by Quietly Cleaning Up Its Own Patch
英国减排模范村,草根环保何须政客多嘴

ASHTON HAYES, England — This small village of about 1,000 people looks like any other nestled in the countryside.

英国阿什顿海斯——这个约有1000人的小村子与其他乡镇并无二致。

But Ashton Hayes is different in an important way when it comes to one of the world’s most pressing issues: climate change. Hundreds of residents have banded together to cut greenhouse gas emissions — they use clotheslines instead of dryers, take fewer flights, install solar panels and glaze windows to better insulate their homes.

不过一讲到“气候变化”这个世上最紧要的问题之一,阿什顿海斯就有了举足轻重的独特之处。该村数百位村民结成同一阵线来减少温室气体的排放。他们用晾晒取代烘干机、减少搭乘飞机、安装太阳能板,并且改造窗户以加强隔热效果。

The effort, reaching its 10th anniversary this year, has led to a 24 percent cut in emissions, according to surveys by a professor of environmental sustainability who lives here.

根据住在这里的一位研究环境持续性的教授所做的调查,十年下来,他们的努力已经使当地碳排放减少了24%。

But what makes Ashton Hayes unusual is its approach — the residents have done it themselves, without prodding from government. About 200 towns, cities and counties around the world — including Notteroy, Norway; Upper Saddle River, New Jersey; and Changhua County, Taiwan — have reached out to learn how the villagers here did it.

然而,真正使得阿什顿海斯与众不同的是他们的做法──这些行动都是村民在没有政府驱策的情况下自发而为的。全世界有200多个城镇与国家都来取过经,想学习这些村民是怎么办到的,其中包括了挪威的讷特岛(Notteroy)、美国新泽西州的上马鞍河(Upper Saddle River) ,还有台湾的彰化县。

As climate science has become more accepted, and the effects of a warming planet are becoming increasingly clear, Ashton Hayes is a case study for the next phase of battling climate change: getting people to change their habits.

当气候科学更多地被人接受,地球暖化的效应也渐趋明显,说到对抗气候变化的下一阶段──让民众改变生活习惯──阿什顿海斯是很好的研究个案。

“We just think everyone should try to clean up their patch,” said Rosemary Dossett, a resident of the village. “And rather than going out and shouting about it, we just do it.”

“我们只是觉得每个人都该把自己的地方打理好,”村民罗斯玛莉‧杜赛特(Rosemary Dossett)表示。“与其到外头去嚷嚷这个主张,我们不如就实践它了。”

One of their secrets, it seems, is that the people of Ashton Hayes feel in charge, rather than following government policies. When the member of Parliament who represents the village showed up at their first public meeting in January 2006, he was told he could not make any speeches.

而阿什顿海斯的秘诀之一,似乎是居民觉得自己在当家作主,而不是跟随政府的政策。当他们在2006年1月首次为减排举办公开会议时,代表该村的国会议员前往与会,却被告知他不能发表任何谈话。

“We said, ‘This is not about you tonight, this is about us, and you can listen to what we’ve got to say for a change,’” said Kate Harrison, a resident and early member of the group.

“我们说:‘今晚的主角不是你,是我们。你可以听听我们对变化有什么话要说。’”村民凯特‧哈里森(Kate Harrison)说。她也是这个团体的早期成员。

No politician has been allowed to address the group since. The village has kept the effort separate from party politics, which residents thought would only divide them along ideological lines.

从那时起,再没有政治人物得以对该团体发表意见。该村不想让自己的努力沾上政党政治,因为居民认为,政治只会让他们陷入意识形态的分化。

The project was started by Garry Charnock, a former journalist who trained as a hydrologist and has lived in the village for about 30 years. He got the idea a little more than a decade ago after attending a lecture about climate change at the Hay Festival, an annual literary gathering in Wales. He decided to try to get Ashton Hayes to become, as he put it, “Britain’s first carbon-neutral village.”

这个减排计划是由盖瑞‧查纳克(Garry Charnock)发起的,他是水文学家出身,曾当过记者,在阿什顿海斯住了大约30年。10年多一点之前,他在海伊艺术节(Hay Festival)听了一场关于气候变化的演讲,产生了这个想法。这个一年一度在威尔斯举办的艺术节是个文学性聚会。查纳克决意让阿什顿海斯成为——用他的话来讲,就是“英国的第一个碳中和村庄”。

“But even if we don’t,” he recalls thinking at the time, “let’s try to have a little fun.”

“不过就算我们办不到,”查纳克忆及自己当时的想法,“也可以当作是给生活找点乐子。”

Sometimes, efforts to reduce greenhouse gases involve guilt-tripping or doomsday scenarios that make people feel as if the problem is too overwhelming to tackle.

有时为了减少温室气体,我们会去引发罪恶感或是描绘末日情景,让大家觉得问题仿佛大到令人束手无策。

In Ashton Hayes — about 25 miles southeast of Liverpool, with a 19th-century Anglican church and a community-owned shop that doubles as a post office — the villagers have lightened the mood.

而在阿什顿海斯,这个位于利物浦东南方25英里(约40公里)处、有个19世纪的英国圣公会教堂和一个全村公营的店铺兼邮局的小地方,村民决定还是不要搞得这么悲情。

They hold public wine-and-cheese meetings in the biggest houses in town, “so everyone can have a look around,” and see how the wealthier people live, said Charnock, executive director of RSK, an environmental consulting company. “We don’t ever finger-wag in Ashton Hayes.”

他们在村中心最大的房子里举办公开聚会,现场供应酒与奶酪,“所以大家都能来瞧瞧”,并且见识一下手头比较宽裕的人过着怎样的生活;环境顾问公司RSK的执行主任查纳克表示。“我们阿什顿海斯的人从来不去谴责别人。”

About 650 people — more than half of the village’s residents — showed up to the first meeting, Charnock said. Some in the village were less keen, but little by little, they began to participate.

查诺克说,有大约650人出席了第一次会议,超过了全村半数居民。有些人原本不那么热衷,后来也逐渐开始参与了。

Some have gone further. When they were looking to build their energy-efficient home and heard about Ashton Hayes’ carbon-neutral project, Dossett and her husband, Ian, thought it might be the perfect village for them.

有些人的做法又更进一步。杜赛特和先生伊恩从前想为自己盖一栋节能的屋子,又听说了阿什顿海斯的碳中和计划,便觉得该村可能是完美的选择。

They moved from nearby South Warrington and found two old farm cottages, which they converted into a two-story brick house, and installed huge triple-glazed windows, photovoltaic cells on the roof, a geothermal heat pump that heats the home and its water, and an underground cistern to hold rainwater for toilets and the garden.

他们从邻近的南沃灵顿(South Warrington)搬来此地,找到两间老农舍并改建成一栋两层楼的砖房。这栋房子加装了大片的三层玻璃窗、屋顶有光电池、有地热泵给房子供暖与加热水源,还有一个收集雨水的地下储水槽提供厕所与花园用水。

“I wouldn’t want anyone to think we live in a mud hut,” Dossett said, sitting on a couch in her warm, well-lit living room.

“我不想任何人以为我们住在泥巴棚子里,”杜赛特女士坐在自家温暖明亮的客厅里说道。

The Dossetts also have a vegetable garden, grow grapes for wine, brew beer and keep two cows, which mow the lawn and may also eventually become food in a few years. They pay about 500 pounds (about $650) a year for electricity and heating.

杜赛特家还有个蔬菜温室,除了种植酿酒用的葡萄,他们还自酿啤酒,又养了两头牛来给草坪除草;几年后这些牛也有可能成为盘中餐。他们每年的电费与暖气费大约是500英镑(约650美元,或约4400人民币)。

Though deep cuts across the globe are still required to make broader progress, actions to reduce emissions, even by small towns, are a step in the right direction, say experts who study community action on climate change.

研究社区气候变化行动的专家表示,虽然减排要有更显著的进展,需要世界各地的大幅减量,不过即便只是出自小城镇的减排行动,也是在朝着正确方向迈进。

“The community-building element of all this has been as important as the environmental impact so far,” said Sarah Darby, a researcher at Oxford University’s Environmental Change Institute.

“对所有的减排行动来说,建立社区意识都和行动所造成的环境效应同样重要,”牛津大学环境变化中心(Environmental Change Institute)的研究员莎拉‧达比(Sarah Darby)表示。

She added that Ashton Hayes was in a good position to take on these kinds of projects — it is a small village of well-off and well-educated people, so simply taking fewer flights each year can have a big effect.

达比又说,阿什顿海斯有很好的条件来执行这类计划── 该村规模小,居民富裕且教育程度高,所以他们就算每年只是少搭几趟飞机也能产生很大影响。

Residents were able to cut emissions by about 20 percent in the first year alone, according to surveys used to calculate carbon footprints that were developed by Roy Alexander, a local professor, and his students.

根据当地教授罗伊‧亚历山大(Roy Alexander)与他的学生建立的碳足迹测量法,该村居民光是在采取行动的第一年就可以减少20%的碳排放。

Some have had even more significant reductions: Households that participated in surveys in both the first and 10th years shrank their energy use by about 40 percent.

有些村民的减排量更为显著:那些第一年与第十年都参与测量的家庭,能源消耗量减少了大约40%。

Charnock said he thought the village could get the cuts in its 2006 carbon footprint to 80 percent in the next few years with the help of grant money to buy and install solar panels on the local school and other buildings.

查纳克表示,他认为该村在有补助金协助购买太阳能板,并装设于当地学校与其他建筑之后,能在接下来几年内把2006年时的碳足迹减少80%。

The next thing they have to do, he said, is to get the county government to be as committed to cutting emissions as Ashton Hayes is.

他还说,他们接下来要做的是让郡政府也像阿什顿海斯一样致力减排。

“There’s so much apathy,” Charnock said. “We need to squeeze that layer of apathy jelly and get it out.”

“无动于衷的人实在太多了,”查纳克说。“我们要着手让这种冷漠的心态消失。”

Laser Scans Unveil a Network of Ancient Cities in Cambodia
激光雷达揭开柬埔寨高棉古国的秘密

SIEM REAP, CAMBODIA — For decades, archaeologists here kept their eyes on the ground as they tramped through thick jungle, rice paddies and buffalo grazing fields, emerald green and soft with mud during the monsoon season.

柬埔寨暹粒——几十年来,考古学家们在茂密的丛林中跋涉,双眼一直盯着地面走过稻田与放牧水牛的草地,雨季到来时,这里一片碧绿,满地的泥泞。

They spent entire careers trying to spot mounds or depressions in the earth that would allow them to map even small parts of Angkor, the urban center at the heart of the Khmer empire, which covered a vast region of what is now Cambodia, Thailand, Vietnam and Laos from roughly 802 to 1431. In modern times, little material evidence existed beyond a network of monumental stone temples, including the famed Angkor Wat, and the sprawling settlements that presumably fanned out around the temples long since swallowed up by the jungle.

他们把整个职业生涯都用来定位土丘或是土坑,以便为吴哥古迹绘制地图,然而他们所绘出的只是其中的一小部分。吴哥曾是一片城市中心,位于高棉王国的心脏地带,802年到1431年前后,高棉王国曾拥有今天的柬埔寨、泰国、越南和老挝的大片土地。到了今天,高棉王国已经没有太多物证留下,只有一些高大的石头寺院,包括著名的吴哥窟,以及这片杂乱的定居点遗址,它可能从很早以前就围绕着那些寺院,之后渐渐被丛林吞噬。

But this year, the archaeologists Shaun Mackey and Kong Leaksmy were armed with a portable GPS device containing data from an aerial survey of the area that is changing the way Angkor is studied. The device led them straight to a field littered with clods of earth and shot through with tractor marks. It looked to the naked eye like an ordinary patch of dirt, but the aerial data had identified it as a site of interest, a mounded embankment where the ancestors of today’s Cambodians might have altered the landscape to build homes.

但在今年,考古学家肖恩•麦基(Shaun Mackey)与贡•里克斯米(Kong Leaksmy)配备了手提GPS设备,里面存储了这一带的空中勘测资料,一举改变了对吴哥古迹的研究方式。这种设备可以直接把他们引向一片满是土块和拖拉机痕迹的田地。肉眼看上去,这里只是一片普普通通的土地,但是空中勘测数据显示它是一处有价值的地点,是一处隆起的堤坝,柬埔寨人的祖先或许曾在这里改变地貌,建造家园。

Almost immediately after stepping onto the field, Mackey, his eyes glued to the ground, pounced on a shard of celadon pottery. Soon the team had turned up a small trove of potsherds and began taking copious notes.

一走进这片田地,牢牢盯住地面的麦基一眼就看见了一块灰绿色的陶片。没过多久,这个团队就发现了一小批陶片,并且做了大量笔记。

“It’s not sexy, like a temple, but for an archaeologist it’s really interesting that we have this representation of cultural activity,” he said. He and Kong Leaksmy are part of a consortium of scholars called the Cambodian Archaeological Lidar Initiative, or CALI, which uses a technology known as lidar to shoot ultraquick pulses of light at the ground from lasers mounted on helicopters. The way they bounce back can show the presence of subtle gradations in the landscape, indicating places where past civilizations altered their environment, even if buried beneath thick vegetation or other obstructions.

“这不像寺院那么迷人,但是对于考古学家来说,这些文化活动的象征真的非常有趣,”他说。他和贡•里克斯米隶属于一个名为柬埔寨考古光学雷达行动(Cambodian Archaeological Lidar Initiative)的学者团,简称CALI,他们使用一种名叫光学雷达的技术,用直升机上搭载的激光器向地面发射极快的激光脉冲。它们反射回来的方式可以显示地面的细微变化,指示古代文明曾经改变过地表环境的地点,就算被厚厚的植被或其他障碍物所掩盖也能勘测出来。

The soft-spoken, fedora-clad Mackey, a 14-year veteran of fieldwork here, noted that before lidar’s availability, an accurate ground survey of archaeological features in the Cambodian landscape entailed years or even decades of work.

麦基说话轻声细语,戴着一顶软呢帽,他在这里做现场勘测已经有14年了,他指出,在光学雷达投入应用之前,对柬埔寨的考古特征进行精确地面勘测需要花费几年,甚至数十年的工作。

“We had hit a roadblock in terms of technology until recently,” said Damian Evans, the archaeologist who heads the initiative. “The vegetation was obscuring these parts of Angkor and other monumental sites. The lidar allowed us to see through the vegetation.”

“我们遇到了技术方面的障碍,不久前才解决,”该行动的领导者达米安•伊文思(Damian Evans)说。“植被淹没了吴哥古迹的这些部分,以及其他重要遗迹。光学雷达技术可以帮助我们透过植被看清地貌。”

The Secrets of an Empire

帝国的秘密

The result, Evans said, has been an unprecedented new understanding of what the Khmer empire looked like at the apex of its power, with lidar-generated maps revealing an intricate urban landscape stretching across several provinces of modern-day Cambodia, along with a sophisticated network of canals, earthworks and dams the Angkorians used to control the flow of water.

伊文思说,勘测结果让他们对高棉王国在巅峰时期的面貌有了前所未有的了解,光学雷达绘制的地图显示出一片复杂的城市景观,贯穿如今柬埔寨的数个省份,伴随着一个由运河、土垒以及吴哥人用来控制水流的水坝所构成的复杂网络。

“It is pretty amazing,” he said. “The larger the temples are, the larger the urban infrastructure around it is likely to be, so they weren’t lost, in the sense that we assumed that they must be there. But, of course, that is an entirely different thing from being able to see it in incredible detail and how it works and how it functioned, how it evolved, the morphology of these places.”

“非常惊人,”他说。“寺庙越大,围绕它的城市基础设施似乎也就越大,所以它们并未失落,从这方面来说,我们假定它们肯定就在那儿。但是,当然,这和真正能够看到它们的各种细节、它们怎样发挥作用,它们的功能是什么,如何演变,乃至这些地方的整个形态又是完全不同的一回事。”

The group is using the maps to make more targeted excursions into the field, “ground-truthing” the lidar data to ensure that it is accurate and to determine where digging might be useful. On a recent mission, Mackey barreled down a freshly paved road in a pickup truck driven by Kong Leaksmy.

该小组使用这些地图到实地进行更有目的性的勘察,光学雷达数据提供的“地表真相”确保他们的方向是准确的,也可以帮助他们决定在哪里发掘更有用。在一项近期的任务中,贡•里克斯米开着一辆皮卡,载着麦凯飞驰在一条新铺成的路上。

Although the Khmer empire’s great stone monuments have endured for centuries, spawning a $60-million-a-year tourism industry and preserving information about the dynasty of god-kings who ordered their construction, the stuff of everyday life at Angkor, made from wood, mud, thatch and brick, has long since rotted away in the hot and humid climate. Almost nothing has been known about the lives of those who built the temples and served its rulers — who they were, how they lived, what they believed.

高棉王国伟大的石头遗迹经历了几个世纪的时光,每年给旅游业带来6000万美元的收入,它们记载着王朝的“神王”们的信息,是他们下令建造这些建筑;吴哥遗址则是以木头、泥土、茅草和砖石建成,里面的日常生活物品早已在酷热潮湿的环境下腐朽。我们对于建造了这些庙宇、服伺庙宇统治者的人,几乎一无所知——不知道他们是谁,他们怎样生活,他们信仰什么。

David Chandler, a professor emeritus at Monash University in Melbourne, Australia, and a leading historian of Cambodia, said the new lidar data was particularly exciting because it was providing more information than ever about how ordinary people lived in the Khmer empire.

澳大利亚墨尔本莫纳什大学荣退教授、柬埔寨史顶尖学者大卫•钱德勒(David Chandler)说,新的光学雷达数据非常令人兴奋,因为与以往相比,它提供了更多关于高棉王国普通人的信息。

“People imagined it was a city, but they didn’t know how to imagine it, because they didn’t know what it looked like, Chandler said. “Now they do.”

“人们想像那是一座城市,但他们不知道该怎么去想像,因为他们不知道它看上去到底是什么样,”钱德勒说。“现在他们知道了。”

“This is where Angkorian research is going to go from now on: research into the people who built the temples, not the people whom it was built for,” he added. “It’s putting the population of the city back in view.”

“吴哥古迹研究今后将从这里起步:研究那些建造庙宇的人,而不是研究庙宇所纪念的那些人,”他补充道。“研究将把城市的居民重新带回视野。”

Being able to see the true scope of the city has led to discoveries in other areas, too. Lidar has helped find the giant quarry field where most of the sandstone to build the temples was taken from, and has identified mysterious earthen spirals close to Angkor Wat and a few other temples that might have served aesthetic or religious purposes.

能够看到城市的真实范围之后,其他的领域也有所发现。光学雷达还帮助人们找到了一个巨大的采石场,大多数用来建造庙宇的砂岩都是从这里开采的,光学雷达还在吴哥窟附近发现了土地上一些神秘的螺旋,以及若干可能是为不同美学或宗教目的服务的庙宇。

At a remote but massive temple called Preah Khan of Kompong Svay, which Khmer King Jayavarman VII used as a base to raise an army against invaders from the east, scholars had worked for more than a decade to determine what lay below the surface, with little success. They ultimately concluded that the area was not thickly settled. But the lidar data revealed a dense cityscape that even included the same spirals seen at Angkor Wat, and helped pinpoint areas for archaeologists to dig that had not been looted.

有一处偏远的巨大庙宇名叫孔蓬思维圣剑寺(Preah Khan of Kompong Svay),高棉王国的阇耶跋摩七世(Khmer King Jayavarman VII)曾在这里组建军队,抵抗从东而来的侵略者,学者们研究了十几年,想判定地表之下究竟埋藏了什么,但一直没有什么成果。最终,他们确定这个地方没有密集的古迹。但是光学雷达发现了一片密集的城市景观,甚至有和吴哥窟附近一样的螺旋,它协助考古学家们定位出精确区域,以便发掘遗迹中尚未被劫掠的部分。

In other cases, what lidar has not found is just as revealing. At the temple Banteay Chhmar, on the Thai border, archaeologists had also struggled to find evidence of settlement. The lidar data confirmed this, leading Evans to conclude that it was not the center of a city but perhaps a temple or a garrison that saw only waves of temporary settlement.

在其他例子中,光学雷达虽然没有发现什么东西,但结果同样有意义。在位于柬埔寨与泰国边境的卜迭色玛寺(Banteay Chhmar),考古学家们也曾努力寻找居民定居点的证据而无果。光学雷达数据肯定了这一点,令伊文思得出结论,这里不是城市的中心,或许是一座庙宇,又或是曾有过一支驻军,只经历了几波临时定居。

Perhaps most crucially, the long-held narrative of the collapse of Angkor is being recast by lidar evidence. Based on stone inscriptions in the temples, scholars have long believed the empire fell in 1431 after its capital was sacked by an invading Thai army, and the population of the city moved closer to Phnom Penh, Cambodia’s current capital.

或许更加重要的是,关于吴哥的衰败,长期以来的叙事将被光学雷达数据所改写。根据寺院中的石碑铭文,学者们一直以来认为,1431年,高棉王国的首都被一支入侵的泰国军队洗劫之后,王国也随之陷落,城市居民朝着柬埔寨现在的首都金边方向迁移。

But when these areas were scanned, there was no evidence of an influx of refugees. This suggests that while there might have been a political schism in 1431 that induced members of the royal family to move closer to Phnom Penh, the vast majority of people stayed near Angkor and only gradually moved away.

但是这些地区的扫描结果没有显示出难民潮的迹象。这表明,1431年,有可能是政治分裂导致若干王室成员搬到金边附近,大多数民众仍然留在吴哥附近,后来才渐渐搬迁过去。

This understanding is unfolding day by day as the research continues. At Site 305, for example, Mackey and Kong Leaksmy uncovered bits of water jars, showing that the area included households, and shards of blue-and-white Chinese tradeware dating from after the 1400s.

随着研究的继续,人们的认识也在日复一日随之发展。比如,在305号遗址,麦肯和贡•里克斯米发现了水罐的碎片,表明这个地区曾经有过居民,那些蓝白色的碎片是来自中国的商品,年代可以追溯到15世纪之后。

“This helps feed into the concept that Angkor wasn’t really abandoned,” Mackey said.

“这有助于确立这样的观念,吴哥并没有被真正放弃,”麦肯说。

“When myth becomes such entrenched history, archaeology is a way of challenging the written record, particularly because history is often written by the powerful who give voice to their own agendas,” he said. “But the material remains.”

“当神话变成如此根深蒂固的历史,考古学就成了一种挑战书面记录的方法,特别是因为历史通常是由掌握权力的人书写,他们只为了自己的政治目的发出声音,”他说,“但是实物材料依然保存下来了。”

To Kong Leaksmy, a recent university graduate who used lidar data to write her thesis on a small temple called Banteay Sra, the takeaway was simpler.

贡•里克斯米是一个刚从大学毕业的学生,她使用光学雷达来写论文,内容是一座名叫Banteay Sra的小寺院,对于她来说,它的益处就更简单了。

“I can see many, many points that I cannot see just by eye,” she said of the new tool. “It’s amazing for me.”

“我能看到很多很多肉眼看不到的东西,”她这样评价自己的新工具。“我觉得太好了。”

How We Got Here: DNA Points to a Single Migration From Africa
人类的非洲祖先如何走遍世界?DNA研究揭秘

Modern humans evolved somewhere in Africa roughly 200,000 years ago. But how did our species go on to populate the rest of the globe?

晚期智人是在大约20万年前,在非洲某处进化而来的。但是我们这个物种又是怎样遍及世界其他地方的呢?

Did humans flood out of Africa in a single diaspora, or did we trickle from the continent in waves spread out over tens of thousands of years? The question, one of the biggest in human evolution, has plagued scientists for decades.

人类是在一次大移居中涌出非洲,还是在几万年的时间里一波一波地离开那片大陆的?这是人类进化中最大的问题之一,它已经困扰了科学家数十年之久。

Now they may have found an answer.

现在他们可能找到了答案。

In a series of unprecedented genetic analyses published on Wednesday in the journal Nature, three separate teams of researchers conclude that all non-Africans today trace their ancestry to a single population emerging from Africa between 50,000 and 80,000 years ago.

星期三,《自然》(Nature)杂志发表了一系列前所未有的基因分析报告,三个不同研究团队都得出结论,非洲之外所有人类的祖先都可以追溯到5万年到8万年前离开非洲的一批人。

“I think all three studies are basically saying the same thing,” said Joshua M. Akey of the University of Washington, who wrote a commentary accompanying the new work. “We know there were multiple dispersals out of Africa, but we can trace our ancestry back to a single one.”

“我觉得三组研究基本上说的都是同一件事,”华盛顿大学的约书亚•M•阿基(Joshua M. Akey)说,他为这个新研究撰写了一篇解释性文章。“我们知道,非洲有多次向外界传播人口,但现在我们可以追溯自己的祖先,把他们归结到同一个来源。”

The three teams sequenced the genomes of 787 people, obtaining highly detailed scans of each. The genomes were drawn from people in hundreds of indigenous populations around the world — Basques, African pygmies, Mayans, Bedouins, Sherpas and Cree Indians, to name just a few.

这三个团队为787人做了基因组测序,获取了每个人极为详细的基因组扫描结果。这些基因组来自全世界数百个土著族群,其中包括巴斯克人、非洲俾格米人、玛雅人、贝都因人、夏尔巴人和克里印第安人等等。

The DNA of older indigenous populations may be essential to understanding human history, many geneticists believe. Yet until now scientists have sequenced few whole genomes from people outside population centers like Europe and China. The new findings already are altering scientific understanding of what human DNA looks like, experts said, adding a rich diversity of variation to our map of the genome.

很多遗传学家都认为,较为古老的土著族群的DNA可能对了解人类历史来说更为重要。然而直到如今,科学家才开始为欧洲和中国等人口核心区域之外的少数人做完整的基因组测序。专家们说,新的发现将改变对人类DNA样貌的科学观点,为我们的基因组地图增添丰富的种类。

Each team of researchers used sets of genomes to tackle different questions about our origins, such as how people spread across Africa and how others populated Australia. But all aimed to settle the question of human expansion from Africa.

每个小组的研究者都使用若干基因组,去研究关于人类起源的不同问题,比如人类如何穿越非洲,另一些人又是如何去往澳大利亚。但是他们的目的都是解决人类离开非洲、向外扩张的问题。

In the 1980s, a group of paleoanthropologists and geneticists began championing a hypothesis that modern humans emerged only once from Africa, roughly 50,000 years ago. Skeletons and tools discovered at archaeological sites clearly indicated the existence of modern humans in Europe, Asia and Australia.

20世纪80年代,一组古人类学家与遗传学家开始提出这样一个假设,晚期智人大约是在5万年前一次性离开非洲的。考古地点发现的人类骨骼与工具清楚地表明晚期智人在欧洲、亚洲与澳大利亚洲的存在。

Early studies of bits of DNA also supported this scenario. All non-Africans are closely related to one another, the studies found, and they all branch from a genetic tree rooted in Africa.

早期DNA片段研究也支持这一观点。这些研究表明,非洲以外的所有人类彼此密切相连,而且它们都属于一棵植根于非洲的基因树上的分支。

Yet there are also clues that at least some modern humans lived outside Africa well before 50,000 years ago, perhaps part of an earlier wave of migration.

然而也有证据表明,至少有些晚期智人在5万年前就已经生活在非洲之外,他们或许是在一批较早的移民潮中离开的。

In 2011 Eske Willerslev, a renowned geneticist at the University of Copenhagen, and his colleagues reported evidence that some living people descended from this early wave.

2011年,哥本哈根大学著名遗传学家埃斯克•韦勒斯勒夫(Eske Willerslev)和同事们发现,有证据表明有些现代人是这批早期移民潮的后裔。

Willerslev and his colleagues reconstructed the genome of an aboriginal Australian from a century-old lock of hair kept in a museum — the first reconstruction of its kind. The DNA held a number of peculiar variants not found in Europeans or Asians.

韦勒斯勒夫和他的同事们使用一家博物馆保存的一缕有百年历史的头发,重建了一位澳大利亚土著人的基因组——这是其基因组的首次重建。DNA显示出若干特殊的变体,是欧洲人和亚洲人当中所没有的。

He concluded that the ancestors of Aboriginals spit off from other non-Africans and moved eastward, eventually arriving in East Asia 62,000-75,000 years ago. Tens of thousands of years later, a separate population of Africans spread into Europe and Asia.

他总结说,这位澳大利亚土著人的祖先是来自另一群非洲以外的人,他们向东方迁移,大约在6.2万到7.5万年前来到东亚。数万年后,另一群独立的非洲人在亚洲与欧洲扩展开来。

It was big conclusion to draw from a single fragile genome, so Willerslev decided to contact living Aboriginals to see if they would participate in a new genetic study. He joined David W. Lambert, a geneticist at Griffith University in Australia, who was already meeting with aboriginal communities about beginning such a study.

仅凭一份脆弱的基因序列很难得出这样重大的结论,所以韦勒斯勒夫决定联络尚健在的澳大利亚土著人,看他们是否愿意参与新的基因研究。澳大利亚格里菲斯大学的遗传学家大卫•W•兰伯特(David W. Lambert)也加入进来,他已经和若干土著人社区会面,商讨进行类似研究。

Their new paper also includes DNA from people in Papua New Guinea, thanks to a collaboration with scientists at the University of Oxford. All told, the scientists were able to sequence 83 genomes from aboriginal Australians and 25 from people in Papua New Guinea, all with far greater accuracy than in Willerslev’s 2011 study.

他们的最新论文也包括了来自巴布亚新几内亚人的DNA研究,这是同牛津大学科学家的合作成果。总的来说,科学家们可以为澳大利亚土著人的83个基因组,以及巴布亚新几内亚人的25个基因组进行测序,而且都比韦勒斯勒夫2011年的研究准确很多。

Meanwhile, Mait Metspalu of the Estonian Biocentre was leading a team of 98 scientists on another genome-gathering project. They picked out 148 populations to sample, mostly in Europe and Asia, with a few genomes from Africa and Australia. They sequenced 483 genomes at high resolution.

与此同时,爱沙尼亚生物中心(Estonian Biocentre)的迈特•麦特斯帕卢(Mait Metspalu)领导着一个由98名科学家组成的团队,进行另一项基因组收集工作。他们找来了148个族群作为样本,大都来自欧洲和亚洲,也有一些基因组来自非洲和澳洲。他们以高解析度为483个基因组做了基因测序。

David Reich, a geneticist at Harvard Medical School, and his colleagues assembled a third database of genomes from all five continents. The Simons Genome Diversity Project, sponsored by the Simons Foundation and the National Science Foundation, contains 300 high-quality genomes from 142 populations.

哈佛医学院遗传学家戴维•赖希(David Reich)及其同事们从五大洲收集了第三个基因组数据库。西蒙斯基因组多样性计划(The Simons Genome Diversity Project)由西蒙斯基金会(Simons Foundation)与国家科学基金会(National Science Foundation)赞助,它从142个族群中获取了300个高质量的基因组。

Reich and his colleagues probed their data for the oldest evidence of human groups genetically separating from one another. They found that the ancestors of the KhoiSan, hunter-gatherers living today in southern Africa, began to split off from other living humans about 200,000 years ago and were fully isolated by 100,000 years ago.

为了研究人类群体基因分离的最古老证据,赖希和同事们对这些数据进行了研究。他们发现,至今在非洲南部生活的狩猎-采集部落科伊桑人(KhoiSan)是在大约20万年前从其他人类当中分离出去的,自从10万年前就与其他种群完全隔离。

Earlier studies had estimated that the split between living groups of humans occurred much more recently. The new findings indicate that our ancestors already had evolved behaviors seen in living humans, such as language, 200,000 years ago.

早期研究认为,人类生活群体的分裂是在更近期的时间发生的。新发现表明,20万年前,我们的祖先已经发展出现代人类所拥有的若干行为,比如语言。

Metspalu and his colleagues ended up with a somewhat different result when they looked at the Estonian Biocentre data. They compared chunks of DNA from different genomes to see how long ago people inherited them from a common ancestor.

麦特斯帕卢和同事们对爱沙尼亚生物中心的数据进行了研究之后,得出了一个有些不同的结果。他们对比了不同基因组的大量DNA,旨在研究人类是在多早以前从一个共同祖先那里继承来这些DNA的。

Almost all the DNA from non-Africans today could be traced back to one population that lived about 75,000 years ago — presumably a group of Africans who eventually left the continent and settled the rest of the world. That squares with the conclusions of the other two studies.

几乎所有如今非洲以外人群的DNA都可以追溯到一个7.5万年前的种群——大概是一群非洲人,他们逐渐离开非洲,定居到世界上的其他地方。这同另外两组科学家的研究结论相吻合。

But in Papua New Guinea, Metspalu and his colleagues found, the story was a little different. They could trace 98 percent of each person’s DNA to that 75,000-year-old group. But the other 2 percent was much older.

但在巴布亚新几内亚,麦特斯帕卢和同事们发现,事情有些不太一样。所有人的DNA中的98%都可以追溯到7.5万年前的那群人,但还有2%的DNA更加古老。

Some people in Papua New Guinea — but no one else in the analyses — may carry a trace of DNA from a much older wave of Africans who left the continent as long as 140,000 years ago, and then vanished.

有些巴布亚新几内亚人——但在这项研究中的其他族群中完全没有——可能携带了更早一批离开非洲的人群的DNA,他们可能是在14万年前离开非洲的,之后就销声匿迹。

The second wave — the one from which the rest of the world descends — departed over 60,000 years later, the researchers suggest. The ancestors of the people of Papua New Guinea interbred with those first pioneers on their way east, which is why their descendants carry remarkable DNA.

研究者们认为,第二批离开非洲的浪潮——也就是产生了整个世界其余人口的那一批——发生在大约6万年后。巴布亚新几内亚人的祖先与这一批向东迁徙的人当中的先驱们杂交,所以他们的后代携带了与众不同的DNA。

Why leave Africa at all? Scientists have found some clues as to that mystery, too.

这些人到底为什么离开非洲?科学家们也发现了一些解开这个谜团的线索。

In a fourth paper in Nature, researchers described a computer model of Earth’s recent climatic and ecological history. It shows that changing rainfall patterns periodically opened up corridors from Africa into Eurasia that humans may have followed in search of food.

在《自然》杂志的第四篇论文中,研究者们描述了一个地球近期气候与生态历史的电脑模型。它表明,降雨方式的周期性改变为非洲人打开了进入欧亚大陆的通道,为了觅食,他们沿着这一通路迁徙。

Oldest Fossils of Homo Sapiens Found in Morocco, Altering History of Our Species

人类起源新发现:摩洛哥出土30万年前智人化石

Fossils discovered in Morocco are the oldest known remains of Homo sapiens, scientists reported Wednesday.

科学家们周三表示,在摩洛哥发现的化石,是已知最古老的智人遗迹。

Dating back roughly 300,000 years, the bones indicate that mankind evolved earlier than had been known, experts say, and open a new window on our origins.

专家称,距今约30万年前的这些骨骸意味着人类的进化早于已知时间,并为研究我们的起源打开了一扇新的窗口。

The fossils also show that early H. sapiens had faces much like our own, although their brains differed in fundamental ways.

这些化石还表明,早期智人有着和我们颇为相像的脸,尽管他们的大脑与我们有着根本性的不同。

Until now, the oldest fossils of our species, found in Ethiopia, dated back just 195,000 years. The new fossils suggest our species evolved across Africa.

此前,我们物种最古老的化石是在埃塞俄比亚发现的,距今仅有19.5万年历史。新发现的化石表示,我们物种的进化轨迹遍布非洲各地。

“We did not evolve from a single cradle of mankind somewhere in East Africa,” said Phillipp Gunz, a paleoanthropologist at the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology in Liepzig, Germany, and a co-author of two new studies on the fossils, published in the journal Nature.

“我们并非是从东非某地的唯一人类摇篮开始进化,”德国莱比锡马克斯•普朗克演化人类学研究所(Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology)的古人类学家菲利普•贡兹(Phillipp Gunz)说。他是发表在《自然》(Nature)杂志上的两篇关于化石的新论文的联合作者。

Today, the closest living relatives to H. sapiens are chimpanzees and bonobos, with whom we share a common ancestor that lived over 6 million years ago.

存活至今的物种中,与智人关系最近的是黑猩猩和倭黑猩猩,它们与我们有着生活在逾600万年前的共同祖先。

After the lineages split, our ancient relatives evolved into many different species, known as hominins. For millions of years, hominins remained very ape-like. They were short, had small brains, and could fashion only crude stone tools.

种系出现分支后,我们远古的亲属演变成了许多不同的类别,被称为古人类。古人类在数百万年间一直非常类似于猿。他们身材矮,大脑小,只能用石头制作粗糙的工具。

Until now, the oldest fossils that clearly belonged to H. sapiens were discovered in Ethiopia. In 2003, researchers working at a site called Herto discovered a skull estimated to be between 160,000 and 154,000 years old.

此前,明显属于智人的最古老化石是在俄塞俄比亚发现的。2003年,研究人员在一个名叫赫托(Herto)的遗址发现了一块据估计源于16万至15.4万年前之间的头骨。

A pair of partial skulls from another site, Omo-Kibish, dated to around 195,000 years of age, making these the oldest fossils of our species.

在另一个名叫奥默基比什(Omo-Kibish)的遗址发现的两块不完整的头骨,距今约有19.5万年,成为我们物种最古老的化石。

Findings such as these suggested that our species evolved in a small region — perhaps in Ethiopia, or nearby in East Africa. After H. sapiens arose, researchers believed, the species spread out across the continent.

此类发现一度表明,我们的物种当初是在一片很小的区域进行演化——可能是东非的俄塞俄比亚,或附近某个地方。研究人员认为,智人出现后,其足迹开始遍布非洲。

Only much later — roughly 70,000 years ago — did a small group of Africans make their way to other continents.

直到很久以后——约7万年前——一小群非洲人才前往其他大洲。

Yet paleoanthropologists were aware of mysterious hominin fossils discovered in other parts of Africa that didn’t seem to fit the narrative.

不过古人类学家注意到,在非洲其他地方发现的神秘的古人类化石,似乎与这种叙事不符。

In 1961, miners in Morocco dug up a few pieces of a skull at a site called Jebel Irhoud. Later digs revealed a few more bones, along with flint blades.

1961年,摩洛哥矿工在一个叫做杰贝尔依罗(Jebel Irhoud)的遗址挖出了几片头骨。后来又有几块骨骼以及火石刀片出土。

Using crude techniques, researchers estimated the remains to be 40,000 years old. In the 1980s, however, a paleoanthropologist named Jean-Jacques Hublin took a closer look at one jawbone.

研究人员借助简陋的技术方法估计,这些遗迹来自于4万年前。但在1980年代,一位名叫让-雅克•胡布灵(Jean-Jacques Hublin)的古人类学家对一块下颌骨进行了更仔细的研究。

The teeth bore some resemblance to those of living humans, but the shape seemed strangely primitive. “It did not make sense,” Hublin, now at the Max Planck Institute, recalled in an interview.

下颌骨上的牙齿与如今人类的牙齿有些相似,但奇怪的是,其形状看上去颇为原始。“这就说不通了,”目前任职于马克斯•普朗克研究所的胡布灵在一次采访中回忆。

Since 2004, Hublin and his colleagues have been working through layers of rocks on a desert hillside at Jebel Irhoud. They’ve found a wealth of fossils, including skull bones from five individuals who all died around the same time.

自2004年起,胡布灵及其同事一直在研究杰贝尔依罗一座荒漠山坡的岩层。他们发现了很多化石,其中包括死亡时间大体相同的五个人的头骨。

Just as important, the scientists discovered flint blades in the same layer as the skulls. The people of Jebel Irhoud most likely made them for many purposes, putting some on wooden handles to fashion spears.

同样重要的是,科学家在发现头骨的同一岩层发现了火石刀片。杰贝尔依罗人制作的火石刀片极可能有多种用途,给其中一些安上木柄就可以当矛用。

Many of the flint blades showed signs of having been burned. The people at Jebel Irhoud probably lit fires to cook food, heating discarded blades buried in the ground below. This accident of history made it possible to use the flints as clocks.

很多火石刀片都有被烧过的痕迹。杰贝尔依罗人可能会生火烹饪食物,从而让埋在下方地底下的被丢弃的刀片受到炙烤。这个历史上的偶然事件,或许带来了把这些刀片当成时钟的可能性。

Hublin and his colleagues used a method called thermoluminescence to calculate how much time had passed since the blades were burned. They estimated that the blades were roughly 300,000 years old. The skulls, which were discovered in the same rock layer, must have been the same age.

胡布灵及其同事借助一种名叫热发光的方法来计算,自从刀片被烧之后过去了多少时间。他们估计这些刀片来自约30万年前。在同一岩层被发现的头骨,肯定也来自同一时代。

The people of Jebel Irhoud were certainly sophisticated. They could make fires and craft complex weapons, such as wooden handled spears, needed to kill gazelle and other animals that grazed the savanna that covered the Sahara 300,000 years ago.

杰贝尔依罗人显然已经颇为先进。他们可以生火并制作复杂的工具,比如带木柄的矛,用来杀死在30万年前覆盖撒哈拉地区的热带草原上觅食的羚羊以及其他动物。

The flint is interesting for another reason: Researchers traced its origin to another site about 20 miles south of Jebel Irhoud. Early H. sapiens, then, knew how to search out and to use resources spread over long distances.

火石令人感兴趣的另一个原因是:研究者在杰贝尔依罗以南约20英里处的另一个地方找到了其源头。这表明早期智人知道如何搜寻和利用远处的资源。

Similar flint blades of about the same age have been found at other sites across Africa, and scientists have long wondered who made them. The fossils at Jebel Irhoud raise the possibility that they were made by early H. sapiens.

在非洲各地的其他地点发现了来自大约同一时代的类似火石刀片,科学家长期以来一直想弄清是谁制作了它们。杰贝尔依罗的化石揭示了其制作者为早期智人的可能性。

And if that’s true, Gunz and his colleagues argue, then our species may have been evolving as a network of groups spread across the continent.

贡兹及其同事说,倘若果真如此,那么我们物种或许是由遍布非洲大陆的一系列群体进化而来。

John Hawks, a paleoanthropologist at the University of Wisconsin who was not involved in the new study, said that it was a plausible idea, but that recent discoveries of fossils from the same era raise the possibility that they were used by other hominins. The only way to resolve the question will be to find more hominin fossils from the time when our species emerged.

与该项新研究无关的威斯康星大学(University of Wisconsin)古人类学家约翰•霍克斯(John Hawks)说,这是一个合理的想法,但最近发现的来自同一时代的化石,揭示了其使用者是其他古人类的可能性。解答这个问题的唯一办法是:找到来自我们物种出现之时的更多古人类化石。

Elon Musk’s Plan: Get Humans to Mars, and Beyond
SpaceX的火星梦:人类殖民红色星球

GUADALAJARA, Mexico — Elon Musk’s plans to get to Mars start with a really big rocket. He still needs to figure out how to pay for it.

墨西哥瓜达拉哈拉——埃隆•马斯克(Elon Musk)的火星登陆计划以一枚超级大的火箭为起点。他目前尚需想出为它买单的办法。

For years, Musk, the billionaire founder of the SpaceX rocket company, has been offering hints and teases of his desire to colonize the big red planet.

多年来,拥有亿万身家的SpaceX火箭公司创始人马斯克一直通过各种暗示和愿景来表达殖民这颗巨型红色星球的愿望,挑逗公众的神经。

In a talk on Tuesday at the International Astronautical Congress here, Musk finally provided engineering details, optimistic timelines and a slick video.

周二,马斯克参加了在这里举办的国际宇航大会(International Astronautical Congress),他在发言中终于公布了技术细节、颇为乐观的日程表,以及一段精美的视频。

“What you saw there is very close to what we’ll actually build,” Musk said, referring to the rockets and spacecraft in the video.

“你在这里看到的东西和我们将要实际打造的东西十分接近,”马斯克说。他指的是视频里的火箭和宇宙飞船。

Musk estimated it would cost $10 billion to develop the rocket, and he said the first passengers to Mars could take off as soon as 2024 if the plans went off without a hitch. For now, SpaceX is financing development costs of a few tens of millions of dollars a year, but eventually the company would look to some kind of public-private partnership.

据马斯克估计,研制火箭将耗费100亿美元的资金。他还说,如果相关计划进行得很顺利,前往火星的第一批乘客在2024年便可成行。目前,SpaceX一年要负担几千万美元的研发成本,但该公司最终将会寻求建立某种公私合作伙伴关系。

Each of the SpaceX vehicles would take 100 passengers on the journey to Mars, with trips planned every 26 months, when Earth and Mars pass close to each other. Tickets per person might cost $500,000 at first, and drop to about a third of that later on, Musk said.

每艘SpaceX的太空船可以携带100名旅客前往火星,计划是每隔26个月发送一艘飞船——这是地球和火星公转到距离最近的位置所需要的时间。马斯克表示,一开始,每个人的费用要50万美元,但是渐渐会降到这个数字的大约1/3水平。

To establish a self-sustaining Mars civilization of a million people would take 10,000 flights, with many more to ferry equipment and supplies.

为了建立一个自给自足、拥有100万人口的火星文明,需要一万次这样的飞行,此外还有更多货运飞行,用来运送设备和补给。

“We’re going to need something quite large to do that,” Musk said.

“我们会需要一个很大的机构来做这件事,”马斯克说。

Musk has talked of his “Mars Colonial Transporter,” but a couple of weeks ago, he suggested that its capabilities would be much greater.

马斯克曾经谈起过他的“火星殖民运输系统”(Mars Colonial Transporter),但几个星期前,他说它的性能应该更加强大。

He now calls it the Interplanetary Transport System. The booster would include 42 of SpaceX’s new, more powerful Raptor engines.

如今他将之称为“行星际运输系统”( Interplanetary Transport System)。SpaceX新研制的更为强大的“猛禽”(Raptor)火箭引擎可能也为他提供了强心剂。

What is less clear is how SpaceX will raise the money needed to bring its Mars dreams to fruition.

目前尚不清楚的是,为了让它的火星梦开花结果,SpaceX怎样才能募集到所需的经费。

Scott Pace, a former NASA official who is the director of the Space Policy Institute at George Washington University, said Musk’s vision was plausible technically, but added, “Other than emotional appeal, however, it didn’t really address why governments, corporations or other organizations would fund the effort.” His bottom-line opinion: “Possible, but not probable.”

前NASA官员斯科特•佩斯(Scott Pace)是乔治•华盛顿大学空间政策学院的院长,他说马斯克的设想在技术上是可行的,但他补充说,“除了诉诸感情,这个计划无法说动任何政府、公司或其他组织提供赞助。”他的根本观点是:“有可能,但不是特别有可能。”

China Tops List of Fastest Computers Again
超级计算机之争,中国力压美国

SAN FRANCISCO — A new list of the world’s fastest supercomputers provides more evidence that the once-yawning technology gap between the United States and China is closing.

旧金山——全球最快超级计算机的最新排名榜提供了进一步的证据,表明美国和中国之间曾经悬殊的技术差距正在缩小。

China dominates a biannual ranking of the world’s 500 fastest supercomputers, called the Top500, that was published on Monday. Not only does China have the world’s fastest machine for the seventh consecutive time, it has the largest number of computers among the top 500 — a first for any country other than the United States.

“全球最快超级计算机500强”(Top500)每两年更新一次,最新榜单于本周一发布。中国不仅连续第七次成为世界上最快计算机的拥有者,而且打入500强的数量也是最多的——这是第一次有美国以外的国家做到这一点。

Also for the first time, the world’s fastest supercomputer uses Chinese-made microprocessor chips instead of chips from Silicon Valley’s Intel.

而且这也是第一次,全球最快的超级计算机使用了中国制造的微处理器芯片,而不是来自硅谷英特尔(Intel)的芯片。

Supercomputers are viewed in scientific circles as an indicator of national technology leadership, and they are vital for research in areas ranging from the development of new weapons and medicines, to the design of cars and consumer products. American computing experts and business executives have warned for years that leadership in supercomputing is vital to a range of national interests.

在科学界,超级计算机被视为一个国家技术领先地位的指标,从新型武器和药品研发,到汽车和消费类产品的设计,超级计算机都发挥着非常重要的作用。多年来,美国计算专家和企业高管们都警告说,在超级计算机领域的领军地位对国家的很多利益至关重要。

“Today even consumer detergent bottles are designed with supercomputers,” said Eric D. Isaacs, a physicist and provost of the University of Chicago. “The Chinese are getting good at building these computers, and it’s a competitive issue now for U.S. industry and national security.”

“今天,甚至连民用洗涤剂的瓶子都是用超级计算机设计的,”芝加哥大学物理学家、教务长埃里克•D•艾萨克斯(Eric D. Isaacs)说。“中国越来越善于建造这些计算机,现在对美国的产业和国家安全来说,这成了一个竞争力的问题。”

The United States primacy on the Top500 list has slipped for a number of reasons. Government support for supercomputing has been slowed by long-running debates on the level of federal spending on basic scientific research, as well as opposition to funding for industrial innovation that is not directly related to national security.

美国在500强名单上失去领头羊地位的原因有很多。政府在联邦层面的基础科学研究投入长期存在争论,而且一些人反对政府资助那些与国家安全没有直接关系的产业创新,所以政府对超级计算的支持已经有所放缓。

In the private sector, companies like Google, Microsoft, Facebook and Amazon invested billions of dollars in cloud-computing centers that don’t focus as much on solving scientific problems.

在私营部门,像谷歌、微软、Facebook和亚马逊这样的公司投入了数以十亿计的美元在云计算中心上,而解决科学问题并不是云服务的侧重点。

And last year, the United States blocked the sale of a number of advanced microprocessors to China over concerns they were being used in nuclear weapon development, which most likely accelerated the development of China’s own technology, said Jack Dongarra, a University of Tennessee computer scientist who helped create the list of the world’s fastest computers in 1993.

去年,美国封锁了一些先进微处理器对中国的出口,担心中国利用它们发展核武器,田纳西大学(University of Tennessee)的计算机科学家杰克•唐加拉(Jack Dongarra)说,这些处理器极有可能用来加快中国的自主技术研发。他曾在1993年参与创建最初的全球最快计算机榜单。

The Top500 list is maintained by Dr. Dongarra and Erich Strohmaier, a physicist at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. Individual computing centers report descriptions and performance to them twice a year.

这个500强榜单是由唐加拉和劳伦斯伯克利国家实验室(Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory)的物理学家埃里希•施特罗迈尔(Erich Strohmaier)共同维护的。各计算中心每两年向他们汇报一次情况和性能。

In 2001, there were no Chinese supercomputers on the Top500. Now, China has 167 systems on the list compared to 165 from the United States. China also leads a more obscure category — total processing power, or the combined computing speeds of all of its supercomputers on the list.

2001年时,500强名单中没有任何超级计算机来自中国。而现在,名单上有167座超级计算机来自中国,165座来自美国。而且中国在一个比较偏僻的类别中也处于领先地位——总处理能力,即一个国家所有上榜的超级计算机加总后的速度。

The fastest machine, the Sunway TaihuLight System, was installed this year at the National Supercomputing Center in Wuxi, in China’s Jiangsu province.

最快的计算机名为“神威•太湖之光”,是今年在江苏省无锡的国家超级计算中心安装的。

Despite those achievements, Intel still provided the chips for 91 percent of the machines on the list. And China is still catching up with the United States in state-of-the-art technologies, like software and the networking that links the thousands of chips in a modern supercomputer.

尽管取得了这些成就,但上榜计算机中91%的芯片仍来自英特尔。中国的顶尖技术,如软件和连接现代超级计算机中数以千计的芯片的网络,依然落后于美国。

But that could soon change. Officials at the Semiconductor Industry Association, a trade group, said the Chinese government has an ambitious $150 billion program to acquire as well as develop new technologies in various kinds of chips.

但这种情况可能很快就会发生改变。行业组织半导体行业协会(Semiconductor Industry Association)称,中国政府制定了一个野心勃勃的计划,打算投入1500亿美元购买和开发各类芯片的新技术。

After years of neglect, the United States does appear to be taking the competitive threat seriously, said John Neuffer, president of the S.I.A. “It’s an opportunity for us to double down on supercomputing and get ourselves back on track,” he said.

该协会的主席约翰•诺伊弗(John Neuffer)表示,多年忽视此事的美国似乎的确很重视这个竞争威胁。“这是我们在超级计算上加倍投入,重振旗鼓的机会,”他说。

Last year, the Obama administration began a new effort to develop a so-called “exascale” supercomputer that would be 10 times faster than today’s fastest supercomputers. (An exaflop is a quintillion — one million trillion — mathematical instructions a second.) Computer scientists have argued that such machines will allow more definitive answers on crucial questions such as the danger posed by climate change.

去年,奥巴马政府启动了一个新项目,内容是开发所谓的“艾级”超级计算机。这种计算机的速度将是当今最快的超级计算机的十倍。(一艾次指一秒钟内执行一百亿亿条数学指令。)计算机专家称,这种计算机能够对气候变化带来的危险等关键问题给出更明确的答案。

Until President Obama signed the National Strategic Computing Initiative last July, the construction of the fastest American supercomputers had largely been driven by the nation’s Stockpile Stewardship and Management program, which was created in 1995 to simulate the testing and maintenance of nuclear weapons.

在奥巴马总统去年7月签署国家战略计算计划(National Strategic Computing Initiative)之前,建造美国最快的超级计算机的工作主要由美国核武储备管理计划(Stockpile Stewardship and Management)推动。该计划1995年启动,旨在模拟核武器的测试和维护。

While the Chinese have perfected the manufacture of traditional supercomputers pioneered by American companies like IBM and Cray, the United States may focus on new, more efficient supercomputers that might lead to machines intended for challenges like artificial intelligence, according to Larry Smarr, a physicist who directs the California Institute for Telecommunications and Information Technology at the University of California, San Diego.

中国完善了IBM和克雷(Cray)等美国公司开创的传统超级计算机的生产,然而美国现在的侧重点可能是效率更高的新型超级计算机。据加州大学圣迭戈分校加州通信与信息技术研究所(California Institute for Telecommunications and Information Technology at the University of California, San Diego)所长拉里•斯马(Larry Smarr)介绍,这种超级计算机可能会催生专门应对人工智能等挑战的计算机。

One of the design challenges of the fastest computers is their vast power consumption. The world’s fastest supercomputer in China, which could fill a large warehouse, requires the same electric power needed to run roughly 15,000 homes. An exascale supercomputer will very likely require more than twice that amount of power, or roughly the amount of power produced by the Copper Mountain Solar Facility, the largest producer of solar power in the United States.

最快的计算机面临的一个设计挑战在于它们巨大的功耗。中国那台全世界运行速度最快的超级计算机的体积相当于一个大仓库,用电量大致相当于1.5万户家庭。艾级超级计算机的用电量很有可能是它的两倍多,或者说相当于美国最大的太阳能发电设施铜山太阳能项目(Copper Mountain Solar Facility)的发电量。

At the same time, even if the United States is able to design an exascale computer within the next decade, the Chinese could get there first. According to Dr. Dongarra, the Chinese government is committed to reaching the exascale goal by the end of this decade.

与此同时,即便美国能在十年内设计出艾级计算机,中国可能会率先实现这个目标。据唐加拉称,中国政府致力于在这个十年结束前达到艾级计算。

Because of funding shortages and technology challenges, “there has been a delay in getting the exascale launched in the U.S., and as a result, we’re further behind than we should be,” he said.

因为资金不足和技术挑战,“美国制造艾级计算机的计划出现延误,因此,我们进一步落后于本应该达到的水平,”他说。

The Sunway supercomputer in Wuxi is a marvel of Chinese manufacturing prowess, Dr. Dongorra noted. The computer is based on 10.6 million processor “cores” spread across 40,960 microprocessors that work together. The chips are relatively slow individually — about the speed of the processor in Apple’s iPhone 6.

唐加拉称,无锡的超级计算机神威是中国制造实力的象征。该计算机的基础分布在40960个微处理器上的1060万个处理器“核”。这些芯片单独运行时速度相对较慢,大约相当于苹果iPhone 6的处理器速度。

The Sunway machine does have its shortcomings. It has older memory-chip technology, meaning it is limited in the speed with which it can move data in and out of each processor when compared with the most powerful American supercomputers. And the new Chinese supercomputer is still based on American-made optical network technology that is used to connect the thousands of microprocessor chips.

神威也有自己的缺点。它的存储芯片技术较老,这意味着和最强大的美国超级计算机相比,它的各处理器数据交换速度有限。同时,中国的新型超级计算机仍建立在美国开发的光网络技术上。该技术被用于连接成千上万的微处理器芯片。

Despite the fact that the Chinese now have the most supercomputers on the list, the United States still dominates the top 20, with 10 machines. There are now 105 supercomputers in Europe. Japan has 29 systems on the list, down from 37 systems in November.

尽管中国上榜的超级计算机最多,但排名前二十的超级计算机仍以美国的为主,占了10台。欧洲现在有105台超计算机。名单上日本的超级计算机从11月的37台降至现在的29台。

Several American scientists compared what is going on now to the 1980s, when they worried that the nation was losing ground to Japanese supercomputers.

几名美国科学家将目前的情况比作上世纪80年代。那时,他们担心在超级计算机领域,美国正在输给日本。

“Scientists might be saying, ‘I have to go to China to run my computations,’” said Dr. Smarr.

“科学家可能会说,‘我不得不去中国运行我的计算,”斯马说。

How Cold Brew Changed the Coffee Business
冷萃咖啡是如何征服美国人的?

Summer officially starts this year on June 21, but that’s only the solstice, the day when the sun reaches its highest position in the sky. Down on street level, summer really begins on the first humid, sun-streaked day, when even the thought of sipping a hot cup of coffee is too much to bear. It’s as if, just as birds know instinctively when to migrate, we wake up one bright morning and agree that it’s iced coffee season.

今年的夏季从6月21日正式开始,但那只是夏至,太阳到达天空最高点的那一天。在街道上,夏季真正开始是在第一个潮湿的、阳光灿烂的日子里,就连喝一杯热咖啡的念头都会让人难以忍受。如同鸟类本能地知道什么时候迁移一样,我们在一个明亮的早晨醒来,觉得到了喝冰咖啡的季节。

Gregory Zamfotis, the owner of Gregorys Coffee in New York City, which is about to open its 24th location, starts tracking the temperature in early May. “I literally look at the weather forecast and send emails to my store leaders,” he said. Zamfotis estimated that 75 percent of the coffee he sells is hot and 25 percent is iced for most of the year. With the start of iced coffee season, those numbers flip, and 65 percent of the coffee he sells is iced.

纽约市格雷戈里咖啡店(Gregorys Coffee)的第24家分店即将开业,老板格雷戈里•赞弗提斯(Gregory Zamfotis)从5月初就开始跟踪温度。“我看天气预报,还发送电邮给我的分店店长,”他说。赞弗提斯估计,在一年的大部分时间中,他卖的咖啡中有75%是热的,25%是冰的。随着冰咖啡季节的开始,这些数字将会翻转,他出售的咖啡中会有65%是冰的。
At All Day, a coffee shop in Miami that’s on the must-visit list of coffee fanatics, cold brew is the foundation of the menu.
迈阿密咖啡店全日(All Day)是咖啡迷必去之地,冷翠咖啡是这里的镇店之宝。

That change can happen overnight. “You don’t want to get caught and run out by 9 a.m.,” he said.

这种变化可能会在一夜之间发生。他说:“你可不想在上午9点之前冰咖啡就卖光。”

The danger of running out is real. All of the iced coffee at Gregorys Coffee is cold-brewed, a process that takes 12 hours and yields a drink often described as smooth, round and lush. Zamfotis estimates that he sells 10,000 servings per day at the peak of the season.

冰咖啡确实有喝光的危险。格雷戈里咖啡店的所有冰咖啡都是冷萃咖啡,需要12个小时的制作时间,喝起来的感觉通常被描述为柔滑、圆润而醇厚。赞弗提斯估计在夏季高峰,他每天能卖出1万杯咖啡。

There’s no way to rush cold brew. If you’re running a coffee shop, you need to anticipate demand. Every year, that demand is increasing: The United States is becoming a cold-brew nation.

冷萃咖啡是急不得的。如果你是咖啡店经营者,就需要对需求进行预测。每一年这种需求都在增长:美国正在成为一个盛行喝冷萃咖啡的国家。

In the past, coffee sales lagged during the summer and rose sharply during the holiday season. But cold brew now drives a surge in demand during warmer months, too, far more so than other iced coffee drinks. Coffee sales spike when the mercury rises. Cold brew is also attracting an entirely new audience for coffee: millennials, many of whom are making it their drink of choice.

过去,咖啡销量会在夏季下滑,在年底的假日季会出现大幅攀升。但现在,冷萃咖啡推动咖啡需求在气温较高的几个月也出现激增,幅度远大于其他加冰咖啡饮品。咖啡销量随着气温的升高而增加。冷萃咖啡还为咖啡吸引了一个全新的受众群体:千禧一代,他们中的很多人把它作为自己的首选饮品。

“It’s pheromonal,” said James Freeman, the founder of Blue Bottle Coffee. “And the feedback loop encourages more iced orders — watching other people order iced coffee inculcates the desire.” It’s the coffee version of “I’ll have what she’s having.”

“它能产生跟风性,”蓝瓶咖啡(Blue Bottle Coffee)的创始人詹姆斯•弗里曼(James Freeman)说。“这个反馈回路会促成更多冰咖啡订单,看到其他人订购冰咖啡又会激起欲望。”这是 “她吃什么我就吃什么”的咖啡版。

What was once a regional curiosity largely limited to New Orleans and the South is now found throughout the country. The shift started about 10 years ago, when cold brew was adopted by innovative coffee shops like Blue Bottle (which sells what it calls New Orleans-style iced coffee, a milky cold brew flavored with chicory) and Stumptown Coffee Roasters (which sells nitro cold brew, a coffee infused with nitrogen so that it’s slightly fizzy, with the thick, creamy head of a good stout).

一度仅限于新奥尔良和南方的一种地区性奇特饮品,现在全美国都能找到。这种转变开始于大约10年前。当时,蓝瓶咖啡(卖的是一种被其称作新奥尔良式冰咖啡的菊苣口味牛奶冷萃咖啡)和斯顿普敦咖啡烘烤(Stumptown Coffee Roasters,销售氮气冷萃咖啡,这种咖啡里含有氮,因此会稍微起泡,像上乘烈性黑啤那种厚厚的奶油状泡沫)等有创意的咖啡馆开始采用冷萃法做咖啡。

Cold brew was still a relatively niche market until 2015, when Starbucks introduced the drink in a number of stores; it is now available at every one of its more than 13,000 locations in the United States, 800 of which also offer nitro. It’s a coffee with both mass-market appeal and indie credibility. Today, you can find cold brew at a coffee shop where everything is meticulously crafted by hand, and at a Dunkin’ Donuts.

在2015年星巴克宣布在一些门店中引入冷萃咖啡之前,它依然是一个相对小众的市场。现在,冷萃咖啡在美国超过1.3万家星巴克门店均有售,其中800家门店还提供氮气冷萃咖啡。它成了一种既对大众市场有吸引力,又有着非主流口碑的咖啡。现在,无论是在一切都坚持小心翼翼手工制作的咖啡馆,还是唐恩都乐(Dunkin’Donuts),都能找到冷萃咖啡的影子。

What is cold brew? Essentially, it is a preparation. You steep coffee grounds in room-temperature water (which isn’t “cold,” strictly speaking) for six to 20 hours (depending on the recipe) to make a concentrate that can be diluted with water and served over ice. By giving up heat, you have to add time.

什么是冷萃咖啡?本质上,它是一种配制品。把咖啡粉在室温(严格地说,不是凉水)的水中浸泡6至20个小时(视做法而定),制成可以用水稀释,并盛放在冰块上面的浓缩咖啡。因为没有加热过程,所以必须增加制作时间。

Cold brew is more than a slowed-down version of hot coffee; it’s a noticeably different product. Hot water will bring out the acids in coffee, a characteristic that professional tasters call “brightness.” Cold water doesn’t but still gets the full range of mouthfeel and sweetness. The absence of acidity in cold brew is even more pronounced when compared with the iced coffee from the dark ages (of a few years ago), when it was almost always made with hot coffee that was chilled in the refrigerator. When hot coffee cools, even more acids develop, many of them unpleasantly harsh.

冷萃咖啡不仅仅是过程放慢了的热咖啡。它是一种明显不同的产品。热水会让咖啡中的酸释放出来,职业品尝师把这种特征叫“亮度”。冷水不会这样,但依旧会带来丰富的口感和芳香。和(几年前)黑暗时期的冰咖啡——几乎都是通过把热咖啡放在冰箱里冷却制成的——相比,冷萃咖啡没有酸味这一点甚至更明显。热咖啡冷却时,会产生更多的酸,其中很多味道浓烈,令人不悦。

But cold brew has a poor reputation in some coffee circles. According to those critics, cold brew’s selling point — its absence of acidity — is a flaw. The best coffees in the world, the ones grown at high altitudes, command higher prices specifically because of their complex acidity: Brightness is a virtue. Why give up one of the defining characteristics of a great coffee?

但在有些咖啡圈,冷萃咖啡口碑不佳。据这些圈子里的人说,冷萃咖啡的卖点——没有酸味,是一种缺陷。生长在高海拔地区的全世界最好的咖啡卖价更高,正是因为它们复杂的酸味:亮度是一种优点。为什么放弃好咖啡的一个决定性特点?

In addition, detractors say, the long exposure to air during the steeping process can leave cold-brewed coffees tasting flat and oxidized. Some coffee shops treat cold brew as a dumping ground for lesser coffees — old beans that are losing their flavor or uninteresting beans that couldn’t stand up to conventional brewing.

此外,批评者说,浸泡过程长时间暴露在空气中会导致冷萃咖啡氧化,喝起来平淡无味。一些咖啡馆把冷萃咖啡当作较差咖啡——那些味道变淡的陈年咖啡豆或口味清淡、经受不住传统制作工艺的咖啡豆——的垃圾倾倒场。

“The main argument is the lack of acidity, that it’s very one-note,” said Jenny Bonchak, who started Slingshot Coffee Co. with her husband, Jonathan. “But that’s not how we want to drink coffee. We wanted something that was balanced, and that was going to be juicy.”

“主要原因是没有酸味,非常平淡,”和丈夫乔纳森(Jonathan)共同创立斯林绍特咖啡公司(Slingshot Coffee Co.)的珍妮•邦查克(Jenny Bonchak)说。“但那不是我们想喝的咖啡。我们想要的是味道均衡、给力的东西。”

Bonchak uses high-quality beans from Counter Culture Coffee, a roaster based in Durham, North Carolina, and Slingshot Coffee is praised by the kind of coffee nerds who usually wouldn’t touch cold brew with a 10-foot straw.

邦查克用的是来自北卡罗来纳州达勒姆的烘烤公司Counter Culture Coffee的优质咖啡豆。斯林绍特咖啡受到了一些咖啡迷的称赞,这类咖啡迷往往即便用一根10英尺(约合300厘米)长的吸管,也不愿碰冷萃咖啡。
In Armenia, ‘What Do You Want to Be?’ Is Asked in Infancy
亚美尼亚人也“抓周”,半岁开始“职业规划”

Children in Armenia start thinking about their careers at a very young age — around six months or so.

亚美尼亚的孩子在很小的时候——大约六个月大时——就开始考虑自己的职业。

When an infant’s first tooth arrives, typically in four to seven months, a celebration takes place known variously as the “agra hadig” or “atam hatik.”

当婴儿长出第一颗牙时——往往是在四个月到七个月大期间——会举行一场庆祝活动。人们对这个活动的叫法不一,有人叫它agra hadig,也有人叫它atam hatik。

As part of the ritual, objects symbolizing different professions are arrayed in front of a child: a microphone for an entertainer, a stethoscope for a doctor, scissors for a tailor or money for a banker. Whichever object the baby chooses first is thought to be a sign of where the child’s professional aptitude lies.

作为庆祝仪式的一部分,象征不同职业的物品会被摆在孩子面前:象征艺人的麦克风、象征医生的听诊器、象征裁缝的剪刀或象征银行业从业人员的现金。无论孩子选择哪一样,都会被认为象征着孩子的职业倾向。

With the appearance of teeth, a child can begin to eat solid food, and the acquisition of this skill is believed to be a propitious time to foretell what the future holds, said Yulia Antonyan, a professor in the department of cultural studies at Yerevan State University in Armenia’s capital.

位于亚美尼亚首都的埃里温国立大学(Yerevan State University)文化研究学院教授尤利娅•安东尼扬(Yulia Antonyan)说,随着牙齿的长出,孩子可以开始吃固体食物,获得这种能力的时候,被认为是预测孩子未来的最佳时机。

There are no obligatory objects, but sets available for purchase will often include traditional artisan tools and choices epitomizing a more modern lifestyle. Parents are free to add to or omit from the mix as they wish.

没有必须要出现的物品,不过能买到的成套物品常常包括传统的匠人工具和象征更现代的生活方式的选择。父母可按自己的意愿随意增减物品。

“Parents may orchestrate the future life of their offspring by choosing only those objects that symbolize prestigious and desired professions,” Professor Antonyan said. “A book for a scientist or writer; a pencil for an architect, designer or artist; a calculator for an accountant.”

“家长也许会通过只选那些象征有声望的理想职业的物品来安排子女未来的生活,”安东尼扬说。“一本象征科学家或作家的书,一支象征建筑师、设计师或艺术家的铅笔,或是一个象征会计师的计算器。”

Parents can also game the selection by positioning objects nearer to or farther from their infant’s reach. At one recent ceremony, “the father of the baby asked to place a ladle a bit far from his daughter to save her from a destiny of a housewife,” Professor Antonyan said.

家长也可以通过把物品放在离孩子更近或更远的地方,来左右孩子的选择。在最近的一场仪式上,“孩子的父亲要求把一个长柄勺放在离他女儿稍微远一点的地方,以防她落入家庭主妇的命运,”安东尼杨说。

At the foundation of the ritual, and reflected in its names, is a magical association between teeth (agra or atam) and grain (hadig or hatik), according to Professor Antonyan.

据安东尼扬介绍,作为该仪式的基础,是牙齿(agra或atam)和谷物(hadig或hatik)之间的奇妙联系,这在它的名字中也有反映。

The ceremony begins by pouring various cereal grains over and around the child. Typically but not always, the baby’s head is protected by a piece of fabric, a pair of hands or sometimes even an umbrella.

仪式开始时,人们会朝孩子身上和周围撒各种谷物颗粒。孩子的头部往往会用一块布料、一双手有时候甚至是一把雨伞保护起来,但也不总是这样。

The ritual sprinkling is thought to ensure that the child will have healthy, even teeth. It could also have fertility associations, akin to throwing rice at a wedding, according to Levon Abrahamian, a cultural anthropologist in Yerevan.

仪式上抛撒谷物这个环节被认为是确保孩子将拥有一口健康、整齐的牙齿。据埃里温的文化人类学者列翁•阿布拉哈米安(Levon Abrahamian)称,这么做还和子孙兴旺的寓意有关,类似于在婚礼上撒大米。

Today, teeth-shaped cakes, toys, candy and balloons are popular party favors at these celebrations, which are widely practiced in Armenia and across the Armenian diaspora.

如今,做成牙齿形状的蛋糕、玩具、糖果和气球都是这些庆祝活动上的热门物品。在亚美尼亚国内和身居国外的亚美尼亚人群体中,这种仪式广泛存在。

In the earliest written references to the ritual, from the 19th century, just two objects were put before the teething child. The prediction then was not about an adult profession but the sex of the next sibling: Grasping a knife meant a brother was on the way, a comb (or mirror) a sister.

提到该仪式的最早文献出现在19世纪。据记载,当时摆在正在长牙的孩子面前的只有两样东西,预测的也不是孩子成年后的职业,而是下一个孩子的性别:拿起小刀意味着会迎来一个弟弟,拿起梳子(或镜子)则意味着接下来会是个妹妹。

“The divination for the future profession was developed much later in the urbanized and modernized environment of Soviet Armenia and the diaspora,” Professor Antonyan said, “when the future career would determine the baby’s life.”

“预测未来的职业是很久后在苏联时代的亚美尼亚城市化、现代化环境下以及国外侨民中发展出来的,”安东尼扬说。“当时,未来的职业会决定孩子的生活。”

How Whales Became the Biggest Animals on the Planet
鲸鱼是如何变得如此巨大的?

Whales are big. Really big. Enormously big. Tremendously big.

鲸鱼很大。非常大。无比庞大。大得出奇。

Fin whales can be 140,000 pounds. Bowhead whales tip the scales at 200,000 pounds. And the big mama of them all, the blue whale, can reach a whopping 380,000 pounds — making it the largest animal to have ever lived.

长须鲸重14万磅。弓头鲸则可重达20万磅。其中的老大则是蓝鲸,重量可达38万磅之巨,这也使蓝鲸成为了有史以来最为大型的动物。

But for as long as whales have awed us with their great size, people have wondered how they became so colossal.

鲸鱼以其庞大的身型令我们惊叹,人们也在一直好奇:它们是如何变得如此巨大的?

In a study published Tuesday in the journal Proceedings of the Royal Society B, a team of researchers investigated gigantism in baleen whales, the filter-feeding leviathans that include blue whales, bowhead whales and fin whales. The marine mammals became jumbo-size relatively recently, they found, only within the past 4.5 million years. The cause? A climatic change that allowed the behemoths to binge-eat.

周二,在一项发表在《英国皇家学报》B辑(Proceedings of the Royal Society B)的研究中,一组研究人员对须鲸科的“巨人症”进行了研究,这一滤食性庞然大物包括蓝鲸、弓头鲸及长须鲸。研究人员发现,这种海洋哺乳动物是在较为近期,仅在过去450万年间才变成巨无霸的。原因?一场导致这种巨型生物大量进食的气候变化。

Whales have an interesting evolutionary history. They began as land-dwelling, hoofed mammals some 50 million years ago. Over several millions of years they developed fins and became marine creatures. Between about 20 million and 30 million years ago, some of these ancient whales developed the ability to filter-feed, which meant they could swallow swarms of tiny prey in a single gargantuan gulp. But even with this feeding ability, whales remained only moderately large for millions of years.

鲸鱼的进化历史颇为有趣。起初,在约5000万年前,它们是栖息在陆地上的蹄目哺乳动物。经过数千万年的演化,它们进化出了鳍,成为了海洋生物。约2000至3000万年前,这些古鲸鱼中的一部分进化出了滤食的能力,这也就意味着它们能一大口吞下大量猎物。但尽管有了这种进食的能力,在数千万年间,鲸鱼仍然只保持着相对较大的体型。

“But then all of a sudden — ‘boom’ — we see them get very big, like blue whales,” said Nick Pyenson, the curator of fossil marine mammals at the Smithsonian Institution’s National Museum of Natural History and an author of the paper. “It’s like going from whales the size of minivans to longer than two school buses.”

“但突然间——‘轰’地一下——它们变得非常巨大,比如蓝鲸”,史密森尼学会国立自然历史博物馆(Smithsonian Institution’s National Museum of Natural History)策展人、该论文的作者尼克•佩尔森(Nick Pyenson)说。“鲸鱼的体型变化就像从小货车变得比两个校车还大。”

Dr. Pyenson and his colleagues measured more than 140 museum specimens of fossilized whales, and then plugged that data into a statistical model. It showed that several distinct lineages of baleen whales became giants around the same time, independently of one another. Starting around 4.5 million years ago, giant blue whales were popping up in oceans across the world alongside giant bowhead whales and giant fin whales.

佩尔森及同事测量了超过140个鲸鱼化石样本,然后将数据输入统计模型。结果显示,有几个特殊谱系的须鲸是在大约同一时间、分别变得巨大无比的。约从450万年前开始,巨型蓝鲸开始出现在全世界的海洋中,同一时间出现的还有巨型弓头鲸及巨型长须鲸。

The researchers suspected that an environmental change happened during that time that essentially caused the baleen whales to bulk up. After some investigation, they found that this time period coincided with the early beginnings of when ice sheets increasingly covered the Northern Hemisphere.

研究人员怀疑,该时期或许曾发生过一场环境变化,从根本上导致了这些须鲸身型变大。经过一番研究,他们发现在这个时期与北半球开始被冰川越来越多覆盖的时间相一致。

Runoff from the glaciers would have washed nutrients like iron into coastal waters and intense seasonal upwelling cycles would have caused cold water from deep below to rise, bringing organic material toward the surface. Together these ecological effects brought large amounts of nutrients into the water at specific times and places, which had a cascading effect on the ocean’s food web.

冰川径流可能将诸如铁这样的营养物质冲入沿海水域,季节性的上升流周期也使得深海里的冷水上涌,将有机物质带至海面。在特定的时间和地点,这些生态效应将大量营养物质带入水中,对海洋中的食物链造成了层叠效应。

Throngs of zooplankton and krill would gather to feast on the nutrients. They would form dense patches that could stretch many miles long and wide and be more than 65 feet thick. The oceans became the whales’ giant all-you-can-eat buffets.

大量的浮游生物和磷虾会聚集在一起,尽情享用这些营养物质,结成长、宽可达数英里,厚度逾65英尺的紧密的一大片。海洋也就成了鲸鱼们大型的“随你吃”自助餐。

“Even though they had the anatomical machinery to filter-feed for a long, long time,” said Jeremy Goldbogen, a comparative physiologist from Stanford University and author of the paper, “it wasn’t until the ocean provided these patchy resources that it made bulk filter-feeding so efficient.”

“尽管它们有着能够长期滤食的生理结构,”斯坦福比较生理学家、论文作者杰里米•戈登伯根(Jeremy Goldbogen)说,“直到海洋提供了这些大片资源,才使得大量滤食如此有效。”

The baleen whales could now gulp down much larger amounts of prey, which allowed them to get bigger. But that was only part of the equation.

如今的须鲸科可吞下数量大得多的食物,它们也因此变得更为庞大。但这只是其中的一部分原因。

“Plentiful food everywhere isn’t going to get you giant whales,” said Graham Slater, an evolutionary biologist at the University of Chicago and the study’s lead author. “They have to be separated by big distances.”

“到处都是充足的食物是无法让让鲸鱼变成巨型的,”芝加哥大学进化生物学家格雷厄姆• 斯莱特(Graham Slater)、论文的主要作者说。“必须被遥远的距离分隔开才行。”

Because the ecological cycles that fuel the explosions of krill and zooplankton occur seasonally, Dr. Slater said the whales must migrate thousands of miles from food patch to food patch. Bigger whale ancestors that had bigger fuel tanks had a better chance of surviving the long seasonal migrations to feed, while smaller baleen whales became extinct.

斯莱特说,由于导致磷虾和浮游生物大量爆发式出现的生态效应是季节性出现的,鲸鱼也就必须在各个食物块之间移动数千公里。在长期的为了食物的季节性迁移中,有着更多食物储存空间的体型较大的鲸鱼祖先更容易生存下来,而较为小型的须鲸则走向了灭绝。

If the food patches were not far apart, Dr. Slater said, the whales would have grown to a certain body size that was comfortable for that environment, but they would not be the giants we see today.

斯莱特说,如果食物块之间相隔不远,鲸鱼就会长到一定的大小,进而适应该环境,但就不会成为我们如今看到的的庞然大物了。

“A blue whale is able to move so much further using so much less energy than a small-bodied whale,” Dr. Slater said. “It became really advantageous if you’re going to move long distances if you’re big.”

“与小型鲸鱼相比,一条蓝鲸能以少得多的精力游得更远,”斯莱特说,“如果你体型很大,要去很远的地方时就非常占优势。”
Leaders Move to Convert Paris Climate Pledges Into Action
巴黎协议:一个终结化石燃料的承诺

PARIS — Before the applause had even settled in the suburban convention center where the Paris Agreement was adopted by consensus Saturday night, world leaders warned that momentum for the historic accord must not be allowed to dissipate.

巴黎——上周六晚间,各国在巴黎郊外的会议中心一致通过《巴黎协议》(Paris Agreement)。就在会议中心里的热烈掌声仍然响彻耳际之时,世界领导人已经发出警告,绝不允许这个具有历史意义的协议的动力有所消退。

“Today, we celebrate,” said Miguel Arias Cañete, the European Union’s energy commissioner and top climate negotiator. “Tomorrow, we have to act.”

“今天,我们欢呼庆祝,”欧盟能源委员、首席气候谈判代表米格尔•阿里亚斯•卡涅特(Miguel Arias Canete)说。“明天,我们就必须行动起来。”

With nearly every nation on earth having now pledged to gradually reduce emissions of the heat-trapping gases that are warming the planet — a universal commitment that had eluded negotiators and activists since the first Earth Day summit meeting, in Rio de Janeiro in 1992 — much of the burden for maintaining the momentum now shifts back to the countries to figure out, and put in place, the concrete steps needed to deliver on their pledges.

现在,几乎地球上每个国家现在都承诺逐渐减少导致全球变暖的温室气体的排放。这是自1992年首届地球日峰会在里约热内卢召开以来,谈判代表及活动人士首次获得这种普遍承诺。保持动力的大部分重担目前已转回到各个国家,它们需要制定并落实兑现承诺所需的具体步骤。

The task may prove most challenging for India, which is struggling to lift more than half of its population of 1.25 billion out of poverty and to provide basic electricity to 300 million of them. Rich countries are intent that India not get stuck on a coal-dependent development path.

这项任务可能对于印度来说尤为艰难,该国正在努力帮助超过一半的人口摆脱贫困,并为其中3亿人提供基本电力。印度的总人口为12.5亿。富裕国家则一心希望,印度不要陷入依赖煤炭的发展道路。

“It is essential that the developing countries are able to transform their energy system before they develop a level of dependence on coal that we have in the industrialized countries,” said Jan Burck of the activist group Germanwatch.

活动人士组织德国观察(Germanwatch)的扬•伯克(Jan Burck)表示,“重要的是,发展中国家在达到像发达国家一样的对煤炭的依赖水平之前,能够改变能源系统。”

During negotiations, India insisted that it would not be able to make the transition without assistance.

在谈判期间,印度坚称该国无法在没有援助的情况下完成转变。

“There will have to be new mechanisms,” Environment Minister Prakash Javadekar told reporters after the agreement was adopted.

印度环境部长普拉卡什•雅瓦德卡尔(Prakash Javadekar)在该协议获得通过后对记者表示,“必须要有新机制。”

China, meanwhile, is investing so heavily in clean energy that some observers think its carbon emissions might have hit a peak — a milestone that China had only promised to reach by 2030.

与此同时,中国正在大力投资清洁能源。其巨大力度让一些观察人士认为,中国的碳排放量可能已经达到峰值。中国曾承诺在2030年前达到这一里程碑。

Its top climate negotiator, Xie Zhenhua, said Saturday that “China will actively implement its nationally determined contributions so as to reach a peak as soon as possible,” but privately its officials have expressed pride that it no longer has the coal-stained reputation it had during the 2009 climate talks in Copenhagen, Denmark.

中国代表团团长解振华在周六表示,“中国将积极实施国家自主贡献计划,以尽快达到峰值,”但该国官员们私下表示,中国已经摆脱在2009年丹麦哥本哈根气候谈判期间被煤炭玷污的名声,他们为此感到骄傲。

Giza Gaspar Martins, an Angolan diplomat who represents the Least Developed Countries, which negotiated in Paris as a bloc, said of the accord: “This is but one stop on a long journey. This puts a system in place to do climate action, but we will have a lot of work to do.”

最不发达国家组织(Least Developed Countries)作为一个阵营在巴黎参加谈判,其代表、安哥拉外交官吉扎•加斯帕•马丁斯(Giza Gaspar Martins)提到该协议时说,“这只是漫漫长路中的一站。它提供了一个采取气候行动的系统,但我们还有很多工作要做。”

He said the pledges were designed to emphasize participation rather than ambition, but now “we have to make sure our national contributions are aligned with what the scientists tell us we need to be doing.”

他表示,这些承诺旨在强调参与而不是目标,但现在“我们需要确保各国的自主贡献计划与科学家们认定的需要采取的举措保持一致”。

Leaders here agreed that while legislation and regulation are essential to set the ground rules for the marketplace, the ultimate goal of replacing fossil fuels with renewable energy will require accelerated research and investment, and technological breakthroughs.

与会的领导人们同意以下观点,即虽然需要通过法律法规为市场设定基本规则,但完成利用可再生能源替代化石燃料的最终目标则将需要加快研究、投资及技术突破的步伐。

By calling — albeit indirectly, and in delicately crafted phrases — for net carbon emissions to be effectively brought down to zero “in the second half of this century,” the Paris Agreement could mark “the beginning of the end of the fossil-fuel era,” as Marcelo Mena Carrasco, a Chilean biochemical engineer and climate negotiator, put it.

就像智利生化工程师、气候谈判代表马塞洛•梅纳•卡拉斯科(Marcelo Mena Carrasco)说的那样,通过要求——虽然是以间接、小心准备的措辞提出——“在本世纪下半叶”实现温室气体净零排放,《巴黎协议》可以算是标志着“终结化石燃料时代的起点”。

That is certainly the hope of the Obama administration. Secretary of State John Kerry said the U.S. government had helped catalyze the agreement by toughening fuel-efficiency standards for cars and light trucks, cracking down on emissions from coal-fired power plants, and reaching a deal with China, the only country that emits even more greenhouse gases.

这肯定是奥巴马政府希望看到的。美国国务卿约翰•克里(John Kerry)表示,美国政府曾通过收紧汽车及轻型卡车的燃油效率标准,控制燃煤发电站的排放量,与中国达成一致,在一定程度上推动了协议的达成。中国是唯一一个比美国排放更多温室气体的国家。

President Barack Obama has endorsed the idea of a price on carbon — in the form of a tax, or a cap-and-trade system like California’s — and leaders of Canada, Chile, Ethiopia, France, Germany and Mexico endorsed the idea at the start of the Paris conference, but there was not nearly enough support to incorporate it into the Paris Agreement.

贝拉克•奥巴马总统支持给碳定价的计划,其方式是通过征税或模仿加州设立排放限额与交易系统。该计划在巴黎峰会开始时获得了加拿大、智利、埃塞尔比亚、法国、德国和墨西哥的领导人的支持,但因为没有获得足够多的支持,无法纳入《巴黎协议》。

While attention is shifting to the marketplace, the U.N. process will move ahead. The Paris Agreement’s provisions will not kick in until 2020. Indeed, though adopted “by consensus,” no nation has signed it. Countries will be invited to do so in a ceremony at the U.N. headquarters in New York on April 22; the agreement officially will take effect after at least 55 countries, representing at least 55 percent of total greenhouse gas emissions, have signed on.

注意力正在转向市场,而联合国的相关进程也将继续。《巴黎协议》的规定到2020年才会开始推行。实际上,虽然协议获得“一致”通过,但尚无国家签署协议。各国将获邀于明年4月22日前往纽约联合国总部参加签订仪式;该协议在至少55个国家——代表至少55%的温室气体排放总量——签署后,才会正式生效。

The United States will be one of them; through careful legal craftsmanship, the Paris Agreement will not be considered as its own treaty under U.S. law but rather as an extension of the U.N. Framework Convention on Climate Change, which the Senate ratified in 1992.

美国将是签署国之一;经过谨慎的法律制定,《巴黎协议》不会被视作依据美国法律制定的条约,而是《联合国气候变化框架公约》(United NationsFramework Convention on Climate Change)的延伸,美国参议院于1992年批准了该公约。

The United Nations has several short-term priorities. One is to get the remaining countries that have not submitted emissions-reduction pledges to do so. Venezuela and St. Kitts and Nevis submitted their plans Saturday, bringing the total to 188.

联合国有几个短期优先计划。一个是让尚未提交减排承诺的国家做出承诺。委内瑞拉、圣基茨和尼维斯联邦于周六提交了计划,使提交计划的国家总数达到188个。

By May, the U.N. climate staff will update its estimate for the combined impact of the national pledges (now known as nationally determined contributions, the qualifying word “intended” having been dropped). Estimates of the first round of pledges suggested that, if carried out, they would still result in a rise of 2.7 to 3.5 degrees Celsius (4.9 to 6.3 degrees Fahrenheit) above preindustrial levels — far above the newly adopted aspiration of an increase of just 1.5 degrees Celsius.

在5月底之前,联合国气候官员将会更新对国家承诺(现在被称为国家自主贡献计划,去掉了限定词“预期”)带来的总体影响的预测。有关第一轮承诺的预测显示,如果实施计划,仍旧会导致气温比工业化前水平高2.7至3.5摄氏度,远高于新制定的目标——升高1.5摄氏度。

Climate activists have long used a “power of the people” approach to promote sustainability and organize globally, and the world leaders who met here credited “civil society” for keeping up the pressure.

气候活动人士很早就利用“人民的力量”促进可持续发展,在全球进行组织,前来参加巴黎峰会的世界领导人们将持续加大的压力归功于“公民社会”。

“Now the work to hold them to their promises begins,” U.S. environmentalist and activist Bill McKibben wrote on Twitter, moments after the gavel fell on the Paris Agreement. “1.5? Game on.”

“如今,让它们信守承诺的工作开始了,“美国环保人士、活动人士比尔•麦克奇本(Bill McKibben)在《巴黎协议》敲定后不久在Twitter写道。“1.5度?游戏开始了。”

A Paid Hour a Week for Sex? Swedish Town Considers It
瑞典城市新福利

A local official in Sweden has a novel proposal to improve work-life balance and lift the local birthrate: give municipal employees an hourlong paid break each week to go home and have sex.

一名瑞典地方官员有一项可以改善工作与生活平衡、提高当地生育率的新提议:每周给市政府雇员一小时的带薪休息时间,让他们回家做爱。

Sweden is already celebrated for its generous welfare state, including 480 days of paid parental leave, universal health care and a common ritual of coffee and pastry, known as fika, which is considered sacrosanct.

瑞典本就以慷慨的福利制度著称,其中包括480天带薪产假、全民医保和被称为“fika”、被认为是神圣不可改变的咖啡甜点时间。

Per-Erik Muskos, a 42-year-old councilman from the northern town of Overtornea, wants to add to those benefits, by offering the municipality’s 550 employees the right to subsidized sex. In introducing his proposal this week, he told fellow members of the town council that it would give a nudge to the dwindling local population, add spice to aging marriages and improve employee morale.

来自北方城镇上托尔内奥(Overtornea)的42岁地方议会议员佩尔-埃里克•穆斯克(Per-Erik Musko)想再增加一项福利,即给550名市政雇员提供有补贴的性生活。在本周介绍自己的提议时,他告诉市议会的其他议员,这将有助于解决本地人口逐渐减少的问题,为陈旧的婚姻增添情趣,还能提振雇员的士气。

The idea quickly got attention all over Sweden, where for at least some, it was a welcome distraction from President Donald Trump’s vague reference to problems the country was having with immigration, which were strongly denied by baffled Swedes.

这个想法很快引起整个瑞典的注意,至少对那里的一些人来说,它是受欢迎的,因为可以将注意力从美国总统唐纳德有关这个国家出现移民问题的含糊暗示上转移。这种暗示已经遭到困惑的瑞典人的坚决否认。

Noting that “sex is also a great form of exercise and has documented positive effects on well-being,” Muskos suggested that local municipal employees could use an hour of the workweek already allotted for fitness activities to go home and have sex with their spouses or partners instead. The motion, which is expected to be voted on in the spring, needs a simple majority to be passed by the 31-member council. As of now, opinion on the council is divided.

穆斯克指出“性也是一种很棒的锻炼方式,而且有文件证明可以给健康带来积极的影响”,他还表示当地的市政府雇员可以用已经分配给健身活动的每周一小时的时间,回家和配偶或伴侣做爱。这项有望在春季进行投票的动议,需要在有31名成员的地方议会中获得简单多数支持才能通过。截至目前,议员们观点不一。

“We should encourage procreation. I believe that sex is often in short supply. Everyday life is stressful and the children are at home,” Muskos explained in his motion in Overtornea, a town of about 4,500 in the picturesque and remote Torne Valley. “This could be an opportunity for couples to have their own time, only for each other.”

“我们应该鼓励生育。我认为大家的性生活往往是不足的。日常生活压力大,孩子们也在家,”穆斯克在上托尔内奥解释自己提出的动议时表示。这是一个人口约4500的小城,位于风景如画、地处一隅的特宁山谷内。“它可以是一个机会,让夫妻拥有只属于彼此的时间。”

His proposal has generated praise, ridicule and criticism. Some critics fear single workers could while away their working hours on the dating app Tinder trying to find a date for their weekly interlude.

对于他的提议,有赞扬、有嘲笑,也有批评。一些批评者担心单身员工可能会将工作时间消磨在约会软件Tinder上,为每周一次的休息时间寻找约会对象。

When Muskos introduced the motion Monday, some council members giggled while others said they were not amused. But befitting a progressive country which has long been perceived as a beacon of sexual enlightenment — including blissfully kitsch performances at the Eurovision Song Contest — the proposal was taken in stride.

穆斯克周一提出这项动议时,一些议员笑了起来,另一些人则表示并不觉得好笑。但与一个一直被认为是性启蒙灯塔——包括欧洲歌唱大赛(Eurovision Song Contest)上欢快的媚俗(kitsch)表演——的进步国家相称的是,这项提议获得了从容应对。

It made headlines across Sweden and beyond. “Suggestion: Let the staff have sex during working hours,” a headline in the newspaper Expressen declared, under a photograph showing a couple in bed.

它在瑞典内外成为了新闻头条。“提议:让员工们在工作时间做爱”,《快报》(Expressen)的一篇新闻标题如此宣称,上方还配了一张一对夫妇躺在床上的照片。

Muskos told colleagues the proposal was no joke, though he acknowledged practical problems like enforcement. It would be difficult to tell, for example, if an employee eschewed sex in favor of a walk in the country.

穆斯克告诉自己的同事,这项提议不是玩笑,尽管他承认在执行等方面存在一些实际问题。比如,没法确定一个员工是不是用做爱的时间去乡间散步了。

Sweden has among the highest fertility rates in the European Union, according to Eurostat, the bloc’s statistic agency, in part because of the country’s generous parental leave systems and immigration. But the fertility rate has nevertheless been decreasing recently.

欧盟(European Union)统计机构欧洲统计局(Eurostat)的数据显示,瑞典属于欧盟生育率最高的国家之一,部分原因在于这个国家有着慷慨的产假和移民制度。但尽管如此,该国的生育率最近也一直在下降。

Malin Hansson, 41, a sexologist and specialist in reproductive health in Gothenburg, applauded the initiative, arguing that sex reduced stress, improved sleep and strengthened immunity, while enriching intimacy between couples.

哥德堡41岁的性学家和生殖健康专家马林•汉松(Malin Hansson)对这项倡议表示称赞,称性生活有利于减压,可以改善睡眠、增强免疫力,还能增加夫妻之间的亲密度。

“If it was up to me, I would introduce this across the country,” she said, adding: “In Sweden, sex is considered just another activity.”

“如果是我说了算,我会把它介绍到全国,”她说。还表示:“在瑞典,性不过被认为是另一种活动”。

Stefan Nilsson, a Green Party member who sits on the health and welfare committee of the Swedish parliament, said he was skeptical that taxpayers would want their money to finance work-hour sex, but allowed that the idea might be a canny investment in physical activity, noting that healthier workers cost the government less.

担任瑞典议会健康与福利委员会委员的绿党成员斯特凡•尼尔松(Stefan Nilsson)表示,他对纳税人愿意拿自己的钱支持工作时间做爱持怀疑态度,但也承认这个想法或许是对身体活动的一项精明投资,指出员工更健康可以让政府减少支出。

Others were less persuaded.

对其他人来说,这提议就没那么容易接受。

Tomas Vedestig, 42, a left-leaning municipal councilman in Overtornea, said that when Muskos made his pitch, his colleagues were so taken aback that they thought they had misheard him. Vedestig said the proposal was intrusive and threatened to embarrass people who do not have sexual partners; do not want to have sex; or had medical conditions that precluded sex.

42岁的上托尔内奥左倾地方议员托马斯•韦德斯蒂(Tomas Vedestig)表示,当穆斯克提出这项方案时,他的同事们大吃一惊,还以为自己听错了。韦德斯蒂表示,这项提议有点唐突,有可能会让没有性伴侣、不想做爱或因为健康状况无法做爱的人感到尴尬。

“I don’t think it’s the employer’s business to to say ‘go home for an hour and make babies,’” he said. And some proponents worried the proposal was too stingy: “I spoke to a couple of older gentlemen who said, ‘One hour? That is not enough time.’”

“我认为雇主没有权利说‘回家一小时造孩子去吧’,”他说。也有一些倡导者则觉得这项提议的时间不够:“我跟几个年龄大一些的先生交谈过,他们说,‘才一小时?那可不够。’”

Venice, Invaded by Tourists, Risks Becoming ‘Disneyland on the Sea’
水城威尼斯被“低质量旅游”淹没

VENICE — “You guys, just say ‘skooozy’ and walk through,” a young U.S. woman commanded her friends, caught in one of the bottlenecks of tourist traffic that clog Venice’s narrow streets, choke its glorious squares and push the locals of this enchanting floating city out and onto drab, dry land. “We don’t have time!”

威尼斯——“伙计们,只需说‘借过’,然后穿过去,”一个年轻的美国女人向朋友发出指令。“我们没时间了!”他们被困在由观光客组成的拥挤人潮中。在威尼斯,这人潮堵塞了狭窄的街道,让美丽的广场水泄不通,还迫使这座极具魅力的水上城市的许多居民离开本岛,踏上单调、干燥的陆地。

Neither, the Italian government worries, does Venice.

意大利政府担心,威尼斯的时间也不多了。

Don’t look now, but Venice, once a great maritime and mercantile power, risks being conquered by day-trippers.

不应马上下结论,不过,曾是伟大的海上霸主和商业中心的威尼斯,的确面临着被一日游观光客征服的危险。

The soundtrack of the city is now the wheels of rolling luggage thumping up against the steps of footbridges as phalanxes of tourists march over the city’s canals. Snippets of Venetian dialect can still be heard between the gondoliers rowing selfie-snapping couples. But the lingua franca is a foreign mashup of English, Chinese and whatever other tongue the mega cruise ships and low-cost flights have delivered that morning. Hotels have replaced homes.

如今,当游客的方阵在运河上方的天桥上行进时,拉杆箱的轮子在台阶上滚动跳跃的声音便是这座城市的背景音乐。从那些划着船,运送着忙于自拍的情侣的船夫口中,你仍能听到零星的威尼斯方言。但通用语是一种外国语大杂烩,其中包括英语、中文,以及巨型游轮和廉价渡船那天早上运送的游客说的任何语言。居民的住宅已被酒店取而代之。

Italian government officials, lamenting what they call “low-quality tourism,” are considering limiting the numbers of tourists who can enter the city or its landmark piazzas.

意大利政府官员悲叹于他们口中的“低质量旅游”,正考虑限制可以进入这座城市或其地标式广场的游客人数。

“If you arrive on a big ship, get off, you have two or three hours, follow someone holding a flag to Piazzale Roma, Ponte di Rialto and San Marco and turn around,” said Dario Franceschini, Italy’s culture minister, who lamented what he called an “Eat and Flee” brand of tourism that had brought the sinking city so low.

“如果你是坐大船抵达的,下了船,你有两三个小时,跟随某个举着小旗子的人前往罗马广场(Piazzale Roma)、里阿尔托桥(Ponte di Rialto)、圣马可广场(San Marco),然后就要往回走,”意大利文化部长达里奥•弗兰切斯基尼(Dario Franceschini)为他口中的快餐式旅游感到惋惜,这种业态已经让这个下沉的城市的情况变得愈发糟糕。

“The beauty of Italian towns is not only the architecture, it’s also the actual activity of the place, the stores, the workshops,” Franceschini added. “We need to save its identity.”

“意大利城镇不仅美在建筑物,还在于当地的实际活动、店铺、工坊,”弗兰切斯基尼继续说道。“我们需要保存它的特质。”

The city’s locals, whatever is left of them anyway, feel inundated by the 20 million or so tourists each year. Stores have taken to putting signs on the windows showing the direction to St. Mark’s Square or Ponte di Rialto, so people will stop coming in to ask them where to go.

每年约有2000万名游客涌入威尼斯,让这座城市的居民——不论还剩下多少——有被淹没其中之感。各店铺不得不往窗户上放标牌,指明圣马克广场(St Mark’s Square)或里亚尔托桥所在的方向,以免人们纷纷跑进来问路。

The majority of the anxiety has centered on the cruise ships that pass through the Grand Canal, blotting out the landmarks like an eclipse blocking out the sun.

担忧主要集中在穿行于大运河(Grand Canal)中的游轮身上,它们遮蔽着一处处地标,就如同月球的影子遮蔽着太阳。

Some of the roughly 50,000 Venetians who remain in the city, down from about 175,000 in 1951, have organized associations against the “Big Ships,” selling T-shirts that show cruise boats with shark teeth threatening fishermen. In June, almost all the 18,000 Venetians who voted in an unofficial referendum on the cruise ships said they wanted them out of the lagoon.

这座城市里还剩下大约5万名威尼斯人——1951年的数字是17.5万——他们组织起对抗“大船”的协会,还会售卖宣传T恤,上面的图案是带有锋利牙齿的游船向渔民发出威胁。今年6月有过一场关于游轮的非官方公投,参与投票的1.8万名威尼斯人几乎全都表示,他们想让游轮离开泄湖。

“One problem is the ships,” said Franceschini, who called their passage in front of St. Mark’s Square “an unacceptable spectacle.”

“这些船真成问题,”弗兰切斯基尼说。他把船只在圣马克广场前经过的情形称作“不可接受的景象”。

But the ships bring in money, and since Venice is not the trading power of yore, it needs all the euros it can get. The cruise ships don’t just bring fees into the city, they also create jobs down a whole supply chain, benefiting mechanics, waiters and water taxis. The gondoliers who change into their striped shirts early in the morning and put sunscreen on their bald heads have steady work.

但这些船会带来金钱,威尼斯已经不是昔日的贸易霸主,能挣到手的每一块欧元对它来说都很重要。游轮不只为这座城市带来收入,还顺着一整条供应链创造着就业机会,让机修师、服务生以及水上的士司机获益。那些一大清早就换好条纹衬衫、把防晒霜涂抹在光秃秃的脑袋上的船夫,拥有稳定的客源。

Many of Venice’s locals reside in the Castello section of the city, far enough from San Marco Square, the center of tourist gravity, to enjoy a semblance of normal life. But only a semblance.

威尼斯本地人很多都住在该市的城堡区(Castello),一个离游客云集的圣马可广场足够远的地方,以便过表面上还算正常的生活。但也只是表面上。

“If you want to get some prosciutto, you can’t because the salumeria is gone,” said Tommaso Mingati, 41.

“如果你想要买点火腿,是买不到的,因为熟食店消失了,”现年41岁的托马索•明甘蒂(Tommaso Mingati)说。

His family kept a small apartment here but, like most former residents, had moved out to Mestre, the mainland section that no one has ever called Queen of the Adriatic. As his mother regretted the city’s becoming a “Disneyland on the Sea,” Mingati said that the expanding empire of bed-and-breakfasts was now forcing people out of Mestre.

他家在这里有一套小公寓,但像大多数前居民一样,已经搬去了梅斯特(Mestre),没有谁会管那片内陆区叫“亚得里亚海的明珠”。在明甘蒂的母亲为这座城市变成“海上迪士尼乐园”感到遗憾之际,明甘蒂说,日益扩张的客栈现在正迫使人们离开梅斯特。

All of those bed-and-breakfasts, and the city’s roughly 2,500 hotels, produce a lot of towels and linens that need laundering. Venice no longer has the capacity for such an undertaking. So, at dawn, boats carry the dirty laundry and garbage out to Tronchetto, an artificial island and parking lot for trucks coming from the mainland.

所有这些提供床位与早餐的地方,以及该市的大约2500家酒店,出产了大量需要洗涤的毛巾和床单。威尼斯已经没有能力做这件事了。于是每到黎明时分,就会有船只将脏毛巾、脏床单和垃圾运往特龙凯托岛(Tronchetto),那是一个人工岛,也是来自大陆的卡车停泊之处。

In turn, they deliver fresh towels but also untold gallons of drinking water, foodstuffs, bottles of orange Aperol to make the city’s ubiquitous Aperol Spritz and anything else consumed inside the lagoon.

回程时,它们会载满干净的毛巾,还有大量饮用水、食品、一瓶瓶橙色的柳橙苦酒——用以制作该市随处可见的鸡尾酒Aperol Spritz——以及在这里用得上的其他任何东西。

One weekend a year, during the Feast of the Redeemer in July, Venetians take back the city. They flow back in from Mestre to drink wine on the banks of the Grand Canal and wait for a fireworks show that puts New York’s Fireworks by Grucci to shame.

每年7月的一个周末过救赎节(Feast of the Redeemer)的时候,威尼斯人都会拿回对这座城市的主导权。他们纷纷从梅斯特赶回来,在大运河边喝葡萄酒,等待观看一场会让纽约的格鲁西烟花公司(Fireworks by Grucci)感到汗颜的烟花秀。

This year, the celebration coincided with the Venice Biennale, which draws thousands of sophisticated, globe-trotting visitors to Venice to check out the latest in art, dance and theater. The locals and the art enthusiasts have developed a sort of alliance against the crowds who march on St. Mark’s.

今年的救赎节撞上了威尼斯双年展(Venice Biennale),后者把成千上万来自全球各地的高端游客吸引到威尼斯,欣赏最新的艺术、舞蹈和戏剧作品。当地人和这些艺术爱好者,已经结成了某种抗衡前进在圣马克广场上的人潮的联盟。

“We are a model of what could be,” said Paolo Baratta, the president of the Biennale, as he watched the fireworks from the terrace of the festival’s headquarters. The people emptying out of the cruise ships, he said, “aren’t concerned with what happens in Venice.”

“我们提供了一种关于这座城市的可能前景的范本,”威尼斯双年展主席保罗•巴拉塔(Paolo Baratta)一边在双年展总部的露台上看烟花,一边说道。他说,从游轮中倾巢而出的那些人“并不关心威尼斯发生了什么”。

At night, many of the tourists return to their cruise ships or tuck in after early dinners. The result is a momentary reprieve but also, like Venice in its slow winter months, a time warp to an earlier Venice.

晚上,很多游客会返回游轮,或者在黄昏晚餐结束后找地方休息。由此不仅暂时缓解了城市承受的压力,还制造出一个与威尼斯悠长的冬季类似的时间扭曲效果,让人得以重回早前的威尼斯。

For me it is the one I first encountered nearly 20 years ago, before Google Maps, when I could get lost and stumble onto seemingly deserted or forgotten campos. At night, away from the city center, a couple of tourists celebrating their wedding at a divey cafe was not cloying, but charming.

对我而言,这便是我在将近20年前的时候遇到的那个威尼斯,当时还没有谷歌地图,我会迷失方向,偶然走到看似荒凉或被遗忘的广场上。入夜,两名游客在远离市中心的一家寒酸的咖啡厅里庆祝自己的婚礼,那场景并不过于甜腻,而是令人愉悦。

Those enchanting hours stretched into the early morning, before the tourists stirred, when St. Mark’s Square itself was empty except for the pigeons and the early risers headed to work.

那些迷人的时光一直延续到凌晨,游客们起床之前,圣马克广场上空荡荡的,只有一些鸽子和赶着去上班的早起者。

Those hours, with the shadows still long and the light reflecting off the lagoon and the triforia windows, reminded me of what Raffaelle Nocera, who otherwise sounded depressed about the state of his city, told me as he navigated a water bus around the Grand Canal.

那些时光——其间,地上的影子依然很长,光亮反射在泄湖和拱形窗上——让我想起本来似乎对这座城市的状态颇感沮丧的威尼斯人拉法埃莱•诺切拉(Raffaelle Nocera),一边在大运河上驾驶水上巴士一边对我说过的话。

“If you get up early enough,” Nocera said, “you get all of Venice to yourself.”

“如果你起得足够早,”诺切拉说,“整个威尼斯都是你的。”

It reminds you of why it is so worth protecting, and why Italians have been taking a stand.

它会提醒你为什么它值得被保护,为什么意大利人一直在公开表明立场。

“Today it’s Piazza San Marco or Ponte di Rialto,” Franceschini said. “In a few years it could be that the problem spreads.”

“今天是圣马可广场或里阿尔托桥,”弗兰切斯基尼说,“过不了几年,问题可能就会蔓延开去。”
New York’s Sidewalks Are So Packed, Pedestrians Are Taking to the Streets
纽约的烦恼:人行道大拥堵

Ivette Singh hardly bothers to walk on the sidewalk on her way to work in Midtown Manhattan anymore. Too many people, too little space. Not enough patience.

在去曼哈顿中城上班的路上,伊维特•辛格(Ivette Singh)几乎不再走人行道。因为人太多,空间太小。耐心不够。

Instead, Ms. Singh can be found on the wrong side of the curb as she makes her way from Pennsylvania Station to her job on Third Avenue near 40th Street, and then back again. She prefers dodging yellow cabs and bicyclists to navigating sidewalks teeming with commuters, tourists and cart-pushing vendors, all jostling for elbow room.

倒是可以在马路边看到她在宾夕法尼亚站(Pennsylvania Station)和位于40街附近的第三大道上的工作单位之间往返的身影。她宁愿躲避黄色的出租车和骑自行车的人,也不愿在挤满了争抢活动空间的上班族、游客和推车小贩的人行道上穿行。

“I don’t mind the walk, it’s just the people,” Ms. Singh, an account coordinator for the Univision television network, said. “Sometimes, they’re rude. They’re on top of you, no personal space. They’re smoking. It’s tough.”

“我不介意走路,就是人太多,”在Univision电视网担任客户协调员的辛格说。“有时候,他们行为粗鲁。紧挨着你,没有个人空间。还有人抽烟。太难受了。”

Ms. Singh is just one among many pedestrians experiencing a growing phenomenon in New York City: sidewalk gridlock.

在纽约市,很多人和辛格一样,都正在经历一个越来越严重的现象:人行道拥堵。

While crowding is hardly a new problem in the city, the sidewalks that cemented New York’s reputation as a world-class walking city have become obstacle courses as more people than ever live and work in the city and tourism surges. The problem is particularly acute in Manhattan. Around Penn Station and the Port Authority Bus Terminal, two of the city’s main transit hubs, commuters clutching coffee cups and briefcases squeeze by one another during the morning and evening rushes. Throngs of shoppers and visitors sometimes bring swaths of Lower Manhattan to a standstill, prompting some residents of the area to cite clogged sidewalks as their biggest problem in a recent community survey.

尽管拥挤几乎算不上该市的新问题,但随着在这里居住和工作的人比以往任何时候都多且旅游业发展迅猛,巩固了纽约世界级步行城市声誉的人行道变成了障碍训练场。这个问题在曼哈顿尤为严重。早晚高峰期间,在该市两个主要的交通枢纽宾夕法尼亚站和港务局公交总站周边,紧握着咖啡和公文包的上班族在摩肩接踵中穿梭着。有时候,成群结队的购物者和游客会让曼哈顿下城的部分地带堵得举步维艰,导致该地区的部分居民在最近的一次社区调查中把人行道拥堵列为最大的问题。

Foot traffic has slowed to a shuffle along some of the city’s most famous corridors. On Fifth Avenue, between 54th and 55th Streets, 26,831 pedestrians — enough to fill Madison Square Garden and Radio City Music Hall combined — passed through in three hours on a weekday in May 2015, up from 20,639 the year before, according to city data.

在该市最有名的一些人行道上,人们只能曳足而行,缓慢前进。该市的数据显示,2015年5月的一个工作日,三个小时内经过位于54街和55街之间的第五大道的行人为26831人,足以同时填满麦迪逊广场花园体育馆和无线电城音乐厅,同前一年的20639人相比大幅增加。

Transportation officials are taking measures to alleviate the congestion. To help accommodate foot traffic, they are adding more pedestrian plazas around the city, expanding the presence of a streetscape feature first embraced by the Bloomberg administration. One is scheduled to open soon on 33rd Street near Penn Station. There are also plans to widen a half-dozen sidewalks in Flushing, Queens, in the next year (the city’s sidewalks vary in width, but must be at least five feet wide).

负责交通事务的官员正在采取措施,缓解人行道上的拥堵。为了帮助满足步行需求,他们正在全市增加步行区,扩大了最先由布隆伯格政府采纳的这个街道景观设施。其中一处步行区位于宾夕法尼亚站附近的33街,按计划将很快开放。相关部门还计划明年拓宽皇后区法拉盛的六条人行道(该市的人行道宽度不一,但必须达到至少5英尺宽)。

While a crowded sidewalk is simply a symptom of a crowded city, it resonates deeply because it affects almost everyone. Unlike overstuffed subways or tourist attractions like, say, Times Square, there is no going around the sidewalks. They are to New York what freeways are to Los Angeles: an essential part of the city’s infrastructure. Sidewalks not only get people from Point A to Point B, but also serve as a shared public space for rich and poor, native and tourist alike.

尽管人行道拥挤只是城市拥挤的一个症状,但却引起了深深的共鸣,因为它几乎影响到了每一个人。不同于人满为患的地铁或是旅游景点,比如时报广场,人行道无法避开。它们之于纽约,就相当于高速公路之于洛杉矶:是城市基础设施的基本组成部分。人行道不仅能让人们从一个地方去往另一个地方,还是一个穷人和富人、本地人和外地游客共同享有的公共空间。

“Sidewalks are the unifying glue of the city,” said Mitchell L. Moss, director of the Rudin Center for Transportation Policy and Management at New York University. “It’s the one part of the city that everyone has to use. You cannot avoid sidewalks.”

“人行道是城市的粘合剂,”纽约大学鲁丁交通政策和管理中心(Rudin Center for Transportation Policy and Management at New York University)主任米切尔•L•莫斯(Mitchell L. Moss)说。“是城市里所有人都会使用的地方。根本避不开人行道。”

Crowded sidewalks are not just a New York problem. They have created bottlenecks and logistical hurdles and have raised safety concerns in cities across the country. Since 2013, public works officials in San Francisco have widened two sidewalks in Fisherman’s Wharf and the Castro, popular tourist areas with a lot of foot traffic. A third sidewalk project is planned for Second Street, one of the main routes to AT&T Park, the baseball stadium where the Giants play.

人行道拥堵的问题不仅限于纽约。它们给全美的城市造成了瓶颈和物流障碍,引起了对安全的担忧。自2013年以来,旧金山的市政工程官员拓宽了渔人码头和卡斯特罗的两条人行道。这两个地方颇受游客欢迎,步行的人流量很大。计划中的另一个人行道项目涉及的是第二街。它是通往巨人队(Giants)的棒球场AT&T球场(AT&T Park)的主要道路之一。

In Seattle, a busy stretch of East Pike Street in the Capitol Hill neighborhood that is lined with restaurants, bars and clubs was closed to cars on three Saturday nights last summer to make room for pedestrians overflowing from the sidewalks. “It just feels so jammed with humanity it becomes a rough situation,” said Joel Sisolak, sustainability and planning director for Capitol Hill Housing, a community development corporation that has worked with city officials to address the issue of crowded sidewalks.

在西雅图,东派克街经过国会山地区的路段交通繁忙,路两边遍布着餐馆、酒吧和夜总会。去年夏天,为了给被挤出人行道的行人留出空间,该路段有三个周六的晚上禁止车辆通行。“就感觉太挤了,环境变得很恶劣,”社区发展公司国会山住房(Capitol Hill Housing)的可持续与规划总监乔尔•西索拉克(Joel Sisolak)说。该公司与市政官员合作,在解决人行道拥挤问题。

Space on New York City’s sidewalks is at a premium at a time when the city’s population of 8.5 million is higher than ever. Add in the record 59.7 million visitors who are expected to descend on the city this year, up from 48.8 million in 2010, and it’s a recipe for thoroughfares packed like sardine cans. Chris Heywood, a spokesman for NYC & Company, which oversees the city’s tourism efforts, said his group was increasingly highlighting attractions outside Manhattan in hopes of dispersing visitors across the city.

随着纽约城人口突破850万,人行道的稀缺程度达到前所未有的水平。2010年有4880万游客前来纽约观光,预计这个数字今年将达到创纪录的5970万,所以交通要道就像沙丁鱼罐头一样拥挤。克里斯•海伍德(Chris Heywood)在市里负责旅游事务的纽约城公司(NYC & Company)担任发言人,他说,公司团队在加强对曼哈顿之外景点的宣传,希望将游客分流到城市各处。

Scott Gastel, a spokesman for the Transportation Department, said the department had conducted research into pedestrian behavior at crosswalks and had monitored pedestrian volumes at 100 street locations around the city to track long-term trends in neighborhood commercial corridors. Along bustling 34th Street, the city has added about 20,000 square feet of pedestrian space in recent years, including so-called bus bulbs that extend the sidewalk pavement to give bus riders more room to wait.

市交通局发言人斯科特•加斯特尔(Scott Gastel)称,他们对人行横道上行人的行为进行了研究,在全市100处街头地点对社区商业走廊的长期趋势进行了追踪。近几年来,市里在繁华的34街增加了2万平方英尺左右的步行空间,其中包括“公共汽车等候处”(bus bulbs)。这指的是延伸到路上的人行道,可以让公交乘客有更多的空间来等车。

In Lower Manhattan, overcrowded sidewalks topped the list of residents’ concerns in a survey conducted last year for the local community board. The problem was aggravated in some areas by sidewalk clutter such as construction scaffolding, large garbage bags, vendors and fixtures like lights, signs, newsstands, benches, planters and recycling bins. “You add all that up, and it’s difficult to walk on the narrow sidewalk,” said Catherine McVay Hughes, the community board’s chairwoman.

在曼哈顿下城,地方社区委员会去年做的一项调查显示,在最受居民关注的问题中,拥挤的人行道位居榜首。人行道上的障碍物,比如施工脚手架、大垃圾袋、摊贩,以及路灯、招牌、报摊、长椅、花架和垃圾回收箱这些东西,让部分地区的这一问题更加严重。“所有这些加在一起,要在狭窄的人行道上走路就很困难了,”社区委员会主席凯瑟琳•麦克维恩•休斯(Catherine McVay Hughes)说。

If there is an epicenter of crowded sidewalks in New York, it is near Penn Station, where pedestrians, food carts and newsstands all vie for space. Only London and Tokyo have sidewalks as congested, said Daniel A. Biederman, president of the 34th Street Partnership, which oversees the business district in the area. As many as 14,000 pedestrians an hour walk in front of the Modell’s Sporting Goods store on Seventh Avenue near West 34th Street, according to 2015 data collected by the partnership.

如果说纽约拥挤的人行道上有个震中位置,那就是在宾州车站附近了。在这里,行人、食品车和报摊互相争夺空间。负责该地商务区的34街合作管理委员会(34th Street Partnership)主席丹尼尔•A•比德曼(Daniel A. Biederman)表示,这里人行道的拥挤程度只有伦敦和东京可以相提并论。他们2015年搜集的数据显示,每小时有至多1.4万行人走过第七大道近西34街的麦多体育用品店(Modell’s Sporting Goods)门前。

The commuter crowd is also growing. An average of 92,314 riders boarded New Jersey Transit trains at Penn Station each weekday in fiscal year 2015, up from 79,891 riders in fiscal year 2010. In the same period, average weekday boardings on New Jersey Transit buses at the Port Authority terminal also increased, to 78,006 riders from 72,506.

通勤人数也越来越多。在2015年财年,平均每个工作日有92314名乘客在宾州车站搭上新泽西公共交通(New Jersey Transit)列车,而在2010年财年这个数字为79891人。在同一时期,在港务局码头搭乘新泽西公共交通大巴的乘客也从72506人增加到78006人。

Veteran pedestrians have tried to adapt. They shoulder their way into bike lanes or walk purposefully on the street alongside cars — eyes ahead, earphones in — forming a de facto express lane. They move en masse along Seventh and Eighth Avenues like a storm system on a weather map, heading north in the mornings and south in the evenings.

长期路过这里的行人试图适应这种情况。他们挤到自行车道上,或故意在街上和汽车并行——眼看前方、戴着耳机——形成了一条事实上的快行道。他们集体沿着第七和第八大道移动,像天气图上的风暴一样,早晨朝北卷过去,晚上朝南卷过来。

“You know how the system works,” said Roque Santos, 48, a stagehand who commutes daily from Jersey City. “I cross the street even before the light changes to beat the crowd.”

“你知道这种事是怎么个情况,”48岁的罗克•桑托斯(Roque Santos)说。他是舞台工作人员,每天往返泽西市。“为了抢在人群前面,我甚至会在变灯之前就穿过马路。”

Peter Raskin, a sports marketing executive, has made walking in the street part of his daily routine. He zipped north on Seventh Avenue the other morning, even when there was room on the sidewalk. “I’m used to it,” he said. “I stay in the street with my head down.”

在街上步行是体育营销高管彼得•拉斯金(Peter Raskin)每日例行的活动。有天早上,他在第七大道的车道上快步朝北走着,尽管人行道上也有地方。“我习惯了,”他说。“低着头在街上走。”

But bad things can happen when foot traffic spills into the streets. In 2016, there have been 55 pedestrian fatalities as of Sunday; still, that was an improvement from the 79 fatalities for the same period in 2013.

然而,步行的人走到车道上,往往就会有糟糕的事情发生。截止周日,2016年共有55名行人死亡;不过,相比于2013年同期的79人,算是有所改善。

Michael D’Angelo, an accountant who works in Midtown, said that in the past year he had seen a half-dozen pedestrians walking in the street struck by cyclists. Still, Mr. D’Angelo said he often had no choice but to step off the curb because he could not get by all the people along Eighth Avenue. His bus home to Pennsylvania leaves the Port Authority at 5:55 p.m., with or without him.

在曼哈顿中城工作的会计师迈克尔•迪安杰洛(Michael D’Angelo)表示,去年他看到过五六起行人在车道上走而被自行车撞到的事故。但迪安杰洛说他通常没有选择,只能离开人行道,因为他无法从第八大道上拥挤的人流中穿过。他的家在宾夕法尼亚州,回家的公交车每天下午5点55从港务局出发,晚了车就开走了。

“Everybody is trying to beat everybody,” he said, “because everybody has someplace to go.”

“每个人都想挤出一条路来,”他说,“因为每个人都在往某个地方赶。”

Then there are the inattentive walkers, those who text on their phones or read newspapers while moving, and the meandering tourists who seem oblivious to the ways of the street. They stop midstride, step on someone’s heel or cut off people without warning. The result? Sidewalk rage.

况且,路上还有漫不经心的行人,那些一边走一边用手机发信息或读报纸的人,还有搞不清要走的路、折过来折过去的游客。他们会停步不前,踩到别人的脚后跟,不经提醒插到别人前面。结果呢?人行道上怒气很大。

“When you get out-of-towners and New Yorkers, it’s like mixing Clorox with ammonia, it doesn’t work — there’s a chemical reaction,” said Jato Jenkins, a street worker, as he swept a stretch of Seventh Avenue. “The New Yorkers walk their normal route, and the out-of-towners are going the opposite direction, like salmon going upstream.”

“外地人和纽约客碰到一块,就像把漂白剂和氨水兑在一起,行不通——会有化学反应,”清洁工哈托•詹金斯(Jato Jenkins)说,他正在打扫第七大道上的一片地方。“纽约客走自己惯常的路线,外地人则走相反的方向,就像逆流而上的鲑鱼。”

Mr. Jenkins said everyone was miserable and on edge, especially in the sweltering summer months, so that even the slightest bump could set off tempers. He said he had seen women cursing at each other and men pushing each other and grabbing each other’s shirts.

詹金斯表示,所有人都情绪不太好、容易发火,尤其是在酷暑炎炎的几个月里,所以即便是最轻微的碰撞也可能引得人大发脾气。他说自己曾经看到过有女人相互咒骂,男人相互推搡,揪对方的衬衣。

Virginia Garcia said she had been on the receiving end of such outbursts. “People are running around like crazy, and they don’t stop,” said Ms. Garcia, who stands at the intersection of Seventh Avenue and West 36th Street with a sign advertising a local pub. “They push you, they hit you and they don’t care.”

维尔吉尼娅•加西亚(Virginia Garcia)说有人就朝她发过火。“人群像疯了一样东奔西跑,停不下来,”加西亚说。她站在第七大道和西36街的交叉口处,手里举着一家本地酒吧的广告牌。“他们推你,打你,根本不在意。”

David Wentz, a mail carrier who pushes a 50-pound cart around the garment district, said he tried to arrange his day around the busiest times for foot traffic. “It’s chaotic,” he said. “It’s like Disney World down here.”

邮递员戴维•温茨(David Wentz)推着一辆50磅重的推车在服装区附近走,他说自己努力安排如何在行人最多的高峰期前后工作。“很混乱,”他说。“就好像这里是迪士尼乐园。”

But for Mr. Moss, of the Rudin Center at N.Y.U., crowded sidewalks show how far the city has come. During the 1970s, he pointed out, people used to avoid the sidewalks in the East Village and other parts of the city for a different reason: They feared criminals and felt safer walking out in the open, down the middle of a street.

不过,对于纽约大学鲁丁中心的莫斯而言,拥挤的行人显示出这个城市的变化有多大。他指出,在70年代,出于另外一个原因,人们习惯于在东村和纽约其他一些地方避开人行道:他们担心碰到罪犯,感觉走在敞亮的车道中间更安全。

Today, “people want to be in New York,” he said. “A crowded sidewalk is a sign of vitality.”

如今,“大家想待在纽约,”他说。“拥挤的人行道象征着活力。”
Put One Foot Wrong in This Town and You’ve Left the Country
被“最疯狂国界线”分割的欧洲小镇

At De Biergrens beer shop, you can walk in from the Netherlands through one door and walk out into Belgium through another. There are two telephones, one connected to the Belgian telecom system and one plugged into the Dutch. There are even two cash registers, at opposite ends of the shop — one in each country.

在De Biergrens啤酒屋,你能从荷兰的一个门走进去,从另一门出去走到比利时。那里有两部电话,一部连接的是比利时的电信系统,另一部连接的是荷兰的电信系统。店的两侧甚至有两个收银台,每个国家一个。

That’s par for the course in Baarle, a village about 65 miles south of Amsterdam that is sliced and diced by what is probably the world’s craziest stretch of international border. It zigzags up and down streets and right through the middle of stores like De Biergrens, and even people’s living rooms and gardens.

在阿姆斯特丹以南约65英里的村庄巴勒(Baarle),这是常有的事。这里被也许是世界上最疯狂的国界线分割。国界线曲折地穿过街道,穿过De Biergrens这样的店铺,甚至穿过人们的客厅和花园。

The bewildering layout dates from the 12th century, when wars and land spats kept morphing the dividing line between the holdings of rival noble families. When Belgium seceded from the Netherlands in 1830, those untidy lines hardened into a national frontier, but they left a number of enclaves: isolated bits of one nation’s territory surrounded by the land of the other. Today, Baarle lies within the Netherlands, but it has 22 Belgian enclaves that, in turn, have seven Dutch enclaves within them.

这种令人眼花缭乱的格局可以追溯到12世纪,当时战争和土地争端不断改变对立贵族领地之间的分界线。1830年比利时脱离荷兰之后,这些不规则的分界线变成了国界线,但它们留下了许多飞地:被另一个国家的领土包围的孤立的小块土地。如今,巴勒位于荷兰境内,但它有22块比利时飞地,而这些飞地里还有7块荷兰飞地。

Confused? Baarle has a system to help. The border is marked on the town’s pavements with white crosses and metal studs. Outside Den Engel, a cafe, visitors can stand with a glass of wine in the Netherlands and lean over a white cross to drink it in Belgium. When closing times differed in the two countries, divided restaurants would move their tables to the Belgian side of the room when last call came on the Dutch side.

是不是很让人迷惑?巴勒有一套系统来解决这个问题。小镇路面上用白色十字和金属钉标明国界线。在Den Engel咖啡馆外,游客们可以站在荷兰领土上拿着一杯红酒,倾斜身子越过白色十字线,在比利时领空饮用。两国的打烊时间不同时,如果荷兰那边的打烊时间已到,被国界线分割的餐馆就把桌子挪到比利时那一侧。

Addresses go by the voordeurregel, or front-door rule: If it opens on the Belgian side of a street, you live in Belgium, wherever the rest of the house may lie. (For easy identification, the national flag is usually painted next to the house number.) A shop like De Biergrens, with entrances in both countries, gets an address for each door.

地址是按照前门原则来确定的:如果前门开在街道的比利时一侧,那你就是住在比利时,不管房子的其余部分在哪里(为了方便辨认,门牌号旁边通常会画一个国旗)。像De Biergrens这样在两个国家都有入口的店铺,会给每个门弄一个地址。

The intertwined halves of the town — formally, the Belgian parts are Baarle-Hertog and the Dutch parts Baarle-Nassau — have separate town halls, churches and fire departments, but they recently merged their police departments. None of this bothers people at De Biergrens, which is slightly more in the Netherlands but sells mostly Belgian beer. “Yes, we have two addresses, two telephones and two cash registers,” said Karlean Vermonden, an employee. “But it’s not a problem. That’s just a way of life here.”

小镇互相纠缠在一起的两部分(以前,比利时部分被称为巴勒海托赫[Baarle-Hertog],荷兰部分被称为巴勒纳绍[Baarle-Nassau])各自设立市政厅、教堂和消防局,不过前不久警察局合并了。但是,De Biergrens啤酒屋一点也没觉得困扰,这家店在荷兰的部分稍大一些,但主要是售卖比利时啤酒。“是的,我们有两个地址、两部电话和两个收银台,”店员卡琳•弗蒙顿(Karlean Vermonden)说,“不过,这没什么问题。这就是这儿的生活方式。”

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