2017 政府工作报告 | 百度网盘
In the past year, China’s development has faced grave challenges posed by a great many problems and interwoven risks and dangers both at home and abroad.
精简、合并重复信息：叠加、交汇 > interwoven
The economy has registered a slower but stable performance with good momentum for growth. GDP reached 74.4 trillion yuan, representing 6.7-percent growth, and seeing China outpace most other economies. China contributed more than 30 percent of global growth. The CPI rose by 2 percent.
缓中趋稳、稳中向好 > a slower but stable performance with good momentum
数据表述常用词：register, reach, contribute, represent, report, stand at
With an 8.5-percent increase in profits, industrial enterprises reversed the previous year’s negative growth of 2.3 percent. Energy consumption per unit of GDP fell by 5 percent. Economic performance improved markedly in quality and returns.
Employment growth exceeded projections. A total of 13.14 million new urban jobs were added over the course of the year. The number of college graduates finding employment or starting businesses reached another record high. The registered urban unemployment rate stood at 4.02 percent at year-end 2016, the lowest level in years. For China, a large developing country with a population of over 1.3 billion, attaining this level of employment is no easy task.
_____ exceeded _____ .
_____ were added _____ .
_____ reached_____ .
_____ stood at_____, the lowest….. .
For China, ___(插入成分) ,____ is no easy task.
Continued advances were made in reform and opening up. Breakthroughs were made in reforms in major sectors and key links, and initial success was achieved in supply-side structural reform. New measures were introduced for opening China up, rapid progress was made in pursuing the Belt and Road Initiative, and a number of major projects and industrial-capacity cooperation projects with other countries were launched.
opening China up，属于学习这类材料时可能不太习惯的表达方式。如果心理上不能完全接纳，不建议硬记。可以选择其他词替换。
Economic structural adjustment was stepped up. Consumption was the main driver of economic growth. The value created by the service sector rose to 51.6 percent of GDP. High-tech industries and equipment manufacturing grew rapidly. In agriculture, production was stable and structural adjustments were made, and we had continued good grain harvests.
the main driver 就是所谓的英语多用名词案例。driver 或者 a good swimmer 表动词含义，与滥用抽象名词（characterization等）不是一回事。
New drivers of growth gained strength. Further progress was made in pursuing the innovation-driven development strategy, and a number of world-leading achievements were made in science and technology. Emerging industries were thriving, and the transformation and upgrading of traditional industries accelerated.
gain strength, gain momentum, accelerate, pick up pace 和 enter service, come into service 这类词都有一种“主动”的感觉，直观感觉上比 “was made”“is increased””is put into service” 更有力。
People were busy launching businesses or making innovations, with a 24.5-percent year-on-year increase in the number of new businesses registered – an average of 15,000 new businesses daily. With self-employed traders and other market entities included we had an average of 45,000 new market entities launched per day. New growth drivers are opening new prospects for China’s development.
大众创业、万众创新在这里的翻译很灵活， launching businesses or making innovations 感觉上比以前的更自然。很多中文表达，切换成英文就是要突破字面才能对等。字对字不仅生硬而且会给自己增加很多负担。
Infrastructure became ever-better able to sustain development. Over 1,900 kilometers of new high-speed rail lines came into service, and more than 6,700 kilometers of expressways and 290,000 kilometers of rural roads were built or upgraded. Construction picked up pace on urban rail transit facilities and underground utility tunnels. Construction began on 21 major water conservancy projects. The number of 4G mobile communications subscribers grew by 340 million and over 5.5 million kilometers of optical fiber cables were added.
“基础设施支撑能力持续提升”的翻译体现了偏正短语的一种处理方法，“XX的能力提升”转换为“XX提升了XX能力”等表达，好处就是避免泛滥使用 of 这类结构。
城市轨道交通 urban rail transit facilities
地下综合管廊 underground utility tunnels
移动通信 mobile communications
水利工程 water conservancy projects
光缆线路 optical fiber cables
Living standards were improved. Personal per capita disposable income increased by 6.3 percent in real terms. The number of people living in poverty in rural areas was reduced by 12.4 million, including more than 2.4 million people relocated from inhospitable areas.
More than 6 million homes in rundown urban areas and over 3.8 million dilapidated rural houseswere renovated. In tourism, domestic trips showed rapid growth, and overseas trips exceeded 120 million. People in both urban and rural areas saw arise in living standards.
棚户区 rundown urban areas
农村危房 dilapidated rural houses
国内旅游快速增长，译法和之前的 “农业稳中调优，粮食再获丰收 In agriculture, production was stable and structural adjustments were made, and we had continued good grain harvests”一样，补充了合适的逻辑主语。
China successfully hosted the G20 2016 Hangzhou Summit, and helped to deliver a number of important pioneering, leading, and institutional outcomes, thus doing its part for global economic governance.
Medicine needed to be disrupted, Kenagy realized, to deliver the simultaneous goals of higher quality and lower price.
2016 was an unusual year in our country’s development. China was confronted with an external environment in which the world saw the lowest economic and trade growth in seven years, growing volatility in global financial markets, and sudden and frequent regional and global challenges.Domestically, China faced multiple difficulties: major structural problems, prominent risks and dangers, and mounting downward pressure on the economy. China found itself in a complex environment as reform entered a critical stage, profound changes took place affecting interests, and factors impacting social stability grew.
Given all these factors, it was not easy for us to maintain stable economic performance. And yet we succeeded, and even managed to make progress on many fronts. Once again, this shows that we the Chinese people have the courage, ingenuity, and ability to overcome any difficulty or hardship. It also shows that the Chinese economy possesses potential, resilience, and strengths, so we can be sure there is even better development ahead for China.
I will now move on to discuss our main work last year:
First, we continued to develop new and more effective ways of carrying out regulation at the macro level, thus keeping the economy performing within an appropriate range.
动词转换成形容词：创新和加强 （new, more effective）
Last year, we faced difficult choices in conducting macro-level regulation, but we stood firm in not adopting strong stimulus policies that would have had an economy-wide impact, and strived instead to maintain steady growth, adjust the structure, and guard against risks throughreform and innovation. We strengthened targeted and well-timed regulation on the basis of range-based regulation.
改革创新 reform and innovation
More proactive fiscal policy was pursued, and the increase in the fiscal deficit was used mainly to cover tax and fee cuts. The trial replacement of business tax with value added tax (VAT) was extended to cover all sectors, slashing the tax burden of businesses for the year by over 570 billion yuan and reducing tax burdens in every sector.
A transitional plan for sharing VAT revenue between the central and local governments was formulated and implemented to ensure financial resources of local governments remained unchanged. More local government bonds were issued to replace outstanding debts, reducinginterest payments by roughly 400 billion yuan.
A prudent monetary policy was pursued in a flexible and appropriate manner.The M2 money supply increased by 11.3 percent, below our projected target of around 13 percent. We used a range of monetary policy tools to support the development of the real economy.
Measures were taken to upgrade consumption. We unveiled policies to encourage private investment, and saw investment begin to stabilize. We exercised category-based regulation over the real estate market.
分类调控 category-based regulation
We strengthened efforts to manage financial risks. The RMB exchange rate regime continued to improve, and the exchange rate remained generally stable at an adaptive and equilibrium level. With these measures, we have safeguarded China’s economic and financial security.
措施 —— 结果型组织结构。
With these measures, we_____
Second, we focused on five priority tasks — cutting overcapacity, reducing excess inventory, deleveraging, lowering costs, and strengthening areas of weakness — thereby improving the composition of supply.
Particular priority was given to cutting overcapacity in the steel and coal sectors. Over the year, steel production capacity was cut by more than 65 million metric tons and coal by over 290 million metric tons, going beyond annual targets. Effective assistance was provided to laid-off employees.
去产能 cutting overcapacity
超额完成 going beyond
分流职工 laid-off employees （理解原文）
We supported migrant workers in buying urban homes; and we increased the proportion of people affected by rebuilding in rundown urban areas receiving monetary compensation, making good progress in reducing real estate inventory.
Business acquisitions and reorganizations were encouraged, direct financing was promoted, and market- and law-based debt-to-equity swaps were carried out, lowering the debt-to-asset ratio of industrial enterprises.
市场化法治化：market- and law-based
债转股 debt-to-equity swaps
资产负债率 debt-to-asset ratio
To help enterprises lower operating costs, we introduced measures to cut taxes and fees, lower the share paid by enterprises for social security contributions,(1) and cut the price of electricity.
Notes: (1) This includes old-age insurance, health insurance, unemployment insurance, workers’ compensation, maternity insurance, and housing provident fund schemes.
We boosted efforts to strengthen areas of weakness and undertook major initiatives that both help to meet urgent needs today and promise long-term benefits.
具体变抽象：短板 – areas of weakness （板 VS 点、领域）
Third, we worked hard to deepen reform and opening up, further strengthening the vitality of development. Reform was deepened across the board, and a good number of landmark and pillar reform initiatives were undertaken.
全面 across the board
一批 a good number of
To balance the government-market relationship — the pivotal issue in economic structural reform — we continued reforms to streamline administration, delegate powers, and improve regulation and services.
简政放权 streamline administration, delegate powers
政府和市场关系：the government-market relationship
核心问题 the pivotal issue
My administration’s goal of cutting the number of items requiring government review by a third had been achieved ahead of schedule. On that basis, last year we cancelled the requirement on a further 165 items for review by State Council departments and authorized local governments. We also overhauled and standardized 192 items of intermediary services for government review as well as 220 items of approvals and accreditations for professional qualifications. We deepened institutional reforms in the business sector.
清理规范 overhaul and standardize
We introduced an oversight model of random inspection and public release across the board,(2) made operational and post-operational oversight more effective, and promoted the Internet Plus government services model.
事中事后监管 operational and post-operational oversight
We pushed ahead with reforms to restructure and reorganize state-owned enterprises (SOEs) and introduce into them mixed ownership structures. We established a review system to ensure fair competition. We deepened resource tax reforms.
推动 push ahead with
审查制度 review system
混合所有制 mixed ownership structure
a review （system） to ensure fair competition
We improved measures for separating rural land ownership rights, contract rights, and management rights, and established a mechanism for determining whether people have been lifted out of poverty.
separating rural land ownership rights, contract rights, and management rights
We made progress in reforming the science and technology management system, gave greater autonomy to colleges and research institutes, and adopted profit distribution policies oriented toward increasing the value of knowledge.
分配政策 profit distribution policies
We opened up the elderly services market. We expanded the trials of comprehensive reforms in public hospitals and deepened reform of the evaluation and approval systems for medicine and medical equipment.
扩大••••••试点 expand the trials of
We formulated unified measures to determine and register natural resource rights. We piloted reforms for conducting direct oversight by provincial-level environmental protection agencies over the environmental monitoring and inspection work of environmental protection agencies below the provincial level, as well as crop rotation and fallow land （未经耕作的）reforms. The river chief system was introduced for all lakes and rivers across the country, and the mechanisms for compensating for ecological conservation efforts were improved.
河长制 the river chief system
省以下 below the provincial level
耕地轮作 crop rotation
Reform has given new impetus to economic and social development.
We opened China wider to the rest of the world. As we pushed ahead with the Belt and Road Initiative, we worked to increase complementarity between the development strategies of, and practical cooperation between, China and other countries along the routes.
同“增强”译为 more effective 一样，克服字面束缚。
The RMB was formally included in the IMF’s Special Drawing Rights basket. The Shenzhen-Hong Kong Stock Connect was launched. We improved measures for promoting trade, and built 12 new integrated experimental zones for cross-border e-commerce, bringing about a steady recovery in the volume of import and export.
bringing about 突出因果逻辑关系
The new practices of pilot free trade zones in Shanghai and elsewhere were used to establish another seven pilot zones. The requirement for review and approval for setting up and making significant adjustments to foreign enterprises was replaced by a simple filing process, with the exception of a few areas where special market access requirements apply.
In 2016, China utilized more than US$130 billion of overseas investment, continuing to rank first among developing countries.
Fourth, we strengthened innovation’s leading role, spurring the rapid development of new growth drivers.
新动能 new growth drivers （今年特别火的词）
“新动能快速成长”，翻译时主语调整为 we；活用 spur 避免行文呆板；“快速成长”译为名词。
We took further steps to implement the Internet Plus action plan and the national big data strategy, fully implemented the Made in China 2025 initiative, and implemented and improved policies and measures to encourage people to launch businesses and innovate. We developed and launched a plan for completing major science and technology programs by 2030, supported Beijing and Shanghai in building themselves into global R&D centers, and established another six national innovation demonstration zones.
中国制造2025 the Made in China 2025 initiative
双创 launch businesses and innovate
国家自主创新示范区 six national innovation demonstration zones
China’s R&D spending reached 2.08 percent of GDP. The number of in-force Chinese patents issued in China passed the million mark, and the value of technology transactions exceeded one trillion yuan. The contribution of scientific and technological progress to economic growth rose to 56.2 percent, and innovation’s role in powering development grew markedly.
技术交易额 the value of technology transactions
Fifth, we promoted more balanced development between regions and between rural and urban areas, and saw faster emergence of new growth poles and growth belts.
We stepped up work to implement the three strategic initiatives (the Belt and Road, Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei integration, and the Yangtze Economic Belt), and began construction on a number of key projects.
We formulated the plan for the 13th Five-Year Plan period for large-scale development in the western region, launched a new round of initiatives as part of the Northeast revitalization strategy, drove progress in the rise of the central region, and supported the eastern region in leading the rest of the country in pursuing development.
We sped up efforts to promote new types of urbanization, deepened reform of the household registration system, introduced the residence card system nationwide, and granted urban residency to another 16 million people from rural areas. The synergy building through coordinated development became more and more evident.
协同 synergy /ˈsɪnədʒɪ/ 协同作用
Of course, there’s quite obviously a lot of synergy between the two companies.
Sixth, we strengthened ecological conservation and made fresh progress in pursuing green development.
加强生态文明建设 strengthen ecological conservation
We formulated and introduced measures for assessing progress made in ecological improvement, and established national pilot zones for ecological conservation. We took stronger measures against air pollution and, as a result, saw a 5.6-percent decline in sulfur dioxide emissions, a 4-percent cut in nitrogen oxide emissions, and a 9.1-percent drop in the annual average density of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) in 74 key cities.
We continued to improve the energy mix, increasing the share of clean energy consumption by 1.7 percentage points and cutting the share of coal consumption by 2 percentage points.
能源结构 the energy mix
主语转化为“人”，人来提高比重、降低比重 We ••• increase the share of, cut the share of。这种译法在报告中非常常见，既有利于统一主语（we）,避免主语分散（中文表面上是3个主语），也有利于凸显逻辑（We 做的工作），同时精简了句子结构。
We continued efforts to prevent and control water pollution, and adopted an action plan for preventing and controlling soil pollution. Central government inspections on environmental protection accountability were launched and violations of environmental protection laws were investigated and prosecuted, giving impetus to deeper efforts to protect the environment.
环境 the environment
查处 nvestigate and prosecute
Seventh, we gave particular attention to ensuring and improving living standards, helping Chinese people gain a stronger sense of benefit.
[ 主句 + ing ]
民生 living standards
保障和改善 ensure and improve
Despite growing pressure from fiscal imbalance, we continued to increase inputs in areas related to living standards. We launched new policies on employment and business startups, and carried out solid work on increasing employment for key target groups and priority regions.
民生投入 inputs in areas related to living standards
财政收支 fiscal imbalance
扎实做好 carry out solid work on
重点人群 key target groups
重点地区 priority regions
We made all-around progress in key battles to eradicate poverty and earmarked over 100 billion yuan from government budgets for poverty relief.
Earmark /ˈɪəˌmɑːk/ 留出
…the extra money being earmarked for the new projects.
China has earmarked more than $20 billion for oil exploration.
We increased subsistence allowances, benefits for entitled groups, basic pension payments, and other subsidies; and over 17 million people benefited through the provision of cost-of-living allowances for people with disabilities in financial difficulty and nursing care subsidies for people with severe disabilities.
低保 subsistence allowances
基本养老金 basic pension payments
护理补贴 nursing care subsidies
Cost of living 生活费用
The cost of living has increased dramatically.
Fiscal spending on education continued to be over 4 percent of GDP. The number of students from poor rural areas enrolled in key universities grew by 21.3 percent.
We waived tuition and miscellaneous fees for students from poor rural families at regular senior high schools. Over the course of the year, more than 84 million grants were given to students from poor families studying in all types of schools.
学杂费 tuition and miscellaneous fees
全年 over the course of the year
Miscellaneous /ˌmɪsəˈleɪnɪəs/ 各式各样的
…a hoard of miscellaneous junk.
The basic health insurance systems for rural and nonworking urban residents were merged and government subsidies for the system were increased. More funding was provided for basic public health services.
财政补助 government subsidies
动词转化为形容词：增加••• 经费 More funding was provided
Full coverage of the serious disease insurance scheme was achieved, and healthcare costs meeting relevant provisions can now be settled on the spot when incurred anywhere within the provincial-level administrative area where insurance is registered.
全覆盖 full coverage
We increased public cultural services at the community level. The Fitness for All initiative was launched, and Chinese athletes gave an excellent performance at the Olympic Games and Paralympic Games in Rio de Janeiro.
Last year, parts of the country, especially the Yangtze basin, were hit by severe flooding and other disasters. We acted quickly to provide effective rescue and relief, swiftly relocated over 9 million people, minimized damage and loss, and made systematic progress with recovery and reconstruction efforts.
Eighth, we continued to enhance government performance and improve governance, thus ensuringsocial harmony and stability.
The State Council submitted 13 legislative proposals to the Standing Committee of the National People’s Congress (NPC) for approval and adopted or revised 8 sets of administrative regulations. We improved mechanisms for drawing on public opinions in decision making on public issues and worked with keen attention to handle the proposals and suggestions of NPC deputies and CPPCC National Committee members. We made progress in strengthening government transparency by releasing lists of the powers and responsibilities of all provincial-level government departments.
We intensified accountability inspections. The third State Council accountability inspection was carried out; special inspections and third-party evaluations were conducted on the implementation of policies related to cutting overcapacity and encouraging private investment; and new steel projects launched in breach of regulations and the production and sale of substandard steel products were strictly investigated and dealt with.
We strengthened workplace safety efforts and saw a continued decline in the total number of accidents and in the number of accidents of a serious nature.
We took comprehensive measures to maintain law and order and, in accordance with law, cracked down on crime and other violations, effectively safeguarding national and public security.
We punished a number of corrupt officials in accordance with law, and the fight against corruption has built up irresistible momentum.
Build up 使逐渐变大; 逐渐变大
The regime built up the largest army in Africa.
The collection has been built up over the last seventeen years.
As a major country, China has made outstanding achievements in its diplomacy with distinctive features over the past year. [偏正短语调整]
the 24th APEC Economic Leaders Meeting,
the Shanghai Cooperation Organization Summit
the Nuclear Security Summit
the BRICS Leaders Meeting
high-level meetings of the 71st session of the UN General Assembly
the Asia-Europe Meeting
the East Asian leaders meetings on cooperation
the first-ever Lancang-Mekong Cooperation Leaders Meeting
China’s coordination and cooperation with other major countries were strengthened, its comprehensive cooperation with neighboring countries continued to be boosted, its friendship and cooperation with other developing countries were deepened, and its interactions with the UN and other international organizations became closer.
大国 major countries
协调合作 coordination and cooperation（“机械”拆分）
联合国 the UN
China was actively involved in reforming and improving the global governance system. We played our part in ensuring that the Paris Agreement was put into force. Economic diplomacy and personal and cultural exchanges yielded notable outcomes. We were resolute in upholding China’s sovereignty, territorial integrity, and maritime rights and interests.
reforming and improving the global governance system
权益 rights and interests （权利和利益）
人文交流 personal and cultural exchanges
成果丰硕 yield notable outcomes
领土主权 sovereignty, territorial integrity
坚定维护 be resolute in upholding
As a responsible major country, China has been playing a constructive role in international and regional issues and has made significant contributions to world peace and development.
发挥建设性作用 play a constructive role
作出重要贡献 make significant contributions
Yet we must not lose sight of the many problems and challenges China faces in pursuing economic and social development. The internal forces driving economic growth need to be strengthened. Overcapacity poses a serious challenge in some industries. Some enterprises face difficulties in their production and operations. Economic prospects for different regions are divergent. Fiscal imbalance is becoming great. And potential economic and financial risks cannot be overlooked.
“ poses a serious challenge, face difficulties, are divergent, is becoming great”
看到 not lose sight of
经济增长内生动力 internal forces driving economic growth
生产经营 production and operations
财政收支矛盾 fiscal imbalance
Environmental pollution remains grave, and in particular, some areas are frequently hit by heavy smog. We need to further strengthen our steps to combat pollution. There are also many problems causing public concern in housing, education, healthcare, elderly care, food and drug safety, and income distribution. It is distressing that there were some major accidents in the coal mining, construction, and transportation sectors.
例如 2016 年5月三级口译实务试题，“•••••• 希望你们学有所成、报效国家。我看到，大家选择了在 工程、医学、电子信息技术、金融、国际贸易、国际政治等诸多学科上进行深造••••••”。
特别是 in particular
There is still room for improvement in government performance. Some reform policies and measures have not been fully implemented. Excess fees and charges being levied on businesses and difficulties facing individuals who want to access government services remain standout problems. We still see problems of laws and regulations being enforced in a non-standard, unfair, or uncivil way. A small number of government employees are lazy and neglectful of their duties orshirk responsibility. Corruption often occurs in some sectors.
We must confront these challenges head-on, be ready to bear the weight of responsibility, and do our all to deliver. We must fulfill our historic mission and live up to the great trust placed in us by the Chinese people.
不辱历史使命 fulfill our historic mission
不负重托 live up to the great trust
清醒看到 not lose sight of
问题仍较突出 remain standout problems
We need to further strengthen our （steps） to•••
Excess fees and charges ••• and difficulties
— Remain committed to the underlying principle of making progress while keeping performance stable
— Gain a strong understanding of and put into practice the new development philosophy
— Adapt to, approach in the right way, and steer the new normal in economic development
— Give central importance to improving the quality and returns of development
— Ensure that macro-level policy is consistent, industrial policy is targeted, micro-level policy injects dynamism into the market, reform policy delivers outcomes, and social policy sees basic living needs are met
— Focus on supply-side structural reform
— Expand aggregate demand as appropriate
— Do better in guiding expectations
— Strengthen the role of innovation in driving development
— Maintain stable growth, promote reform, make structural adjustments, improve living standards, and guard against risks
— Maintain stable and sound economic development as well as social harmony and stability
The developments both in and outside of China require that we are ready to face more complicated and graver situations. World economic growth remains sluggish, and both the deglobalization trend and protectionism are growing. There are many uncertainties about the direction of the major economies’ policies and their spillover effects, and the factors that could cause instability and uncertainty are visibly increasing.
China is at a crucial and challenging stage in its own development endeavors, and there are manysalient challenges and problems in the economy.
The difficulties we face are not to be underestimated, but we must remain confident that they will be overcome.
① China has a solid material foundation, abundant human resources, a huge market, and a complete system of industries. ② It is making faster scientific and technological progress, and has a complete range of infrastructure.③ We have good conditions for sustaining economic development, and many innovative tools and policy options for conducting macroeconomic regulation.
①China has •••. ②It is •••. ③We ••••
making progress while keeping performance stable
the new development philosophy
a solid material foundation
a complete system of industries
stable and sound
Based on the above considerations, we have set the following key projected targets for development this year:
— GDP growth of around 6.5 percent, or higher if possible in practice
— CPI increase kept at around 3 percent
— Over 11 million new urban jobs, and a registered urban unemployment rate within 4.5 percent
— A steady rise in import and export volumes, and a basic balance in international payments
— Increases in personal income basically in step with economic growth
国际收支 international payments
同步 in step with
增长 Increases in ••••
— A reduction of at least 3.4 percent in energy consumption per unit of GDP, and continued reductions in the release of major pollutants
下降 reduction （动词转换为名词）
The projected target for this year’s growth is realistic and in keeping with economic principles; it will help steer and steady expectations and make structural adjustments; and it will help achieve the goal of finishing the building of a moderately prosperous society in all respects.
If you steady something or if it steadies, it stops shaking or moving around.
Two men were on the bridge-deck, steadying a ladder.
As employment pressure grows this year, we will continue to give top priority to creating jobs and implement a more proactive employment policy. This year’s target for urban job creation is one million more than last year, underlining the greater importance we are attaching to employment.
As ••• , we •••• and ••••.
•••• is •••••, underlining••••
多100万人 is one million more than ••••
Considering our sound economic fundamentals and the capacity they bring for job creation, with hard work, this target is attainable.
通过努力 with hard work
经济基本面 economic fundamentals
“The United States is moving aggressively to fix the things we got wrong, and to strengthen our economic fundamentals.” （VOA: standard.2010.06.05）
Personally, I think the economic fundamentals suggest that stocks still have a long way to go. （FORBES: Record Stock Market and Your Retirement Portfolio）
① This year, we will continue to pursue a proactive fiscal policy and a prudent monetary policy. ② On the basis of conducting range-based regulation, we will focus more on targeted and well-timed regulation and increase the foresight, precision, and effectiveness of our regulation. ③ We will strengthen coordination of consumption, investment, regional, industrial, and environmental protection policies, and ensure the economy performs within an appropriate range.
区间调控 range-based regulation
相机调控 well-timed regulation
increase the foresight, precision, and effectiveness
consumption, investment, regional, industrial, and environmental protection policies
We will pursue a more proactive and effective fiscal policy. This year’s deficit-to-GDP ratio is projected to be 3 percent, with the fiscal deficit set at 2.38 trillion yuan, representing a year-on-year increase of 200 billion yuan.
积极有效 proactive and effective
赤字率 deficit-to-GDP ratio
财政赤字 fiscal deficit s
To break this down, the projected deficit of the central government is 1.55 trillion yuan, and the projected deficit of local governments is 830 billion yuan. Local government special bonds to be issued will total 800 billion yuan, and local government bonds will continue to be issued to replace their outstanding debt.
地方专项债券 local government special bonds
The main reason for keeping this year’s deficit-to-GDP ratio unchanged is to allow for further reductions in taxes and fees. Over the course of the year, the tax burden on businesses will be further eased by around 350 billion yuan, and business related fees will be further cut by around 200 billion yuan to benefit market entities.
减税降费 reductions in taxes and fees
涉企收费 business related fees
Government budgets should highlight priorities; spending in some areas should be maintained while in others cuts should be made; and more should be spent to strengthen areas of weakness and improve living standards. General transfer payments to local governments will be increased by 9.5 percent, with the focus on increasing transfer payments for equalizing access to basic public services and stepping up subsidies for regions facing economic difficulties.
突出重点 highlight priorities
转移支付 transfer payments
spending in some areas should be maintained while in others cuts should be made
We will scale down non-priority spending and cut budgets for projects that do not deliver desired outcomes.
Governments at all levels should tighten their belts, and central government departments should take the lead by cutting no less than 5 percent of their general expenditures. No increase in spending on official overseas visits, official vehicles, or official hospitality is permitted; and we will squeeze out more funds to cover cuts in taxes and fees. We will keep government spending low and enrich our people.
带头 take the lead
We will continue to pursue a prudent and neutral monetary policy. The M2 money supply and aggregate financing are forecasted to grow by around 12 percent in 2017.
稳健中性 prudent and neutral
We will apply a full range of monetary policy instruments, maintain basic stability in liquidity, see that market interest rates remain at an appropriate level, and improve thetransmission mechanismof monetary policy. We will encourage a greater flow of financial resources into the real economy, particularly in support of agriculture, rural areas, and farmers, and small and micro businesses.
三农 agriculture, rural areas, and farmers
传导机制 transmission mechanism
The RMB exchange rate will be further liberalized, and the currency’s stable position in the global monetary system will be maintained.
To deliver a good performance this year, we in government should stick to the following guidelines: First, we should make progress while maintaining stable performance and keep our strategic focus.
make progress while maintaining stable performance
keep our strategic focus
Stability is of overriding importance. We should ensure stable growth, maintain employment, and prevent risks. To ensure overall economic and social stability we must not allow the redline to be crossed concerning financial security, people’s wellbeing, or environmental protection.
拆分除了避免句子过长之外，也便于组织结构。顺便建议关注 CATTI 官网的评分指南，因为是扣分制，一定意义上多用短句也相对安全。
2. 分——总 / 总——分
3. 事实 ——评判
We should, while maintaining stable performance, endeavor to make progress, deepen reforms, accelerate structural adjustments, be prepared to take on some really tough problems, and push to make progress in key areas.
这句的结构搭建是引入插入语“while maintaining stable performance”，增加句子多样性，避免单调。如前所述，翻译不是字对字，有时候需要综合理解。这里并没有字对字翻译“前提”，但整体的意思基本一致。
浅层次字对字可能反而不准确。比如常见的“政策稳”，stable 可能就不如 consistent。还有就是官方（xinhua/fma）对各类文件的英译也常回避字对字，不看参考译文可能想不到还可以用某个词翻译 （例如 endeavor ）。
Second, we should focus on supply-side structural reform. We must give priority to improving supply-side structure. We should streamline administration, reduce taxes, further expand market access, and encourage innovation; and we should keep micro entities energized, reduce ineffective supply while expanding effective supply, and better adapt to and guide demand.
Like the struggle from chrysalis to butterfly, this process of transformation and upgrading is filled with promise but also accompanied by great pain; it is urgent, formidable, and complicated. We should press forward with courage and get the job done.
Chrysalis /ˈkrɪsəlɪs/ （词根chrys-金色）
转型升级 transformation and upgrading
勇往直前 press forward with courage
坚决闯过这个关口 get the job done （通俗化、简化）
Third, we should expand aggregate demand as appropriate and improve its efficacy. China’s potential domestic demand is enormous, and it is both necessary and possible for domestic demand to be expanded. The key is to know where to start.
总需求 aggregate demand
适度 as appropriate
We need to increase consumer spending to improve people’s lives, and boost investment to strengthen areas of weakness and sustain development, so that the expansion of domestic demandbecomes more effective and sustainable and supply-side reform and demand-side regulation reinforce each other.
补短板 strengthen areas of weakness
Fourth, we should rely on innovation to replace old growth drivers with new ones and speed up structural improvement and upgrading. Having reached the current stage of development, China can now advance only through reform and innovation. We have the largest quality workforce as well asthe largest pool of scientists, engineers, and professionals in the world, and their potential for innovation is truly tremendous.
新旧动能转换 replace old growth drivers with new ones
结构优化升级 structural improvement and upgrading
Pool /puːl/ A pool of people, money, or things is a quantity or number of them that is available for an organization or group to use. 一拨人; 一笔钱; 一笔物资
We must continue to draw strength from reform and opening up, fully tap the potential of human resources and human capital, and move more quickly to pursue innovation-driven development. We should foster and develop new growth drivers while transforming and upgrading the traditional growth drivers, and increase total factor productivity. These steps will enable China’s economy to maintain a medium-high rate of growth and China’s industries to move toward the medium-high end.
迈向 move toward
改造提升transform and upgrade
中高速增长 a medium-high rate of growth
中高端水平 the medium-high end
全要素生产率 total factor productivity
Total factor productivity
In economics, total-factor productivity (TFP), also called multi-factor productivity, is a variable which accounts for effects in total output not caused by traditionally measured inputs of labor and capital. If all inputs are accounted for, then total factor productivity (TFP) can be taken as a measure of an economy’s long-term technological change or technological dynamism.
Fifth, we should solve prominent problems of public concern. All government work is for the people. We should keep in mind the fact that China remains in the primary stage of socialism and pursue a people focused development philosophy.
Where conditions permit, we will lose no time in solving problems about which the people have great concern and which demand speedy resolution. When problems cannot be solved for the time being, we will work to resolve them over time. We must make dedicated efforts to deliver services to the people, resolve the difficulties they face, promote social equity and justice, and demonstrate that development does better people’s lives.
Confronted with the formidable tasks of reform and development and maintaining stability this year, we must keep in mind the big picture and adopt a holistic approach, have clear priorities and focus on key tasks, and properly handle interactions among various sectors. We should give priority to the following areas of work.
通观全局 keep in mind the big picture
统筹兼顾 adopt a holistic approach
突出重点 have clear priorities
把握关键 focus on key tasks
1. Pushing ahead with the five priority tasks through reform
We should, on the basis of consolidating and building on what we have achieved, improve our policies and measures in light of new developments and new problems so as to make greater progress.
Take solid and effective steps to cut overcapacity. This year, we will further reduce steel production capacity by around 50 million metric tons and shut down at least 150 million metric tons of coal production facilities. At the same time, we will suspend or postpone construction on or eliminate no less than 50 million kilowatts of coal-fired power generation capacity in order to guard against anddefuse the risks of overcapacity in coal-fired power, improve the efficiency of this sector, optimize the energy mix, and make room for clean energy to develop.
钢铁产能 steel production capacity
清洁能源 clean energy
能源结构 the energy mix
腾空间 make room for
We will strictly enforce all laws, regulations, and standards on environmental protection, energy consumption, quality, and safety and make more use of market- and law-based methods as we work to address the problems of “zombie enterprises,” encourage enterprise mergers, restructuring, and bankruptcy liquidations, shut down all outdated production facilities that fail to meet standards, andstringently control the launching of new projects in industries that are already saddled with overcapacity.
法律法规和标准 laws, regulations, and standards
兼并重组 enterprise mergers, restructuring
破产清算 bankruptcy liquidations
严控 stringently control
As overcapacity is cut, we must provide assistance to laid-off workers. Central government special funds for rewards and subsidies should be promptly allocated and local governments and enterprises need to put in place related funds and measures, to ensure that laid-off workers can find new jobs and secure their livelihoods.
就业有出路 find new jobs
生活有保障 secure their livelihoods
Take targeted policies to cut excess urban real estate inventory
At present, there is still excess supply in the real estate markets of third- and fourth-tier cities. We will support both local and new residents in buying homes for personal use.
We need to be clear that housing is for people to live in, and local governments should take primary responsibility in this respect. We should move faster to establish robust long-term mechanisms for promoting the steady and sound development of the real estate sector and build a better housing system that gives equal weight to buying and renting, with multiple levels of demand being met primarily by the market, and basic housing support provided by the government.
长效机制 long-term mechanisms
购租并举 gives equal weight to buying and renting
We will take more category-based and targeted steps to regulate the real estate market. Cities that are under big pressure from rising housing prices need to increase as appropriate the supply of land for residential use. We should better regulate housing development, marketing, and intermediary services, and keep home prices from rising too quickly in popular cities.
房地产市场 the real estate market
中介 intermediary services
住宅用地 land for residential use
Today several dozen million people still live in rundown areas in cities and towns. We must continue housing renovations in these areas. This year, we will renovate another 6 million housing units in these areas, continue to develop public rental housing and other forms of government-subsidized housing, base measures on local circumstances and use multiple means to increase the use ofmonetary compensation for those affected by such rebuilding, and improve local infrastructure and public services. With these efforts, we will help more families struggling with housing to bid farewell to rundown areas, and see that with good roofs over their heads our people move on to better lives.
棚户区 rundown areas
公租房 public rental housing
保障性住房 government-subsidized housing
Carry out deleveraging in an active and prudent way. There is high leverage in nonfinancial Chinese firms. This is caused by high savings rates and the composition of financing which is primarily based on credit. While working to control overall leverage, we should focus on bringing down the leverage of enterprises.
杠杆率较高 high leverage
控制总杠杆率 control overall leverage
降低企业杠杆率 bringing down the leverage of enterprises
We need to see that the idle assets of enterprises are put to use, push ahead with securitization of corporate assets, support market- and law-based debt-to-equity swaps, develop the multilevel capital market, expand equity financing, and place tighter constraints on enterprises, especially SOEs, in leveraging, so as to gradually reduce enterprise debt to an acceptable level.
债转股 debt-to-equity swaps
存量资产 the idle assets of enterprises
Take multiple measures to cut costs. More small businesses with low profits will enjoy halved corporate income tax, with the upper limit of taxable annual income raised from 300,000 to 500,000 yuan.
For small and medium high-tech enterprises, the proportion of R&D expenses covered by the additional tax reduction policy is to be raised from 50 to 75 percent. We will do all we can to see the intensity and impact of structural tax cuts deliver further results. The great number of charges have placed an unbearable burden on many businesses; we are going to slash non-tax burdens.
First, we will completely overhaul government-managed funds, abolish municipal public utility surcharges, and authorize local governments to reduce and cancel some funds.
Second, we will abolish or suspend 35 administrative charges paid by enterprises to the central government, again cutting the number of charges by more than half; and then reduce as far as possible those that still apply. Local governments also need to make significant cuts to government administrative fees.
Third, we will reduce government-set operating fees for businesses. Unauthorized fees charged by intermediaries for government review and approval will be overhauled or abolished. We will work toward lower operating fees levied on businesses in the finance and railway freight sectors. We willstrengthen oversight over the collection of market-set service fees.
Fourth, we will continue to lower as appropriate the share paid by enterprises for contributions to social security.
Fifth, we will deepen reforms and improve policies to reduce government imposed transaction costs for businesses and lower their energy and logistics costs.
All government departments and agencies concerned should have in mind the overall interests of the country instead of their narrow departmental interests, reduce the financial burden on enterprises, and help them develop new advantages over international competition.
Take targeted and powerful measures to strengthen areas of weakness. We need to focus on salient problems that are holding back economic and social development and making it difficult to improve people’s standards of living, and we should integrate efforts to undertake major projects set out in the 13th Five-Year Plan with efforts to strengthen areas of weakness. We should act faster to raise the capacity of public services, infrastructure, innovation-driven development, and resources and the environment to sustain development.
Poor areas and people living in poverty represent the area of greatest weakness we must face as we work to finish building a moderately prosperous society in all respects.
We need to do more in implementing targeted poverty reduction and elimination measures. This year we will further reduce the number of rural residents living in poverty by over 10 million, including 3.4 million to be relocated from inhospitable areas. Central government funding for poverty alleviation will be increased by over 30 percent.
精准扶贫精准脱贫 targeted poverty reduction and elimination
We need to step up development in contiguous areas of extreme poverty, old revolutionary bases, border areas, and areas with concentrations of ethnic minorities. For this we should focus on the following work: improving infrastructure and public services; fostering poverty alleviation throughdistinctive local businesses, the domestic and overseas export of labor, and improving education and health care; providing assistance to people who become poor or sink back into poverty due to illness; implementing the program for improving life in poor villages; and building the self-development capacity of poor areas and people.
劳务输出 export of labor
自我发展能力 the self-development capacity
In poor counties, different rural development funds will be merged, and oversight over funds and projects will be strengthened. We will develop new mechanisms for coordinating poverty reduction efforts. We will support and guide non-governmental participation in combating poverty.
社会力量参与 non-governmental participation
扶贫 combating poverty
The system for ensuring responsibility is taken for poverty elimination will be effectively enforced, the strictest possible evaluations and assessments of poverty alleviation will be carried out, and stern measures will be taken to address deception, falsification, and the manipulation of numbers in poverty elimination work. We must see that the results of our poverty elimination earn the approval of our people and stand the test of time.
Deepening reform in major sectors and key links
Full reform will be deepened in all areas. We will move faster to advance fundamental and critical reforms to boost the internal forces driving development.
内生发展动力 the internal forces driving development
加快推进 move faster to advance
基础性、关键性改革 fundamental and critical reforms
We will continue to transform government functions.
To enable the market to play the decisive role in resource allocation and to give better play to the role of government, we must deepen reforms to streamline government administration, delegate more powers, and improve regulation and service.
资源配置 resource allocation
A country’s resources are the things that it has and can use to increase its wealth, such as coal, oil, or land. 资源
Embryonic stem cell research has repeatedly raised ethical concerns and human eggs are a scarce resource.
But back then natural resource booms of one sort or another produced their millionaires.
This is a profound reform of government itself, which we need to continue to pursue with the courage to make painful self-adjustments and overcome all odds.
We will fully implement the list-based management system, formulate lists of powers and responsibilities of the departments under the State Council, accelerate the extension of trials of granting market access on the basis of a negative list, and reduce the discretionary powers of the government while giving the market more freedom to take its course. We will abolish the requirement for permits for a number of production and service activities.
清单管理制度 the list-based management system
权力和责任清单 lists of powers and responsibilities
自由裁量权 discretionary powers
Discretionary /dɪˈskrɛʃənərɪ/ 酌情决定的
Magistrates were given wider discretionary powers.
We will deepen institutional reforms in the business sector, merge different forms of certification required of businesses into one certificate, and expand trials to separate operating permits and business licenses.
商事制度改革 institutional reforms in the business sector
证照分离 separate operating permits and business licenses
We will improve the system for conducting both registration and post-registration oversight over businesses, apply the oversight model of random inspection and public release to cover all business activities, and strengthen coordinated administrative law enforcement.
We will accelerate efforts to make the information systems of the State Council departments and those of local governments better connected and form a nationally unified government service platform.
To see that businesses and the public benefit more from our reforms to streamline administration, delegate powers, and improve regulation and services, we must cut red tape, level the playing field, provide greater convenience, and remove that last crucial hurdle.
improve regulation and services
You refer to official rules and procedures as red tape when they seem unnecessary and cause delay. (官方的) 繁文缛节 [表不满]
The little money that was available was tied up in bureaucratic red tape.
We will continue to reform fiscal and tax systems. We will implement and improve policies on replacing business tax with VAT across the board. We will simplify the structure of VAT rates, and undertake this year to turn the four tax brackets into three. We will create a simple, transparent, and fairer tax environment and further ease the tax burden of our firms.
财税体制 fiscal and tax systems
税收负担 tax burden
We will move faster to advance the reform of defining the respective financial powers and expenditure responsibilities of the central and local governments, formulate an overall plan for central and local government revenue sharing, improve the local tax system, and better regulate local government debt financing.
We will step up efforts to make government budgets and final accounts more transparent to create pressure for idle budgetary funds to be put to good use. We must use funds more efficiently, and ensure every single sum is spent where it can be seen and produces results.
推进••••公开 make more transparent
预决算 budgets and final accounts
沉淀资金 idle budgetary funds
We will advance reforms in the financial sector. We will prompt financial institutions to focus on their main business and make their services accessible to small and micro businesses, strengthen their ability to serve the real economy, and resolutely prevent them from being distracted from their intended purpose.
实体经济 the real economy
突出主业 focus on main business
We will encourage large and medium commercial banks to establish inclusive finance departments.Large state-owned banks should take the lead in this effort. We will adopt differentiated assessment and evaluation measures and supportive policies, and effectively address the problem of medium, small, and micro enterprises being unable to access loans or having to pay high interest to secure loans.
率先 take the lead
考核评价办法 assessment and evaluation measures
We will make good use of policy-backed and development-oriented finance. We will move forward with the reform of rural credit cooperatives and strengthen the role they play in meeting the needs ofagriculture, rural areas, and farmers.
农村信用社 rural credit cooperatives
A cooperative is a business or organization run by the people who work for it, or owned by the people who use it. These people share its benefits and profits. 合作性企业; 合作性组织 [商业]
They decided a housing cooperative was the way to regenerate the area.
We will deepen the reform of the multi-tiered capital market, improve the basic systems of the main board, actively develop the ChiNext stock market and the new third board, and see that regional equity markets develop in a well-regulated way.
We will expand channels for using insurance funds to support the real economy. We will make major efforts to develop green finance. We will give impetus to the sound development of the financial leasing industry.
融资租赁业 the financial leasing industry
保险资金 insurance funds
At present, overall, systemic risks are under control. But we must be fully alert to the buildup of risks, including risks related to non-performing assets, bond defaults, shadow banking, and Internet finance.
不良资产 non-performing assets
债券违约 bond defaults
We will take active and steady steps to advance the reform of the financial regulatory system, and work systematically to defuse major potential risks. We will ensure order in the financial sector and build a firewall against financial risks.
积极稳妥 take active and steady steps to
金融监管体制 the financial regulatory system
有序 work systematically to
The fundamentals of the Chinese economy remain sound, the capital adequacy ratio and provision coverage of commercial banks remain high, and we have many financial tools and instruments that can be used. We have the confidence, the ability, and the means to forestall systemic risks.
Forestall /fɔːˈstɔːl/ 预先阻止
Large numbers of police were in the square to forestall any demonstrations.
We will deepen the reform of SOEs and state capital.
We should develop a corporate governance structure (represented by legal person) that is under effective check and a flexible and efficient market-based operating system, with a view to increasing core competitiveness and making resource allocation more effective.
This year we will basically complete the introduction of corporate systems into SOEs. We will deepen reform to establish mixed ownership systems, and make substantive progress in industries including electric power, petroleum, natural gas, railways, civil aviation, telecommunications, and defense.
电力 electric power
天然气 natural gas
民航 civil aviation
We will advance structural reform in the power, oil and gas sectors and open their competitive operations to the private sector. We will do more to make SOEs leaner and healthier, and perform better; and we will redouble efforts to relieve SOEs of their obligations to operate social programs and help them resolve other longstanding issues.
历史遗留问题 longstanding issues
We will make progress in work on piloting reforms in state capital investment and management companies. We will improve and strengthen regulation of state assets, and ensure that state assets maintain and increase their value, as we are duty bound to see that the common wealth of the people is well protected and grows.
We will do more to energize the non-public sector. We will thoroughly implement the policies and measures for supporting the development of the non-public sector. We will work actively to developa new relationship between government and business. We will encourage non-public enterprises to participate in SOE reforms.
激发 活力 energize
政商关系 relationship between government and business
非公有制企业 non-public enterprises
We must ensure equal rights, equal opportunities, and fair rules, and further expand market access to the non-public sector.
放宽••••准入 expand market access to
All industries and sectors for which entry is not explicitly prohibited by laws or regulations should be open to different types of market entities; all industries and sectors that are open to overseas investment should be open to Chinese private capital; and all unjustified activities that impede fair market competition should be stopped.
Impede /ɪmˈpiːd/ 阻碍
Debris and fallen rock are impeding the progress of the rescue workers.
We will improve the property rights protection system. Protecting property rights means protecting labor, protecting invention and innovation, and protecting and developing productive forces.
发明创造 invention and innovation
生产力 productive forces
We will work faster to improve the property rights protection system and protect in accordance with law the property rights of economic entities under all forms of ownership and the property rights of citizens. We will encourage people to start businesses, make innovations, and create wealth, and we will inspire and protect entrepreneurship, and ensure that entrepreneurs can run their businesses and make investments with peace of mind.
创业创新 start businesses, make innovations
经营 run businesses
Activities that infringe on the property rights of businesses and citizens must be investigated and dealt with severely; anything that has been done wrong must be corrected.
Activities that ：经典结构，类似 he who
He who has learned how to obey will know how to command.
He who has never learned to obey cannot be a good commander.
“He who wields the knife never wears the crown” Lord Heseltine later reflected.
We will make a big push for progress in the reform of the social system. We will deepen reforms in support of change in the income distribution system. We will take steady steps to advance reform of the old-age insurance system, and allocate a portion of state capital to enlarge social security funds. We will deepen the coordinated reform of medical services, health insurance, and the medicine industry.
社会体制 the social system
收入分配制度 the income distribution system
国有资本 state capital
社保基金 social security funds
We will introduce overall reform in public hospitals nationwide, abolish all markups on pharmaceuticals, and make coordinated progress in reforming health care pricing, staffing and remuneration, medicine distribution, and models of health insurance payment. We will continue reforms in education, the cultural sector, and public institutions to unleash society’s vast potential for growth.
综合改革 overall reform
药品加成 markups on pharmaceuticals
事业单位 public institutions
We will deepen institutional reform to build a sound ecological environment.
We will improve the functional zoning system and the mechanisms for compensating for ecological conservation efforts; we will put in place resource and environment monitoring and early-warning mechanisms; we will launch trials to improve the state natural resource assets management system; and we will introduce an overall plan for establishing a national parks system. All these efforts should provide effective institutional safeguards for building a sound ecological environment.
主体功能区制度 the functional zoning system
生态补偿机制 the mechanisms for compensating for ecological conservation efforts
预警机制 early-warning mechanisms
3. Doing more to unleash the potential of domestic demand. We will push to see that the composition of supply becomes better matched with the composition of demand and that consumption upgrades and effective investment reinforce each other; we will promote coordinated development between regions and between rural and urban areas; and we will strengthen the role of domestic demand in sustaining growth.
We will promote a steady increase in consumer spending. We need to adapt to changes in consumer demand, improve our policies and measures, and create a better consumer environment.
First, we need to speed up the development of service consumption. We will launch a new round of trials for comprehensive reform in the service sector, and support the non-governmental sector in providing educational, cultural, elderly care, healthcare, and other services.
社会力量 the non-governmental sector
We will encourage development of new service models and cross-sectoral integration, combined medical and elderly care services, cultural and creative services, and other emerging forms of consumption. We will ensure paid vacations are enforced, improve tourist facilities and services, and make a big push to develop rural tourism, recreational tourism, and all-for-one tourism.
跨界融合 cross-sectoral integration
医养结合 combined medical and elderly care services
文化创意 cultural and creative services
新兴消费 emerging forms of consumption
带薪休假 paid vacations
全域旅游 all-for-one tourism
We will increase information consumption including digital homes and online learning. We will see that communities and rural areas have better access to e-commerce and express delivery services, and encourage the integrated development of physical store sales and online shopping.
信息消费 information consumption
数字家庭 digital homes
快递 express delivery services
融合发展 integrated development
Second, we need to boost consumption of quality products. We will guide enterprises in increasing the variety of products, raising their quality, and building the brands of their products. More products sold domestically should be produced on the same production lines, meet the same standards, and be of the same quality as products for export in order to better satisfy the needs of upgrading consumption.
增品种 increase the variety of products
提品质 raise quality
创品牌 build the brands of their products
满足消费升级需求 satisfy the needs of upgrading consumption
The aim is to raise quality and to help doctors and other staff members work as a team. NEWYORKER: The Cost Conundrum
These should raise quality of life, enhance productivity, and provide an economic boost. WSJ: How Obama Can Fix the Economy
The two carmakers hope will help cut costs in their struggling European divisions, while at the same time raise quality.
品质产品 quality products
This is a quality product.
The story received little coverage in the quality papers (= more serious newspapers).
Third, we need to ensure order in the market. We will be strict about investigating and punishing the production and sale of counterfeit and substandard goods, false advertising, and price fraud. We will strengthen the protection of consumer rights; and we will make sure that spending is an enjoyable rather than a disappointing experience for consumers.
查处 investigating and punishing
假冒伪劣 counterfeit and substandard goods
虚假广告 false advertising
消费者权益保护 the protection of consumer rights
市场 the market
the coffee market
the economic market
the commodities market
the stock market
the job market
the housing market
This is the cheapest version on the market, which is its great selling point.
We’re working on new strategies to improve our share of the market.
Order is the situation that exists when everything is in the correct or expected place, or happens at the correct or expected time. 秩序
The wish to impose order upon confusion is a kind of intellectual instinct.
Order is the situation that exists when people obey the law and do not fight or riot. 治安
Troops were sent to the islands to restore order last November.
When people talk about a particular order, they mean the way society is organized at a particular time. 社会秩序
The end of the Cold War has produced the prospect of a new world order based on international co-operation.
We will work proactively to expand effective investment. We will guide more investment into fields that will help to strengthen weak areas, drive structural adjustment, encourage innovation, and improve people’s lives.
补短板 strengthen weak areas
调结构 drive structural adjustment
促创新 encourage innovation
惠民生 improve people’s lives
This year, we will invest 800 billion yuan in railway construction and 1.8 trillion yuan in highway and waterway projects. Construction on another 15 major water conservancy projects will begin; and work on major rail transport, civil and general aviation, and telecommunications infrastructure projects will be sped up.
水利工程 water conservancy projects
轨道交通 rail transport
通用航空 general aviation
电信基础设施 telecommunications infrastructure
A highway is a main road, especially one that connects towns or cities. (尤指城市间的) 公路 [美国英语]
A total of 507.6 billion yuan of investment has been included in the central government budget this year. We will implement and improve policies and measures for encouraging private investment.
政策措施 policies and measures
中央预算 the central government budget
落实和完善 implement and improve
We will continue to promote public-private partnerships, and improve related policies on preferential pricing, tax, and fee arrangements. Government must take the lead in acting in good faith and must never arbitrarily change agreements, and new officials must not disavow obligations undertaken by their predecessors.
政府和社会资本合作 public-private partnerships
随意改变约定 arbitrarily change agreements
带头 take the lead in
讲诚信 act in good faith
Good faith (Latin: bona fides), in human interactions, is a sincere intention to be fair, open, and honest, regardless of the outcome of the interaction.
Effort made, information given, or transaction done, honestly and without a deliberate intention to defraud the other party. However, good-faith does not necessarily mean ‘without negligence.’ Also called bona fides, it is implied by law into commercial contracts.
We will improve planning for regional development. We will coordinate the launching of three strategic initiatives and the development of the eastern, central, western, and northeastern regions. We will ensure related plans are well implemented and explore and adopt new measures. We will boost the development of national-level new areas, development zones, and industrial parks through innovation.
区域发展格局 planning for regional development
统筹推进 coordinate the launching of •••
三大战略 three strategic initiatives
国家级新区 national-level new areas
开发区 development zones
产业园区 industrial parks
boost the development of •••• through innovation.
We will support the economic transformation and development of areas hurt by resource depletion and severe ecological degradation. Airspace resources will be better allocated. We will speed up the development of maritime economy demonstration zones, we will move faster to develop China into a strong maritime country, and we will be resolute in safeguarding China’s maritime rights and interests.
资源枯竭 resource depletion
生态严重退化 severe ecological degradation
空域资源 Airspace resources
建设海洋强国 develop China into a strong maritime country
坚决维护 be resolute in safeguarding•••
Deplete /dɪˈpliːt/ 消耗
substances that deplete the ozone layer.
We will take solid steps to pursue a new type of urbanization. We will deepen the reform of the household registration system. This year, at least 13 million new urban residents will be registered as permanent urban residents. We will speed up work to introduce the urban residence card system nationwide.
扎实推进 take solid steps to pursue •••
新型城镇化 a new type of urbanization
户籍制度 the household registration system
居住证制度 the urban residence card system
进城落户 registered as permanent urban residents
We will support the development of small and medium cities and small towns with distinctive local features. We will help a number of counties and very large towns that meet the criteria to steadily develop into cities, and we will make city clusters better play their role in driving the development of their surrounding areas.
特色小城镇 small towns with distinctive local features
县和特大镇 counties and very large towns
城市群 city clusters
辐射带动 driving the development of their surrounding areas
风调雨顺 favorable weather
千方百计 do one’s best
We will encourage local governments to integrate their urban plans into single master plans and raise the standard of municipal planning and design. We will take more steps to reform and develop the construction industry, and improve the quality of construction projects.
城市规划 municipal planning / urban plans
建筑业 the construction industry
工程 construction projects
推进 take more steps to / further progress will be made in
We will promote coordinated urban development above and below the ground, strengthen geological surveying, and begin construction on at least another 2,000 kilometers of underground utility tunnels in cities.
地上地下 above and below the ground
地质调查 geological surveying
城市地下综合管廊 underground utility tunnels in cities
A three-year initiative will be launched to remove the risk of flooding in highly vulnerable urban areas, further progress will be made in the development of sponge cities, and effective steps will be taken to address traffic congestion and other urban maladies. All these efforts will make our cities more attractive and function better.
All these efforts will 总结全句
海绵城市 sponge cities
交通拥堵 traffic congestion
城市病 urban maladies
有“面子”、更有“里子” more attractive and function better
In written English, people sometimes use maladies to refer to serious problems in a society or situation. 固疾; 弊病
When apartheid is over the maladies will linger on.
4. Transforming and upgrading the real economy through innovation. The real economy has always been the foundation of China’s development; the task we now face is to speed up its transformation and upgrading.
转型升级 transformation and upgrading
We will do more to implement the strategy of innovation-driven development, upgrade the structure of the real economy, and improve its performance and competitiveness.
创新驱动发展战略 the strategy of innovation-driven development
实体经济 the real economy
We will strengthen our capability for making technological innovations.We will improve mechanisms for providing continued long-term support for fundamental research and original research, build major national infrastructure projects for science and technology and set up technological innovation hubs, and establish platforms for sharing R&D resources.We will continue piloting reforms for all-around innovation.
科技创新能力 capability for making technological innovations
科技基础设施 infrastructure projects for science and technology
技术创新中心 technological innovation hubs
科技资源开放共享平台 platforms for sharing R&D resources
We will reform the system for assessing scientific and technological achievements. We will see our universities and research institutes truly operate with autonomy, ensure that incentive policies like stocks, options, and dividends are implemented, and implement the reform of the systems for managing research funding and projects. These steps should keep our scientists and engineers from being distracted and allow them to focus on their research.
the system for assessing scientific and technological achievements
激励政策 incentive policies
We will begin piloting reforms to conduct integrated management of intellectual property rights and improve the system for creating, protecting, and applying intellectual property rights.
综合管理 integrated management
creating, protecting, and applying intellectual property rights
We will deepen reform of China’s systems for cultivating talent and introduce more effective policies for bringing in talent from overseas. By welcoming the world’s brightest minds to China and fully motivating our scientists and engineers, we will use innovation to accomplish great things.
激发•••• 积极性 motivate
广聚天下英才 welcoming the world’s brightest minds
We will accelerate the development of emerging industries. We will fully implement our plan for developing strategic emerging industries. We will accelerate R&D on and commercialization of new materials, new energy, artificial intelligence, integrated circuits, bio-pharmacy, 5G mobile communications, and other technologies, and develop industrial clusters in these fields.
新材料 new materials
新能源 new energy
人工智能 artificial intelligence
集成电路 integrated circuits
第五代移动通信 5G mobile communications
We will continue to support and guide the development of the sharing economy to enable greater efficiency in the use of resources and bring greater convenience to our people.
支持和引导 support and guide
分享经济 the sharing economy
提高社会资源利用效率 enable greater efficiency in the use of resources
We will formulate regulatory rules for emerging industries in keeping with the principle of encouraging innovation and conducting regulation in a tolerant and prudent way, and guide and promote the healthy development of emerging industries. We will deepen reform of the statistics management system and improve statistics on emerging industries.
包容审慎 tolerant and prudent
新兴产业 emerging industries
In the age of the Internet, faster, safer, and more cost-effective information networks are crucial to the development of every sector.
互联网时代 the age of the Internet
成本更低 more cost-effective
This year, we will do more to increase broadband speed and lower rates for Internet services. Mobile rates for domestic roaming and long-distance calls will be cancelled; rates for broadband services for small and medium enterprises will be slashed; and rates for international calls will be lowered. We will push forward with the Internet Plus action plan and speed up the development of the digital economy. I am confident that all these steps will benefit both businesses and our people.
互联网+ the Internet Plus action plan
increase broadband speed and lower rates for Internet services
Mobile rates for domestic roaming and long-distance calls
数字经济 the digital economy
古老的 格言 adage
免费 赠品 gifts
accelerate economic reforms
避免在计划 工作 中出现严重过失
avoid serious mistakes in planning
a weight has been lifted from my mind
visit relatives and friends
Your indifference irritates me.
We will endeavor to transform and upgrade traditional industries. We will intensify efforts to implement the Made in China 2025 initiative, promote accelerated application of big data, cloud computing, and the Internet of Things, and use new technologies, new forms of business, and new models to bring about transformation in the production, management, and marketing models of traditional industries.
中国制造2025 the Made in China 2025 initiative
物联网 the Internet of Things
深入实施 intensify efforts to implement
With the development of smart manufacturing as our focus, we will press ahead with building national smart manufacturing demonstration zones and manufacturing innovation centers. We willwork hard on the implementation of projects to build a robust foundation for industrial development and projects to develop and make major equipment, and we will make a big push to develop advanced manufacturing, thus moving toward mid- and high-end manufacturing.
推进 press ahead
大力发展 make a big push to
智能制造smart manufacturing demonstration zones
制造业创新中心 manufacturing innovation centers
工业强基 build a robust foundation for industrial development
先进制造业 advanced manufacturing
中高端 mid- and high-end
We will improve policies designed to turn China into a manufacturer of quality, and we will adopt a variety of supportive measures for technological upgrading and re-energize traditional industries.
技术改造 technological upgrading
焕发 生机 re-energize
We will continue to encourage people to start businesses and make innovations. Our policy of encouraging people to start businesses and innovate is an effective way of creating jobs through business startups and innovation; it is an important source of strength that fosters new growth drivers to replace old ones and that upgrades the economic structure; and it is an effective channel for promoting equal opportunity and facilitating vertical social mobility. We must keep on pushing hard with this policy.
双创 encouraging people to start businesses and innovate
新旧动能转换 fosters new growth drivers to replace old ones
社会纵向流动 ertical social mobility
不断引向深入 keep on pushing hard with
We will establish more entrepreneurship and innovation demonstration centers; we will encourage large enterprises, research institutes, and universities to establish specialized spaces for crowd innovation; we will strengthen support for innovative medium, small and micro businesses; and we will develop a full range of services that are accessible to the general public for the entire business startup and innovation process. All this should help entities to fully exploit their own strengths and interact both on- and off-line, and see small enterprises burgeoning nationwide, large enterprises growing mighty, and market dynamism and social creativity being fully unleashed.
专业化众创空间 specialized spaces for crowd innovation
线上线下 both on- and off-line
迸发 being fully unleashed
市场活力 market dynamism
We will take comprehensive steps to improve product quality. We will take a broad range of actions to raise quality, strengthening all-around quality management, building firm technological foundations for product quality, tightening quality oversight, and improving the competitive mechanism that links a firm’s fate in business to the quality of its products. Quality is born of workmanship.
质量之魂，存于匠心 Quality is born of workmanship
质量提升 raise quality
We will promote workmanship and foster a culture of workmanship where workers have a strong work ethic and tirelessly seek improvement. We will refine our incentive mechanisms and see great numbers of Chinese workers exemplify workmanship and more Chinese brands enjoy international recognition. We will usher in an era of quality for economic development in China.
厚植工匠文化 foster a culture of workmanship
恪尽职业操守 have a strong work ethic
崇尚精益求精 tirelessly seek improvement
激励机制 incentive mechanisms
5. Promoting steady development of agriculture and continued increases in rural incomes
We will do more to advance supply-side structural reform in agriculture, improve policies to boost agriculture and benefit farmers, and create more channels for rural residents to find employment and increase their incomes. We will ensure China’s food security, see that agricultural modernization and new urbanization reinforce each other, and speed up efforts to foster new drivers powering agricultural and rural development.
new drivers powering agricultural and rural development
互促共进 reinforce each other
The device or fuel that powers a machine provides the energy that the machine needs in order to work. 为…提供动力
The “flywheel” battery, it is said, could power an electric car for 600 miles on a single charge.
We will push forward with structural adjustment in agriculture.
We will guide farmers in responding to market demand, increasing the supply of quality green agricultural products and the production of quality rice and wheat, and making appropriate reductions to the amount of land devoted to growing corn. We will expand trials to replace grain crop with feed crop cultivation to cover over 667,000 hectares.
1000万亩 667,000 hectares
亩 mu, a unit of area (=0.0667 hectares)
优质绿色农产品 quality green agricultural products
优质水稻、小麦 quality rice and wheat
适度调减 make appropriate reductions
粮改饲 replace grain crop with feed crop cultivation
We will encourage the use of multiple channels to reduce excess stockpiles of corn. We will support major agricultural production areas in developing intensive processing of agricultural products, develop farm-based recreation or agritourism, extend industry chains and value chains, and step up the integrated development of primary, secondary, and tertiary industries in rural areas.
主产区 major agricultural production areas
产业链价值链 industry chains and value chains
一二三产业 primary, secondary, and tertiary industries
We will boost the development of modern agriculture.
We will work faster to see due standards are followed in agricultural production, and promote the development and protection of brand name agricultural products. We will create functional zones for grain production, major agricultural product protection areas, areas for growing quality and distinctively local agricultural products, and modern agriculture industrial parks.
功能区 functional zones
生产保护区 product protection areas
特色农产品优势区 areas for growing quality and distinctively local agricultural products
We will continue to improve rural land, upgrade low- and medium-yield cropland, and spread dry-farming techniques, adding 1.33 million hectares of farmland under highly water-efficient irrigation. We will strengthen the protection of cultivated land and improve work to offset cultivated land used for other purposes.
土地整治 improve rural land
中低产田 low- and medium-yield cropland
耕地 cultivated land
高效节水灌溉 highly water-efficient irrigation
Developing appropriately scaled, diversified farming operations is vital for Chinese-style agricultural modernization, and these operations need to be covered by agricultural insurance.
中国特色农业现代化 Chinese-style agricultural modernization
是 的必由之路 is vital for
This year, in selected counties and county-level cities in 13 major grain-producing provinces, we will provide catastrophe insurance for farmers engaging in appropriately scaled farming operations. We will channel a portion of budgetary disaster relief funds into this initiative and expand the coverage and raise the benefits of the insurance scheme. We will improve the agricultural reinsurance system. We wish to use sustainable and sound agricultural insurance schemes to drive the development of modern agriculture.
县市 counties and county-level cities
农业保险 agricultural insurance schemes
大灾保险 catastrophe insurance
粮食主产省 major grain-producing provinces
持续稳健 sustainable and sound
We will deepen rural reforms. We will take steady steps to reform the rural collective property rights system and deepen the pilot reform of the rural land system to see our farmers are granted more property rights.
农村改革 rural reforms
财产权利 property rights
稳步推进 take steady steps
We will improve pricing mechanisms for grain and other important agricultural products as well as the system for their purchase and storage. We will carry out comprehensive reform of the pricing for water used in agriculture. We will deepen reforms related to collective forest tenure, state forestry areas and farms, state-owned farms, and rural supply and marketing cooperatives.
价格形成机制 pricing mechanisms
收储 purchase and storage
供销社 supply and marketing cooperatives
We will strengthen the development of rural community-level organizations. We will improve the mechanisms for encouraging business startups and innovation in rural areas, train more professional farmers of new kinds, support migrant workers in starting businesses in their hometowns and villages, and take further measures to encourage college graduates, demobilized military personnel, and scientists and engineers to work in rural areas.
农村基层组织 rural community-level organizations
新型职业农民 professional farmers of new kinds
退役军人 demobilized military personnel
We will step up the development of public facilities in rural areas. A total of 200,000 kilometers of roads will be upgraded or built in rural areas. We will see that all rural areas have a steady and reliable supply of power and that all electric pumpsets on rural flatlands are connected. Fiber-optic broadband will be extended to 30,000 administrative villages.
间隔切换主语。We•••Roads •••• We ••• Broadband.
公共设施 public facilities
行政村 administrative villages
光纤 Fiber-optic broadband
We will increase water supply to better ensure access to safe drinking water. We will intensify efforts to renovate dilapidated houses and improve rural living environments. Our goal is to develop rural China into a place where people can enjoy both the beauty of the countryside and the conveniences of modern living.
危房改造 renovate dilapidated houses
农村人居环境 rural living environments
6. Actively expanding China’s opening up to the world
Faced with new changes in the international environment and the new requirements of China’s development, we need to further refine our strategic plan for opening up, work faster to build new systems for an open economy, and drive China toward both deeper and higher level opening up.
面对 faced with
开放型经济 open economy
更深层次更高水平 deeper and higher level
We will make solid efforts to pursue the Belt and Road Initiative.Guided by the principle of achieving shared growth through consultation and collaboration, we will accelerate the building of overland economic corridors and maritime cooperation hubs, and establish cooperative mechanisms for achieving compatibility in customs clearance procedures along the routes.
扎实推进 make solid efforts to
共商共建共享 achieving shared growth through consultation and collaboration,
通关 customs clearance
陆上经济走廊 overland economic corridors
海上合作支点 maritime cooperation hubs
An overland journey is made across land rather than by ship or aeroplane. 陆路的
.an overland journey through Iraq, Turkey, Iran and Pakistan.
We will deepen international industrial-capacity cooperation, promoting the export of Chinese equipment, technologies, standards, and services, to see that China and other countries are able to draw on each other’s strengths.
国际产能合作 international industrial-capacity cooperation
优势互补 draw on each other’s strengths
Draw on If you draw on or draw upon something such as your skill or experience, you make use of it in order to do something. 利用
He drew on his experience as a yachtsman to make a documentary programme.
We will strengthen personal and cultural exchanges and cooperation in education, science and technology, culture, healthcare, and tourism.
We will see that in holding the Belt and Road Forum for International Cooperation we offer a meeting of real quality, opening the page on a great new chapter of mutually beneficial cooperation.
合作共赢 mutually beneficial cooperation
We will ensure that foreign trade continues to pick up and register steady growth.
We will implement and improve our import and export policies and optimize imports and exports. We will expand the coverage of export credit insurance and provide export financing insurance for all insurable complete sets of large equipment.
回稳向好 pick up and register steady growth
We will move ahead with trials to develop services trade through innovation and establish a seed fund to encourage innovation to develop services trade.
推进 move ahead with
引导基金 seed fund
We will support the development of market procurement trade and integrated foreign trade service firms. We will accelerate the development of demonstration centers for transforming and upgrading foreign trade. We will facilitate the extension of processing trade to the medium-high end of industrial chains and its relocation to central and western regions.
We will extend the practice of processing international trade through a single window, and achieve nationwide integration of customs clearance procedures. The import of advanced technologies, equipment, and important parts and components will be increased to promote the balanced growth of foreign trade and accelerate industrial upgrading in China.
We will make big moves to improve the environment for foreign investors.
We will revise the catalog of industries open to foreign investment, and make service industries, manufacturing, and mining more open to foreign investment. We will encourage foreign-invested firms to be listed and issue bonds in China and allow them to take part in national science and technology projects.
上市、发债 be listed and issue bonds
Foreign firms will be treated the same as domestic firms when it comes to license applications, standards-setting, and government procurement, and will enjoy the same preferential policies under the Made in China 2025 initiative.
Local governments can, within the scope of the powers granted them by law, adopt preferential policies to attract foreign investment. We will build 11 high-standard pilot free trade zones, and widely spread practices developed in these zones that are proven to work.
优惠政策 preferential policies
自贸试验区 pilot free trade zone
We will guide the sound and standardized development of Chinese overseas investment, and increase the ability of Chinese companies to hedge against risks. China’s door is going to keep on opening wider, and China will keep working to be the most attractive destination for foreign investment.
健康规范发展 sound and standardized development
风险防范 hedge against risks
We will promote the liberalization and facilitation of international trade and investment.
Economic globalization is in the fundamental interests of all countries. China will not shift in its commitment to promoting global economic cooperation, will uphold the multilateral trading regime as the main channel of international trade, and will play an active part in multilateral trade negotiations.
贸易谈判 trade negotiations
坚定不移 will not shift in
China is ready to join hands with the other countries involved to fully put into force and implement the Protocol to Amend the Framework Agreement on Comprehensive Economic Cooperation between China and ASEAN, to conclude talks as soon as possible for the Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership agreement, and to advance the development of the Free Trade Area of the Asia-Pacific.
We will continue to negotiate investment and trade agreements with relevant countries and regions.China is a responsible country. We have always striven to honor the commitments we have made, and we will firmly defend our due rights and interests.
履行 honor the commitments
应有的权益 due rights and interests
Due attention or consideration is the proper, reasonable, or deserved amount of it under the circumstances. 适当的; 应有的
After due consideration it was decided to send him away to live with foster parents.
Something that is due, or that is due to someone, is owed to them, either as a debt or because they have a right to it. 应得的
I was sent a cheque and advised that no further pension was due.
7. Effectively strengthening environmental protection
Faster progress in work to improve the environment, particularly air quality, is what people are desperately hoping for, and is critical to sustainable development. We must adopt well-designed policies, tackle both symptoms and root causes, and take tough steps to make the grade in responding to the people.
标本兼治 tackle both symptoms and root causes
铁腕治理 take tough steps to
Make the grade 克服困难而达到理想的目标；获得成功；达到标准
We will make our skies blue again. This year, we will see that sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxide emissions are both cut by 3 percent and that fine particulate matter (PM2.5) density in key areas falls markedly.
二氧化硫 sulfur dioxide
坚决打好蓝天保卫战 make our skies blue again
First, we will work faster to address pollution caused by coal burning. We will take comprehensive steps to reduce non-centralized coal burning operations, promote clean winter heating in the northern region, replace the use of coal with electricity and natural gas in more than 3 million households, and shut down all small coal-fired furnaces in established districts of cities at the prefectural level and above.
燃煤小锅炉 small coal-fired furnaces
级以上城市 cities at the prefectural level and above.
We will step up work on upgrading coal-fired power plants to achieve ultra-low emissions and energy conservation. Upgrading should be completed this year in the eastern region, next year in the central region, and by 2020 in the western region.
超低排放 ultra-low emissions
We will act quickly to improve our mechanisms and technologies, enabling us to prioritize the integration of clean energy sources into the electric grid and effectively address wasted hydro-, wind- and solar-power generation capacities. We will develop nuclear power in a safe and highly efficient way. We will also work faster to make comprehensive use of straw.
综合利用 make comprehensive use
Second, we will take a full range of measures to tackle the sources of pollution. We will take focused actions to curb pollution in key industries. We will place all key sources of industrial pollution under round-the-clock online monitoring, and ensure the quality of monitoring.
监控质量 quality of monitoring
We will set a clear deadline by which enterprises must meet required discharge standards, and take resolute law-based action to close down all those that still fail to meet standards after the deadline.
到期不达标 fail to meet standards after the deadline
依法关停 take law-based action to close down
Third, we will strengthen control over exhaust emitted by motor vehicles. We will see that basically all higher-emission vehicles are scrapped, work faster to take old vehicles off the roads, carry out dedicated initiatives to deal with high-emission vehicles, and encourage the use of clean-energy cars. We will improve the quality of fuels and move faster to promote the use of those that meet National-VI emission standards in key areas.
机动车尾气 exhaust emitted by motor vehicles
黄标车 higher-emission vehicles
燃油品质 the quality of fuels
Fourth, we will take effective steps to tackle heavy air pollution. We will strengthen analysis of sources of air pollution and research on the causes of smog to improve the scientific basis and precision of the steps taken. We will expand the coverage of mechanisms in key areas to ensure coordinated prevention and control efforts across regions, and enhance earlywarning and emergency response measures.
重污染天气 heavy air pollution
联防联控 coordinated prevention and control
预警和应急措施 earlywarning and emergency response measures
Fifth, we will strictly enforce environmental laws and regulations, conduct inspections, and hold violators accountable. Illegal dischargers and fraud must be punished in accordance with law. Officials who do a poor job in enforcing the law, knowingly allow environmental violations, or respond inadequately to worsening air quality will be held fully accountable.
严格问责 be held fully accountable
Tackling smog is down to every last one of us, and success depends on action and commitment. As long as the whole of our society keeps trying, we will have more and more blue skies with each passing year.
We will strengthen the prevention and control of water and soil pollution. This year, chemical oxygen demand and ammonia nitrogen emissions should both drop by 2 percent. We will effectively prevent and control water pollution in key drainage basins, regions, and sea areas and agricultural pollution from non-point sources. We will undertake rigorous investigations on soil pollution and develop and implement category-based measures to tackle this problem.
分类制定实施治理措施 implement category-based measures
土壤污染 soil pollution
详查 undertake rigorous investigations on
We will take comprehensive measures to improve both urban and rural environments, advocate green living, and promote waste sorting. We will strengthen energy conservation and environmental protection industries and develop green remanufacturing and circular industries to ensure both environmental improvement and economic growth.
垃圾分类 waste sorting
资源循环利用产业 circular industries
We will move forward with ecological conservation and improvement.
We will act promptly to set redlines for ecological conservation and hold firm to these lines. We will work actively to respond to climate change.
生态保护红线 set redlines for ecological conservation
We will begin to pilot projects to improve the quality of our forests and restore ecosystems along the Yangtze Economic Belt, and launch the second group of trial projects to conserve the ecosystems of mountains, forests, farmland, rivers, and lakes. We will turn more than 800,000 hectares of marginal farmland into forests or grassland. We will address the spread of desertification and stony deserts. These initiatives will enable us to accumulate more ecological wealth and build a green Great Wall of sustainable development.
长江经济带 the Yangtze Economic Belt
8. Promoting social development to ensure and improve the wellbeing of our people
The wellbeing of the people is at the center of governance; it must be always on our minds and the responsibility for it must never leave our shoulders. Against the backdrop of challenging and complex environments both at home and abroad, it is all the more imperative that we prioritize efforts to ensure and improve the wellbeing of our people, spare no effort to deliver benefit to them wherever possible, and ensure their basic living needs are met.
优先 prioritize efforts to
基本民生 basic living needs
We will strive to boost employment and business startups. We will improve employment policy, strengthen employment training, and increase support for flexible employment and new forms of employment.
加大就业培训力度 strengthen employment training
This year, 7.95 million students will graduate from college, the highest number on record. We need to effectively implement initiatives to promote their employment, to guide them in starting businesses, and to encourage them to work at the community level, providing our college graduates with multiple channels to find jobs or start their own businesses. We will implement and improve policies and see that demobilized military personnel are settled into new jobs.
退役军人 demobilized military personnel
We will step up employment assistance to help vulnerable urban residents and people with disabilities find employment and to ensure that at least one member in every family currently with zero employment secures a stable job.
就业援助 employment assistance
Employment is crucial to ensuring people’s wellbeing. We will focus our effort on facilitating employment to see that through their hard work, people can create wealth and realize their full potential.
We will work to ensure that our people have access to equitable and quality education.We will combine the separate policies for rural and urban students receiving compulsory education thatwaive tuition and miscellaneous fees, supply free textbooks, and grant living allowances for boarders from financially disadvantaged families. We will make compulsory education accessible as a public service to all permanent urban residents, with and without local urban household registration. We will continue to improve conditions in badly built and poorly operated schools, and expand the reach of quality educational resources, so as to narrow the gap in the quality of education between urban and rural areas, different regions, and different schools.
两免一补 waive tuition and miscellaneous fees
不断缩小••••差距 narrow the gap between
We will continue to expand the enrollment of students from poor rural areas at key colleges and universities. We will increase government grants for PhD students. We will strengthen efforts to develop more world-class universities and first-class fields of discipline. We will continue to encourage some undergraduate institutions to shift their focus toward providing applied education.
世界一流大学 world-class universities
一流学 科 first-class fields of discipline
We will pilot comprehensive reform of the college entrance examination system; accelerate the development of modern vocational education; ensure ethnic minorities improve their education; and make sure that we have good special needs education, continuing education, preschool education, and education for senior citizens. We will support the development of private education and work to ensure it meets all relevant standards. We will work to improve teacher performance.
The Modernizing Chinese Education 2030 initiative will be developed and launched. We will develop education that satisfies the needs of our people, make the modernization of education underpin the modernization of our country, and see that more children realize their dreams and more families have their hopes fulfilled.
制定实施 develop and launch
教育现代化 the modernization of education
We will make continued progress in building a Healthy China.We will increase both government subsidies for basic health insurance for rural and nonworking urban residents from 420 to 450 yuan per person per annum and personal contributions, and will expand the scope of this insurance to cover more medicines.
财政补助 government subsidies
We will accelerate the building of a nationwide information network for basic health insurance so that healthcare costs can be settled directly where incurred. We will improve the major disease insurance system and increase insurance benefits for subscribers.
医保信息联网 information network for basic health insurance
大病保险 major disease insurance
We will launch nationwide trials to establish partnerships of different forms between medical institutions operating at different levels. All municipal-level public hospitals will be expected to participate and play a leading role in this initiative. We will establish performance evaluation and incentive mechanisms that encourage the coordinated use of quality medical resources with a view to improving the capacity of community hospitals and conveniencing people by enabling access to medical services closer to home. We will extend trials to use a tiered diagnosis and treatment model and a contracted family doctor service system to cover over 85 percent of prefectural-level cities in China.
考核和激励机制 performance evaluation and incentive mechanisms
三级公立医院 All municipal-level public hospitals
优质医疗资源 quality medical resources
分级诊疗 tiered diagnosis and treatment model
In promoting better health, we will continue to increase government subsidies for funding basic public health services and strengthen the development of the disease prevention system and the chronic disease prevention and control system. We will respond to public health accidents promptly, publicly, and effectively.
公共卫生事件 public health accidents
We will work to ensure that medical practitioners remain motivated and that interactions between doctor and patient are amicable. As the policy of allowing couples to have two children has been adopted, we need to strengthen our maternity medical and healthcare services. We will support the development of traditional Chinese medicine on the basis of law.
医务人员 medical practitioners
生育医疗保健服务 maternity medical and healthcare services
The safety of food and medicine is important to the health of our people and therefore demands regulation of the utmost rigor. With this in mind, we will improve the related regulatory system and mechanisms, and strengthen regulatory agencies on the ground. We will ensure that responsibilities are fully assumed by all those involved; and we will exercise regulation that starts with the source, place equal emphasis on regulation over production and management, and see that serious violations are severely penalized. We will be firm in doing all we can to ensure the safety of food and medicine for our people.
产管并重 place equal emphasis on regulation over production and management
重典治乱 serious violations are severely penalized
We will weave a strong safety net to ensure people’s wellbeing. We will continue raising basic pension payments and see they are paid on time and in full. Standards for benefits for entitled groups and social assistance benefits will be steadily raised, and the emergency aid system will be fully implemented. We will adjust and improve the natural disaster subsidy mechanism, and finish the rebuilding of all houses damaged during flooding last year.
退休人员基本养老金 basic pension payments
临时救助制度 emergency aid system
自然灾害生活补助机制 natural disaster subsidy mechanism
We will strengthen efforts to ensure the care and protection of children who remain in rural areas while their parents work away in the cities and provide support for children living in difficult conditions in both rural and urban areas. We will provide care and assistance to the families of military personnel and revolutionary martyrs and elderly people who live alone. We will achieve full coverage in providing living allowances for people with disabilities in financial difficulty and nursing care subsidies for people with severe disabilities.
军烈属 families of military personnel and revolutionary martyrs
County-level governments must put in place coordination mechanisms for meeting people’s most basic needs. They must make sure there is a social cushion in place, letting those in real need feel support is there and see hope up ahead. We will use a combination of legal, administrative, and economic means to continue resolving the problem of wage arrears for migrant workers, never allowing their hard work to go unpaid.
县级政府 County-level governments
建立 put in place
协调机制 coordination mechanisms
We will develop cultural programs and industries. We will foster stronger observance of socialist cultural and ethical standards, and continue to use the Chinese Dream and core socialist values to build consensus, pool energy, and strengthen our people’s confidence in Chinese culture. We will work to ensure that philosophy, the social sciences, art, and literature develop and thrive, and promote the development of the press, publishing, radio, television, film, and archiving.
凝聚共识 build consensus
汇聚力量 pool energy
We will develop new types of think tanks with distinctive Chinese features. We will implement the programs to keep fine traditional Chinese culture thriving and see that China’s cultural relics and intangible cultural heritage receive effective protection and play fuller roles. We will work hard to foster a love of reading in our people and enable them to learn more about science.
中华优秀传统文化 fine traditional Chinese culture
We will make basic public cultural services more equitable. We will speed up our work to develop cultural industries, strengthen regulation over cultural markets, and foster a healthy cyberspace environment. We will deepen personal and cultural exchanges with other countries and do more to share Chinese culture with other countries.
基本公共文化服务 basic public cultural services
中华文化走出去 share Chinese culture with other countries
We will make full preparations for the 2022 Winter Olympic Games and Paralympic Games in Beijing. We will promote coordinated development of recreational and competitive sports and sports industries, and launch extensive Fitness-for-All initiatives so that more people will enjoy sports and stay fit and healthy. When its people are healthy and optimistic, a country will certainly be full of vitality.
充满生机活力 be full of vitality
We will explore new forms of social governance. We will improve the system of primary level self-governance and strengthen community governance in both urban and rural areas. We will see that trade unions, Communist Youth League organizations, women’s federations, and other people’s organizations fully play their roles.
社会治理 social governance
工会 trade unions
共青团 Communist Youth League organizations
We will reform and improve the system for regulating social organizations, promote the healthy development of public-interest activities and charity on the basis of law, and promote specialized social work and volunteer services.
公益和慈善事业public-interest activities and charity
志愿服务 volunteer services
The legitimate rights and interests of women, children, the elderly, and people with disabilities will be effectively protected. We will move faster to improve the social credit system, and work to heighten public awareness of rule of law and strengthen legal services. We will enforce the responsibility system for handling public complaints and see that justified demands are addressed promptly and locally in accordance with law.
合法权益 legitimate rights and interests
信访 public complaints
We will continue to pursue the Peaceful China initiative, improve the multidimensional, IT-based crime prevention and control system, crack down hard on violent terrorist activities, and punish organized crime,drug-related crime, and common crimes like theft, robbery, telecommunications and online fraud, and infringement of personal information, thus upholding China’s national security and social stability.
平安中国 the Peaceful China initiative
电信网络诈骗 telecommunications and online fraud
侵犯个人信息 infringement of personal information
We will work to see that law is enforced in a strict, standardized, fair, and civil way, address prominent problems that endanger public security, and take comprehensive measures to ensure the security of our people.
突出问题 prominent problems
社会治安 public security
全方位 take comprehensive measures to
We will ensure workplace safety and protect people’s lives. We must work with tireless dedication to ensure workplace safety. We will strengthen the development of safety infrastructure, and ensure the quality of work related to seismology, meteorology, surveying, mapping, and geology.
持之以恒 work with tireless dedication
安全生产 workplace safety
安全基础设施 safety infrastructure
To curb the occurrence of serious and major accidents and protect the lives and property of our people, we will strictly enforce the workplace safety responsibility system, and see that all responsibilities are fulfilled, namely, the primary responsibility of the enterprise itself, the regulatory responsibility of the government in the locality where the enterprise is located, and the oversight responsibility of the relevant government department.
主体责任 primary responsibility
监管责任 oversight responsibility
管理责任 regulatory responsibility
We will continue to work to see that government functions are fully carried out in accordance with law. Governments at all levels and all government employees must meet every requirement for fully advancing China’s law-based governance. We must strictly observe the Constitution; we must hold the rule of law in the highest esteem; we must hold the law in reverence; we must conduct administration in accordance with law, and we must build a rule of law government.
依法 in accordance with law
依法治国 law-based governance
遵守宪法 observe the Constitution
尊崇 hold ••• in the highest esteem
敬畏 hold ••• in reverence
依法行政 conduct administration in accordance with law
建设法治政府 build a rule of law government
We will make government operations more transparent. We will ensure that policies are made in a sound and democratic way on the basis of law; and we will widely solicit input and criticism from all interested parties in policy making.
加大•••公开力度 make ••• more transparent
ensure that policies are made in a sound and democratic way on the basis of law
China is a unified country of many ethnic groups. We will uphold and improve the system of regional ethnic autonomy, fully implement the Party’s policies concerning ethnic groups, and intensify our efforts to foster ethnic unity and progress. We will make sure celebrations to mark the 70th anniversary of the founding of the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region are a great success.
统一的多民族国家 a unified country of many ethnic groups
民族区域自治制度 the system of regional ethnic autonomy
民族团结 ethnic unity
内蒙古自治区 the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region
We will increase support for development in areas inhabited mainly by ethnic minorities. We will deepen efforts to boost development in the border regions to benefit the people living there. We will protect and develop the fine traditional cultures of ethnic minorities and support the growth of ethnic groups with smaller populations. We will encourage people of all China’s ethnic groups to develop together and thrive together in the course of finishing the building of a society that is moderately prosperous in all respects.
民族地区 areas inhabited mainly by ethnic minorities
全面建成小康社会 finishing the building of a society that is moderately prosperous in all respects
With people of all our ethnic groups living together in friendship, sharing in a common cause, and developing in harmony, the big family of the Chinese nation will enjoy more happiness.
和衷共济 sharing in a common cause
We will fully implement the Party’s fundamental policy on religion, manage religious affairs in accordance with law, promote harmonious relations between religions, and encourage religious leaders and believers to actively involve themselves in promoting economic and social development.
宗教界人士和信教群众 religious leaders and believers
基本方针 fundamental policy
We will fully implement government policies related to overseas Chinese nationals, protect the legitimate rights and interests of overseas Chinese nationals, Chinese nationals who have returned from overseas, and the relatives of overseas Chinese nationals who reside in China, and ensure that they can all give full play to their unique strengths and perform their important roles. I am confident that all the sons and daughters of the Chinese nation, both in and outside China, will forge stronger bonds of attachment.
海外侨胞 Chinese nationals
归侨侨眷 Chinese nationals who have returned from overseas, and the relatives of overseas Chinese nationals who reside in China
中华儿女 all the sons and daughters of the Chinese nation
海内外 both in and outside
Last year, we achieved major breakthroughs in the reform of national defense and the armed forces and made fresh progress and new achievements in our work to make the military more revolutionary, modern, and well-structured.
军队 armed forces
取得新进展 make fresh progress and new achievements
革命化现代化正规化 more revolutionary, modern, and well-structured
This year, in pursuing the Party’s goal of strengthening the armed forces in a new era, we will work tobuild them through political work, strengthen them through reform, and ensure they are run by law. We will boost military training and preparedness, so as to ensure that the sovereignty, security, and development interests of China are resolutely and effectively safeguarded.
练兵备战 military training and preparedness
主权、安全、发展利益 the sovereignty, security, and development interests
build them through political work, strengthen them through reform, and ensure they are run by law
We will uphold the Party’s absolute leadership over the armed forces and uphold and implement the system whereby the Chairman of the Central Military Commission assumes overall responsibility over military affairs.
绝对领导 absolute leadership
维护和贯彻 uphold and implement
We will continue to deepen reforms in national defense and the armed forces. We will strengthen maritime and air defense as well as border control and ensure that important operations related to countering terrorism, safeguarding stability, international peacekeeping, and providing escort in high seas are well organized.
海空边防 maritime and air defense as well as border control
国际维和 international peacekeeping
远海护航 providing escort in high seas
We will enhance our capacity for innovation in defense-related science and technology and step up the development of advanced logistics and equipment. We will strengthen national defense education among the general public, and step up national defense mobilization and readiness of reserve forces.
自主创新能力 our capacity for innovation
全民 the general public
后备力量 reserve forces
We will continue to promote coordinated, balanced, and compatible development of the economy and national defense, deepen structural reform of defense-related science and technology industries, and intensify military-civilian integration.
军民融合 military-civilian integration
协调、平衡、兼容发展 coordinated, balanced, and compatible development
We at every level of government should take more solid and vigorous steps to support the reform and development of our national defense and armed forces. We should see that the tree of unity between the military and the government and between the military and the people continues to grow deep roots and is always in blossom.
更加扎实有力的举措 take more solid and vigorous steps
军政军民团结 unity between the military and the government and between the military and the people
We will continue to implement, both to the letter and in spirit, the principle of “one country, two systems,” under which the people of Hong Kong govern Hong Kong, the people of Macao govern Macao, and both regions enjoy a high degree of autonomy. We will continue to act in strict compliance with China’s Constitution and the basic laws of the Hong Kong and Macao special administrative regions; and we will ensure that the principle of “one country, two systems” is steadfastly applied in Hong Kong and Macao without being bent or distorted.
港人治港 the people of Hong Kong govern Hong Kong
一国两制 the principle of “one country, two systems
The chief executives and governments of the two regions have our full support in exercising law-based governance, growing their economies, improving people’s wellbeing, advancing democracy, and promoting social harmony. The notion of Hong Kong independence will lead nowhere.
没有出路 lead nowhere
依法施政 exercising law-based governance
We will promote closer cooperation between the mainland and Hong Kong and Macao. We will draw up a plan for the development of a city cluster in the Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area, give full play to the distinctive strengths of Hong Kong and Macao, and elevate their positions and roles in China’s economic development and opening up. We have always had full confidence about ensuring lasting prosperity and stability in Hong Kong and Macao.
发挥 give full play to
粤港澳大湾区城市群 city cluster in the Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area
We will thoroughly implement the policies on our work related to Taiwan, uphold the one-China principle, and safeguard the 1992 Consensus as our common political foundation. We will protect China’s sovereignty and territorial integrity, maintain the peaceful growth of cross-Straits relations, and safeguard peace and stability in the Taiwan Straits. We will resolutely oppose and deter separatist activities for Taiwan independence. We will never allow any person to separate Taiwan from the motherland in any form or name.
坚决反对和遏制 resolutely oppose and deter
以任何形式、任何名义 in any form or name
We will continue to advance integrated economic and social development between the two sides of the Straits, and make it more convenient for our fellow countrymen and women in Taiwan, particularly young people, to study, work, and live on the mainland.
经济社会融合发展 integrated economic and social development
People on both sides of the Taiwan Straits should keep in mind the greater interests of the nation, firmly advance peaceful reunification of China, and jointly create better lives and a bright future for all Chinese.
民族大义 the greater interests of the nation
In the face of profound changes in the international political and economic landscape, China will always stand on the side of peace and stability, will forever be committed to equity and justice, and will always work for world peace, contribute to global development, and uphold the international order.
深刻变化 profound changes
世界政治经济格局 the international political and economic landscape
国际秩序 the international order
We will keep to the path of peaceful development; firmly uphold the authority of the multilateral architecture and see that it works effectively; oppose protectionism in its different forms; become more involved in global governance; and steer economic globalization to see it become more inclusive, mutually beneficial, and equitable.
坚定不移走 道路 keep to the path of
坚决维护 firmly uphold
We will contribute to a framework that ensures the overall stability and balanced development of relations between major countries. We will endeavor to foster a neighboring environment that enhances mutual trust and common development between China and its neighbors, upgrade cooperation with all other developing countries in all fields, and offer constructive proposals for addressing global and regional hotspot issues.
提供建设性方案 offer constructive proposals
全球性和地区热点问题 global and regional hotspot issues
We will intensify efforts to improve our mechanisms and capacity for protecting China’s rights and interests overseas. China is ready to join hands with the international community and build a new type of international relations based on cooperation and mutual benefit and make new contributions to building a community of shared future for all humankind.
海外权益 rights and interests overseas