《中国人权法治化保障的新进展》白皮书(全文)

国务院新闻办公室12月15日发表《中国人权法治化保障的新进展》白皮书。全文如下:
中国人权法治化保障的新进展
中华人民共和国国务院新闻办公室
2017年12月
目录
前言
一、不断完善人权保障法律体系
二、依法行政保障公民合法权益
三、有效提升人权司法保障水平
四、夯实人权法治化保障的社会基础
五、加强党对人权法治化保障的领导
六、积极促进全球人权法治建设
结束语

The State Council Information Office of the People’s Republic of China published a white paper titled “New Progress in the Legal Protection of Human Rights in China” on Friday.

Following is the full text of the white paper:

New Progress in the Legal Protection of Human Rights in China

The State Council Information Office of the People’s Republic of China

December 2017

First Edition 2017

Contents

Preamble

I. Improving the Legal Framework to Ensure Human Rights

II. Promoting Law-based Administration to Protect the Citizens’ Lawful Rights and Interests

III. Effectively Enhancing Judicial Protection of Human Rights

IV. Consolidating Social Mechanisms for Legal Protection of Human Rights

V. Strengthening the CPC Leadership over Legal Protection of Human Rights

VI. Actively Promoting the Development of Global Human Rights Under the Rule of Law

Conclusion
前言
法治是人类文明进步的标志,也是人权得以实现的保障。全面依法治国,全方位提升人权保障法治化水平,保证人民享有更加充分的权利和自由,努力实现社会公平正义,更好推动人的全面发展、社会全面进步,是中国共产党、中国政府的坚定意志和不懈追求。
多年来,中国坚持依法治国基本方略,努力建设社会主义法治国家,人权法治化保障不断迈上新台阶。中共十八大以来,以习近平同志为核心的党中央,坚持以人民为中心的发展思想,从推进国家治理体系和治理能力现代化的高度,作出了全面依法治国的重大战略部署,将尊重和保障人权置于社会主义法治国家建设更加突出的位置,开启了中国人权法治化建设的新时代。
在推进全面依法治国的伟大进程中,中国将人权保障贯穿于科学立法、严格执法、公正司法、全民守法等各个环节:尊重和保障人权成为立法的一条重要原则,以宪法为核心的中国特色社会主义法律体系不断完善;依法行政深入推进,行政权力运行更加规范;深化司法改革,努力让人民群众在每一个司法案件中感受到公平正义;法治社会建设向纵深发展,全社会法治观念和人权法治保障意识显著增强;中国共产党坚持依法执政,为人权法治化保障提供了坚强保证。
经过五年来的开拓进取和改革发展,中国的人权法治化保障取得巨大成就,中国人民的各项基本权利和自由得到更加切实保障,中国特色社会主义人权发展道路越走越宽广。中国正在以前所未有的伟大实践,丰富着人类文明的多样性,为人类社会发展贡献中国智慧、提供中国方案。

Preamble

The rule of law is a symbol of human progress, and serves as the guarantee for ensuring human rights. It is the determination and ultimate goal of the Communist Party of China (CPC) and the Chinese government to fully implement law-based governance of the country, strengthen legal protection of human rights in all areas, ensure that the Chinese people fully enjoy their rights and freedoms, achieve social fairness and justice, and promote overall human development and social progress.

Over the years China has upheld the law-based governance of the country as a basic guideline, striving to put the rule of law in a socialist context and making new progress in legal protection of human rights. Since the 18th CPC National Congress, the Party’s Central Committee with Xi Jinping as its core has maintained people-oriented development. As an integral part of its effort to modernize the state governance system and capacity, it has created a strategy of fully enforcing the law-based governance of the country, giving more weight to respecting and ensuring human rights in building socialism under the rule of law, and opening a new era of legal protection of human rights in China.

In implementing the law-based governance of the country, China has upheld human rights in every link of the process, from legislation through law enforcement and judicial justice to a law-abiding society. Respecting and ensuring human rights has become an important principle in legislation, and the socialist legal system with Chinese characteristics, with the Constitution at its core, has been steadily improved. Law-based governance has been further implemented, and the exercise of administrative power has been regulated to a fuller extent. Judicial reform has been extended, with the goal of ensuring fairness and justice in every case handled. Further progress has been made in ensuring the rule of law for society, with a significant improvement in elevating public awareness in law and human rights, and the CPC, upholding law-based governance, has laid a solid foundation for legal protection of human rights.

After five years of strenuous effort in reform and development, China has made remarkable progress in law-based human rights protection. People’s basic rights and freedoms are now better protected under Chinese socialism. The undertaking of human rights protection in China has made much headway. Committed to a great and unprecedented cause, China is contributing to the diversity of human civilization and providing Chinese wisdom and solutions to promote social progress.
一、不断完善人权保障法律体系
完备的法律体系是实现人权法治化保障的前提和基础。中共十八大以来,中国更全面地构建起以宪法为核心,以法律为主干,包括行政法规、地方性法规等规范性文件在内的,由多个法律部门组成的中国特色社会主义法律体系,为保障人权夯实法制基础。
完善立法体制机制。修改立法法,加强对法规、规章和规范性文件的备案审查制度,明确规定主动审查、向审查申请人反馈及向社会公开制度,依法撤销和纠正违宪违法的法规、规章和规范性文件,保证宪法法律有效实施。2016年,立法机关对行政法规、司法解释进行备案审查37件,有重点地对地方性法规开展主动审查,处理各方面提出的审查建议92件。优化立法权配置,适应地方发展需求,赋予240个设区的市、30个自治州、4个不设区的地级市地方立法权。截至2017年10月,新获地方立法权的市(州)已制定地方性法规456件,制定地方政府规章193件。立法法明确规定,没有上位法依据,部门规章和地方政府规章不得设定减损公民、法人和其他组织权利或者增加其义务的规范,不得增加本部门的权力或者减少本部门的法定职责。将应由立法解决的重大改革措施列入立法规划,适时修改或废止不适应改革要求的法律。2013年至2017年6月,全国人大常委会依照法定程序作出17项立法授权和改革决定,确保有关改革在法制框架内依法有序推进。推进民主立法,完善立法论证、听证、法律草案公开征求意见等制度,使每一项立法反映人民意志。截至2017年10月,十二届全国人大常委会已74次就法律草案公开征求意见。其中,就民法总则草案进行3次审议,3次向社会公开征求意见,组织数十场专家咨询会,共收到15422人次提出的70227条意见;收到针对刑法修正案(九)草案二次审议稿的意见达11万多条。
制定民法总则更加充分保障公民权益。十二届全国人大五次会议审议通过民法总则确立了保护权利的立法目的,明确了平等、自愿、公平、诚信等基本原则,彰显了意思自治和权益保护,体现出对个人全面保护、维护人的价值、保障人的发展条件的立法追求。强化了对财产权的保护,明确规定“民事主体的财产权利受法律平等保护”,将物权法中的物权平等保护扩展到所有财产权的平等保护。加大对特定主体民事权利的保护,更好地保护未成年人的利益,将老年人纳入监护制度保护范围。构建完整的民事权利体系,明确规定隐私权受法律保护,强化对个人信息、数据和网络虚拟财产等的保护。
完善经济、社会和文化权利领域立法。明确税种的设立,税率的确定和税收征收管理等税收基本制度只能由法律规定。修改就业促进法、劳动合同法、安全生产法、职业病防治法,保障劳动者的合法权益。制定中医药法,修改食品安全法,提升人民群众健康权保障水平。修改人口与计划生育法,落实“全面两孩”政策,提倡一对夫妻生育两个子女。制定公共文化服务保障法和电影产业促进法,丰富公共文化服务内容,推进基本公共文化服务标准化、均等化,保障人民群众文化权益。修改教育法,促进教育公平,推动教育均衡发展,加快普及学前教育,构建覆盖城乡特别是农村的学前教育公共服务体系,更好保障公民受教育权。制定《居住证暂行条例》,推进城镇基本公共服务和便利常住人口全覆盖。全面修订环境保护法、大气污染防治法、野生动物保护法,修改海洋环境保护法、水污染防治法、环境影响评价法、固体废物污染环境防治法,制定环境保护税法,强化环境监管和责任追究,完善环境保护公益诉讼制度,保障公民的环境知情权、参与权和监督权。制定《不动产登记暂行条例》,明确各类不动产实行统一登记,有效保障不动产交易安全,保护不动产权利人合法财产权。修改消费者权益保护法,明确保护消费者个人信息,加大经营者欺诈赔偿责任,重点规制不公平格式条款,保护消费者合法权益。制定境外非政府组织境内活动管理法,促进境外非政府组织在中国境内依法开展交流与合作。制定慈善法,加强慈善组织、慈善活动监管,规范慈善财产使用,促进慈善事业发展,保障慈善组织、捐赠人、志愿者、受益人等慈善活动参与者的合法权益。
健全公民及政治权利领域立法。修改刑法,取消9个死刑罪名,提高对死缓罪犯执行死刑的门槛。修改民事诉讼法,明确检察机关可以提起民事公益诉讼。修改行政诉讼法,完善行政审判体制,扩大行政诉讼受案范围,放宽行政诉讼原告和第三人资格限制,加大对行政审判的监督和法院裁判的执行力度,保护行政诉讼当事人合法权益。全国人大常委会通过《关于废止有关劳动教养法律规定的决定》,废止劳动教养制度。实施宪法规定的特赦制度,对4类部分服刑罪犯实行特赦,彰显全面依法治国和人道主义精神。制定国家安全法、国家情报法、反间谍法、反恐怖主义法、网络安全法、核安全法等一系列法律,国务院及有关部门密集出台有关网络安全方面的行政法规、规章,最高人民法院、最高人民检察院制定《关于办理利用信息网络实施诽谤等刑事案件适用法律若干问题的解释》等司法解释,为维护国家安全、公共安全和公民人身财产安全提供坚实的法制保障。
加强特定群体权利保障立法。制定反家庭暴力法,设立公安告诫、人身安全保护令和强制报告等制度,明确加害人法律责任及追究程序,切实保护家庭暴力受害人特别是未成年人、老年人、残疾人、孕期和哺乳期妇女、重病患者的合法权益。修改刑法,加大对拐卖妇女儿童犯罪收买方的刑事处罚力度,将收买被拐卖妇女儿童的行为一律纳入刑事责任追究范围;明确规定,虐待被监护、看护的未成年人、老年人、患病的人、残疾人,情节恶劣的,追究刑事责任。制定《校车安全管理条例》,保障学生人身安全。制定、修改《无障碍环境建设条例》《残疾预防和残疾人康复条例》《残疾人教育条例》等,完善残疾人权益保障。探索建立法规政策性别平等评估机制,截至2017年6月,全国已有27个省(区、市)建立了此类机制。

I. Improving the Legal Framework to Ensure Human Rights

A complete system of laws is the precondition and the basis for realizing legal protection of human rights. Since the 18th CPC National Congress, China has, to a fuller extent, established the Chinese socialist legal system with the Constitution at the core, the laws as the main body, including administrative and local regulations, and various law-related departments, thus laying a solid legal foundation for ensuring human rights.

Improving legislative systems and mechanisms. China has revised the Legislation Law, and strengthened the systems for documenting and reviewing regulations, rules, and other normative documents. There is a clear provision that relevant bodies must take the initiative in reviewing normative documents, send feedback to those who request to have the documents reviewed, and release the results to the public. China has rescinded and corrected laws, regulations and normative documents which conflicted with the Constitution or laws, so that there is no impediment to the functioning of the Constitution and other laws. In 2016 legislative bodies reviewed and put on record 37 administrative regulations and judicial interpretations, reviewed local regulations in targeted areas, and handled 92 requests to review such documents.

China has improved the allocation of legislative power in the context of local development, and accorded local legislative powers to 240 cities with districts, 30 autonomous prefectures, and 4 prefecture-level cities. By October 2017 the cities and prefectures with newly accorded legislative powers had issued 456 local regulations and 193 government rules. It is stipulated in the Legislation Law that rules and regulations made by a department or local government, if not based on laws enacted by upper levels, must not impair the rights of citizens, legal persons, and other organizations, or increase the scope of their obligations, and must not increase the power of that department or reduce that department’ s duties prescribed by law.

China has included in its legislation program major reform measures that need to be addressed through legislative procedure, and has revised or abolished laws that fell out of pace with reform. From 2013 to June 2017, the Standing Committee of the National People’s Congress (NPC) made 17 legislation authorizations and reform decisions in accordance with legal procedures, ensuring that relevant reforms proceed in an orderly manner within the legal framework.

China has improved its legislative process, including procedures such as discussions, hearings, and soliciting public opinion on draft laws, so that the laws reflect the people’s will. By October 2017 the 12th NPC Standing Committee had solicited public opinion on draft laws on 74 occasions. For the draft General Provisions of Civil Law alone, the Standing Committee held three deliberation sessions, sought public opinion on three occasions and organized several dozen expert meetings, and received 70,227 suggestions from 15,422 people. When deliberating on the second reading draft of Amendment (IX) to the Criminal Law, the Committee received more than 110,000 suggestions from the public.

Fully protecting the citizens’ rights and interests by enacting the General Provisions of Civil Law. Adopted at the Fifth Session of the 12th NPC, the General Provisions of Civil Law, developed with the purpose of protecting people’s rights, offer clear provisions on the basic principles of equality, free will, fairness, and honesty, give prominence to autonomy of will and protection of rights and interests, and reflect the legislators’ intention of giving full protection to the person, upholding the value of the individual, and ensuring personal development. The Provisions have strengthened protection of property rights, stipulating that the “property rights of civil subjects are equally protected by law”, through which the equal protection of real rights in Property Law is expanded to equal protection of all property rights. The Provisions have strengthened protection of the civil rights of specific subjects, and in particular of the rights and interests of minors, and have included senior citizens in the guardianship system. By enacting the Provisions China has established a complete civil rights system, with clear stipulations that privacy rights are protected by law, and strengthened the protection of personal information, data, and virtual assets online.

Improving legislation on economic, social and cultural rights. It has been made clear that tax categories, tax rates, tax collection and management, and other basic taxation systems can only be set and defined by law. To protect the legitimate rights and interests of workers, China has revised the Employment Promotion Law, the Labor Contract Law, the Law on Production Safety, and the Law on the Prevention and Control of Occupational Disease. To enhance protection of people’s health, it has promulgated the Law on Traditional Chinese Medicine and revised the Food Safety Law. China has revised the Law on Population and Family Planning, now encouraging all couples to have two children. China has enacted the Law on Ensuring Public Cultural Services and the Film Industry Promotion Law, in an effort to enrich public cultural services, standardize these services and make them more equally available, and ensure the people’ s cultural rights. To protect its citizens’ right to education, China has revised the Education Law to promote equality and balanced development of education, accelerate expansion of the scope of preschool education, and build a public service network for preschool education that covers the whole country, especially rural areas. With the promulgation of the Interim Regulations on Residence Permit, all permanent residents in cities and towns are covered by basic public services and are able to enjoy access to urban infrastructure. Some other laws that have been amended or revised include the laws on environmental protection, prevention and control of air pollution, protection of wild animals, marine environmental protection, prevention and control of water pollution, environmental impact assessment, and prevention and control of environmental pollution caused by solid wastes. To strengthen environmental supervision and accountability, improve public interest litigation on environmental protection, and ensure citizens’ right to know about, participate in and oversee environment-related issues, China has enacted the Law on Environmental Protection Tax. To register all types of real estate, ensure transaction security, and protect the legitimate property rights of owners of the immovable, China has promulgated the Interim Regulations on Real Estate Registration. In order to protect the personal information of consumers, increase the liability for damage caused by fraud on the part of business operators, regulate unfair terms in contracts prepared by operators, and protect the legitimate rights and interests of consumers, China has revised the Law on the Protection of Consumer Rights and Interests. To promote exchanges and cooperation involving overseas non-governmental organizations in China, China has enacted the Law on the Administration of Activities of Overseas Non-Governmental Organizations Within the Territory of People’s Republic of China. And to strengthen supervision over charity organizations and charity activities, regulate the use of charity property, promote the development of charity in China, and protect the legitimate rights and interests of charity organizations, donors, volunteers, beneficiaries, and other participants in charity activities, China has promulgated the Charity Law.

Improving legislation on civil and political rights. China has revised the Criminal Law, abolishing nine death penalty charges and raising the bar on executing convicts that have received a death sentence with a two-year reprieve; revised the Civil Procedure Law, allowing procuratorial organs to lodge civil public interest lawsuits; and revised the Administrative Procedure Law, to improve the administrative adjudication system, expand the scope of accepting administrative litigation cases, relax restrictions on the qualification of plaintiffs in administrative litigation and third parties, strengthen supervision over administrative adjudication and enforcement of court rulings, and protect the legitimate rights and interests of parties in administrative proceedings. The Standing Committee of the NPC passed the Decision on Annulment of the Regulations on Education Through Labor, putting an end to this sanction. To implement the rule of law and promote humanitarianism, China has implemented the amnesty system stipulated in the Constitution, and granted amnesty for four types of criminals. China has promulgated the National Security Law, National Intelligence Law, Counter-Espionage Law, Counter-Terrorism Law, Cyber Security Law, and Nuclear Security Law. The central government, also known as the State Council, and relevant departments have issued a series of administrative regulations on cyber security; the Supreme People’s Court and the Supreme People’s Procuratorate issued the “Interpretation on Several Issues Regarding the Applicable Law in Cases of Using Information Networks to Commit Defamation and Other Such Crimes” and other judicial interpretations, providing a solid legal basis for safeguarding national security, public security, and personal and property security.

Strengthening legislation on ensuring the rights of special groups. China has enacted the Anti-Domestic Violence Law, and set up systems such as written admonition, personal safety protection writ, and compulsory report, making clear the legal liabilities of the perpetrators and the procedure of investigation in order to effectively protect the legitimate rights and interests of victims of domestic violence, particularly minors, the elderly, the disabled, pregnant and lactating women, and the seriously ill. China has revised the Criminal Law, increasing criminal punishment for buyers of abducted women and children, and has criminalized such acts. It is clearly stipulated that anyone who maltreats a minor, an elderly person, a sick person, or a disabled person, for whose support they are responsible, will be held criminally liable if the case is serious. China has formulated the Regulations on School Bus Safety to ensure students’ personal safety; and enacted and revised the Regulations on Building an Accessible Environment, Regulations on Disability Prevention and Rehabilitation, and Regulations on Education for Persons with Disability, to enhance protection of the rights of disabled persons. A gender equality evaluation mechanism for laws and policies had been set up in 27 provinces and equivalent administrative units by June 2017.
二、依法行政保障公民合法权益
依法行政,建设法治政府,是人权法治化保障的重要环节。中共十八大以来,中国推进政府职权法定化,严格规范行政执法,强化对行政权力的制约和监督,全面实施《法治政府建设实施纲要(2015-2020年)》,有效维护广大人民群众合法权益。
依法明确行政权力边界。职权法定是依法行政的前提。国家加快推进行政机构、职能、权限、程序、责任法定化,禁止行政机关法外设定权力,把权力关进制度的笼子。深入推进行政审批制度改革,中共十八大以来,国务院部门累计取消行政审批事项618项,彻底清除非行政许可审批,中央指定地方实施行政许可事项目录清单取消269项,国务院行政审批中介服务清单取消320项,国务院部门设置的职业资格许可和认定事项削减比例达70%以上,3次修订政府核准的投资项目目录,中央层面核准的投资项目数量累计减少90%。实施权力清单、责任清单制度,将政府职能、法律依据、职责权限等内容以权力清单的形式向社会公开,截至2016年,全国31个省级政府部门均已公布权力清单。加强规范性文件监督管理,行政机关规范性文件不得设定行政许可、行政处罚、行政强制,各类行政法规、规章和规范性文件都已纳入备案审查范围,实现“有件必备,有备必审,有错必究”。
依法约束行政权力行使。建立权责统一、权威高效的行政执法体制。推进行政执法体制改革,在食品药品安全、工商质检、公共卫生、安全生产、资源环境、交通运输、城乡建设等领域进一步推行综合执法。完善行政执法程序,探索建立行政裁量基准制度。开展行政执法公示制度、执法全过程记录制度、重大执法决定法制审核制度试点。创新行政执法方式,推广说服教育、劝导示范、行政指导、行政奖励等非强制性执法手段。规范执法言行,推行人性化执法、柔性执法、阳光执法。实行行政执法人员持证上岗和资格管理制度。发布《关于深化公安执法规范化建设的意见》,全面建设法治公安,进一步细化公安执法标准和指引,完善执法监督管理体系,健全依法决策机制。截至2017年上半年,全国公安机关共有227.02万人次民警取得基本级执法资格,135.03万人次民警取得中级执法资格,4.08万人次民警取得高级执法资格。全方位开展审计工作,积极推进对公共资金、国有资产、国有资源和领导干部履行经济责任情况的审计全覆盖,定期向社会公告审计结果,充分发挥审计监督约束行政权力运行的作用。加大行政问责力度,推进责任政府建设,普遍建立行政机关内部重大决策合法性审查机制,探索建立和实施重大决策终身责任追究制度及责任倒查机制,按照“谁决策、谁负责”的原则,对超越权限、违反程序决策造成重大损失的,严肃追究决策者责任。实施《党政领导干部生态环境损害责任追究办法(试行)》,对25种党政领导干部生态环境损害情形实行党政同责、终身追责,提高各级领导干部保护自然生态和环境权利的责任意识。
依法保障公民在行政决策中的参与权。优化决策程序,把公众参与、专家论证、风险评估、合法性审查、集体讨论决定确定为重大行政决策法定程序。推行政府法律顾问制度和公职律师制度,推动县级以上各级党政机关普遍设立法律顾问、公职律师,为重大决策、重大行政行为提供法律意见。探索建立行政决策咨询论证专家库,对专业性、技术性较强的决策事项组织专家、专业机构进行论证,提高依法行政的能力水平。有关部门在规范网约车、快递行业等民生领域事项决策过程中广泛征求各方意见,统筹兼顾不同群体的利益诉求。
依法保障公民对行政权力的监督权。以政府信息公开条例为依据,坚持以公开为常态,不公开为例外原则,重点推进行政审批、财政预决算、保障性住房、食品药品安全、征地拆迁等领域的信息公开。创新政务公开方式,加强互联网政务信息数据服务平台和便民服务平台建设,提高政务公开信息化、集中化水平,增强公民获取信息的便捷性,126个政府单位政务网站完成了无障碍改造。建立对行政机关违法行政行为投诉举报登记制度,畅通举报邮箱、电子信箱、热线电话等监督渠道。发挥报刊、广播、电视等传统媒体监督作用,运用和规范网络监督。
依法治理侵犯公民生命健康财产权利的突出问题。对环境污染采取零容忍,依法清理“散乱污”企业、关停整改违法排污企业。在餐饮业实施“明厨亮灶”,加强稽查执法。在安全生产领域强化监管执法,不间断开展明查暗访、突击检查、随机抽查,全面排查各类风险隐患。集中打击电信网络诈骗犯罪,公安部、工业和信息化部等23个部门和单位建立打击治理电信网络新型违法犯罪工作部际联席会议制度,最高人民法院、最高人民检察院、公安部等部门联合发布《关于防范和打击电信网络诈骗犯罪的通告》,坚持侦查打击、重点整治、防范治理三管齐下,不断完善相关执法制度,有效遏制案发态势,维护了人民群众的生命财产安全。加强和创新社会治理,把社会治安专项治理与系统治理、综合治理、依法治理、源头治理结合起来,解决了一批影响社会治安的突出问题,人民群众安全感进一步增强。

II. Promoting Law-based Administration to Protect the Citizens’ Lawful Rights and Interests

Law-based administration is important in legal protection of human rights. Since the 18th CPC National Congress in 2012, China has made it clear that all government functions and powers must be provided for in the law, strictly regulated the administrative enforcement of law, strengthened checks and scrutiny over government power, and put into effect the “Implementation Outline for Building a Law-based Government (2015-2020)”, thereby effectively protecting the people’s legitimate rights and interests.

Delimiting administrative power in accordance with the law. That all government functions and powers are provided for in the law is the prerequisite for law-based administration. The state has accelerated the process of defining in law the administrative structure and its functions, powers, procedures and responsibilities, prohibited administrative organs from expanding power beyond the law, and confined the exercise of power in an institutional “cage.”

China is also pressing ahead with the reform of administrative approval. Since the 18th CPC National Congress, the State Council departments have canceled the requirement for administrative approval on 618 items and put an end to the practice of non-administrative approval, and 269 items designated by the central government for local government approvals and accreditations have been annulled. The State Council has removed 320 intermediary services from administrative approval, and cut off over 70 percent of professional qualification approvals and accreditations set by its departments. The investment catalogue for government approval has been revised three times, by means of which the number of investment items requiring central government approval has fallen by 90 percent.

China has implemented the system of power or responsibility list, through which the public can obtain information about government functions, duties and powers, and their legal basis. By 2016, 31 provincial-level governments had published such lists.

The Chinese government has strengthened the supervision and management of normative documents. Normative documents issued by government organs should not set items for administrative permission, punishment or coercion. All administrative regulations and normative documents must be filed for record and examined, and mistakes, if any, must be investigated.

Checking in accordance with the law the exercise of administrative power. China aims to establish an authoritative and efficient administrative law enforcement system in which power is consistent with responsibility.

The Chinese government has accelerated the reform of the administrative law enforcement system, and further promoted synthesized law enforcement in fields such as food and drug safety, industrial and commercial quality inspection, public health, workplace safety, resource and environment protection, traffic and transport, and urban and rural construction.

It has improved the administrative law enforcement procedure, and explored the means to establish a benchmark system for discretion in enforcement. In some areas China has conducted three experiments: disclosing information concerning administrative law enforcement, recording the whole enforcement process, and reviewing the legality of major enforcement decisions.

The government has tried out innovative enforcement methods, and widespread non-coercive ones, including persuasion, teaching, citing good examples, and administrative guidance and rewards. It has regulated words and conduct of law-enforcement personnel, and required them to be flexible, reasonable and open in their approach to enforcement. It has established a qualification system for enforcement personnel and prohibited anyone without the required license from serving.

In order to make full progress in building a law-abiding public security system, the Chinese government issued the “Decisions on Further Regulating the Public Security Departments in Law Enforcement”, established more detailed law-enforcement standards and guidance, improved the supervision and management system, and amplified the law-based decision-making mechanism. By the end of June 2017, 2.27 million police officers all over the country had basic level certification for law enforcement, 1.35 million had obtained mid-level certification, and almost 41,000 had gained upper-level certification.

China has expanded the auditing of all aspects of government affairs, especially in areas like public funds, state property, national resources, and how officials in leading positions fulfill economic duties. It has published the audit results regularly, so as to give a full play to the role of audit in scrutinizing and checking the exercise of power.

The Chinese government has strengthened the accountability investigation for administrative errors. To build a responsible government, it has set up a mechanism of internal legitimacy review of major decisions, and explored the means to establish and implement a lifelong liability accounting system for major decisions and a retrospective mechanism to hold people accountable for wrong decisions. Abiding by the principle that the decision-maker assumes the responsibility, anyone who causes heavy losses by exceeding his/her competence or infringing the decision-making procedure must be held accountable.

In order to raise officials’ awareness of responsibilities for protecting the ecological system and people’s environmental rights, the Measures for Liability Investigation of Party and Government Officials for Damage to Ecological Environment (trial) stipulate that both senior Party officials and leading government officials will have lifelong accountability for 25 specified types of damage to the ecological environment.

Safeguarding in accordance with the law the citizens’ right to participate in administrative decision making. The government has improved decision-making procedures, which define public participation, expert evaluation, risk assessment, legality review, and collective discussion and decision as the legal procedures for making major administrative decisions.

The central government has encouraged local governments at or above the county level to employ legal advisers and lawyers to provide legal opinions for major administrative decisions and actions.

China has also explored to set up a consulting expert database for administrative decisions. The governments invite experts and specialized institutes to discuss on those decision matters of strong professional or technological nature, so as to increase their capabilities in law-based administration.

When making decisions on people’s livelihood like E-hailing and express delivery services, the related departments of the Chinese government solicited opinions from a wide range of circles to balance the interests and requests of different groups.

Protecting in accordance with the law the citizens’ right to scrutinize the exercise of administrative power. In the context of the Regulations on the Disclosure of Government Information and adhering to the principle that information is to be withheld only in exceptional circumstances, the government prioritizes for information disclosure in such fields as administrative approval, fiscal budget and final accounts, basic need housing, food and drug safety, land requisition and resettlement of displaced residents.

New channels of disclosure have been created. The government has improved online government information services and online administrative services, giving a greater role to IT in the disclosure of government information and making public access to such information more convenient. The websites of 126 government departments have been upgraded for the benefit of people with disabilities.

The government has set up a registration system that allows complaints and reports of illegal conduct by administrative departments to be made via mail, email, hotlines and other channels of supervision. It also attaches importance to the supervisory role of traditional media like newspapers, periodicals, broadcasters and television, and regulates and accepts online oversight.

Tackling in accordance with the law the serious issues that infringe the citizens’ rights of life, health and property. The government takes a zero-tolerance attitude toward environmental pollution. In accordance with the law, the government has closed or rectified small, poorly-managed and heavily-polluting enterprises, and enterprises that illegally discharge pollutants.

The government has strengthened inspection and law enforcement in the catering industry, encouraging open restaurant kitchens.

In order to ensure workplace safety, the government has enhanced supervisory inspections to seek out hidden hazards and dangers through regular open and secret visits, unannounced investigations, and random checks.

China prioritizes the fight against telemarketing scams and internet fraud. The Ministry of Public Security, the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology, and other 21 ministries and institutions have established an interdepartmental meeting mechanism on fighting new forms of telemarketing scams and internet fraud, and the Supreme People’s Court, the Supreme People’s Procuratorate, the Ministry of Public Security, and several other departments have jointly issued the “Notice on Deterring and Combating Crimes of Telemarketing Scams and Internet Fraud”. Through investigation, punishment and prevention of crimes, the related departments have improved the relevant law-enforcement mechanisms, stopped the spread of such crimes, and safeguarded the people’s security and property.

The government has strengthened social governance and fostered innovation in this regard. By strengthening and innovating governance of a safe society, integrating such governance with the systemic, comprehensive and law-based governance, and addressing the root causes of problems, China has resolved a number of serious problems that threatened the social peace and order. The public’s sense of security has been further reinforced.
三、有效提升人权司法保障水平
司法是人权保障的重要防线。中共十八大以来,中国坚持司法为民,将惩治犯罪与保障人权相统一,坚定不移推进司法体制改革,不断发展和完善中国特色社会主义司法制度,努力让人民群众在每一个司法案件中都感受到公平正义。
确保审判权检察权依法独立公正行使。全面落实司法责任制改革,健全司法人员分类管理制度,全面推开员额制改革,全国法官人数从19.88万人精简到12万人,检察官人数从15.8万人精简到8.6万人,司法人员正规化、专业化、职业化水平进一步提升。让审理者裁判,由裁判者负责,法官和检察官在职责范围内对案件质量终身负责。在严格落实司法责任制基础上,建立起符合司法人员职业特点的职业保障制度。健全司法人员依法履职保护机制,明确法官、检察官依法办理案件不受行政机关、社会团体和个人的干涉。推动省以下地方法院、检察院人财物省级统管,设立最高人民法院巡回法庭和跨行政区划法院、检察院,推进行政案件跨行政区划集中管辖。权责明晰、监管有效、保障有力的司法权运行机制不断完善。
推进以审判为中心的刑事诉讼制度改革。明确刑事诉讼各阶段的基本证据标准,做到案件事实证据经得起法律检验,确保无罪的人不受刑事追究,有罪的人受到公正惩罚。发布《关于推进以审判为中心的刑事诉讼制度改革的意见》及其实施意见,推进以审判为中心的刑事诉讼制度改革,严格贯彻罪刑法定、证据裁判、非法证据排除等法律原则,确保审判程序合法化、正当化,保证庭审在查明事实、认定证据、保护诉权、公正裁判中发挥决定性作用。坚持繁简分流,区别对待,在北京等18个城市开展刑事速裁程序改革试点,从2014年试点以来,试点法院速裁案件超过90%立案后10日内审结,被告人上诉率仅为2%,审判效果和诉讼效率明显提升,当事人权利得到有效保护。在这一试点基础上,进一步开展认罪认罚从宽制度改革试点,对于犯罪嫌疑人、被告人自愿认罪、自愿接受处罚、积极退赃退赔的,依法从宽处理,在提高诉讼效率的同时,有效减少社会对抗,及时修复社会关系。
保障人民群众诉讼权益。人民法院改立案审查制为立案登记制,切实做到有案必立、有诉必理,充分保障当事人的诉权。各级法院自2015年5月实施立案登记制以来,当场登记立案率保持在95%以上,截至2017年9月,登记立案数量超过3900万件。公安部发布《关于改革完善受案立案制度的意见》,规定对于群众报案、控告、举报、扭送,违法犯罪嫌疑人投案,以及上级机关交办或者其他机关移送的案件,属于公安机关管辖的,公安机关必须接受,不得推诿。截至2017年6月,全国省级公安机关都已出台受案、立案改革实施意见,18个省级公安机关增设了案管机构,使受案立案工作更加规范、高效、便民、公开。
坚持非法证据排除规则。严格落实刑事诉讼法关于非法证据排除规则的规定,进一步明确需要进行录音录像的案件范围、录制要求等,检察机关和公安机关在讯问职务犯罪案件,可能判处无期徒刑、死刑的案件,以及其他重大犯罪案件的嫌疑人时实行全程同步录音录像,规范侦查讯问活动。发布实施《关于办理刑事案件严格排除非法证据若干问题的规定》,进一步明确了刑事诉讼各环节非法证据的认定标准和排除程序,将以威胁、非法限制人身自由方法收集的证据纳入非法证据排除规则的适用对象,确立了重复性排除规则,强化了辩护人的非法证据排除权,明确了庭前会议对证据收集是否合法的初步审查功能,明确了非法获取的证人证言和被害人陈述以及实物证据的排除规则和当庭裁决原则。2013年以来,各级检察机关因排除非法证据决定不批捕2624人,不起诉870人。
防范和纠正冤假错案。公安部发布《关于进一步加强和改进刑事执法办案工作切实防止发生冤假错案的通知》等文件,深化错案预防机制制度建设,完善执法制度和办案标准,强化案件审核把关,规范考评奖惩,从源头上防止冤假错案的发生。司法部发布《关于进一步发挥司法鉴定制度作用防止冤假错案的意见》,全面加强司法鉴定管理,进一步规范司法鉴定活动。最高人民检察院发布《关于切实履行检察职能防止和纠正冤假错案的若干意见》,严把事实关、程序关和法律适用关,健全检察环节错案发现、纠正、防范和责任追究机制。最高人民法院发布《关于建立健全防范刑事冤假错案工作机制的意见》,规定对定罪证据不足的案件应当依法宣告被告人无罪,确保无罪的人不受刑事追究。各级法院依据事实和法律公正审判,并对冤假错案进行依法纠正。2013年至2017年,各级法院纠正重大冤假错案37件61人,共依法宣告4032名被告人无罪。
保障律师执业权利。律师执业权利保障水平,关系到当事人权利能否得到有效维护,关系到法律能否得到准确实施。中国制定或修改了多部法律法规和文件,律师的执业权利正在得到越来越充分的尊重和保障。发布《关于深化律师制度改革的意见》《关于依法保障律师执业权利的规定》《关于建立健全维护律师执业权利快速联动处置机制的通知》《关于进一步做好保障律师执业权利相关工作的通知》《关于开展刑事案件律师辩护全覆盖试点工作的办法》等,对律师执业权利保障规定了多层次的措施,着力解决当前律师权利保障中存在的突出问题,进一步明确了各部门对律师执业权利和人身权利的保障职责。最高人民法院开通律师服务平台,实现网上立案、网上阅卷、联系法官等功能,为律师行使执业权利提供便利条件。2013年以来,各级检察机关监督纠正有关机关及其办案人员阻碍律师依法执业的案件6542件。截至2017年3月,31个省级律师协会维权中心全部建成,大部分设区的市建立了维权中心,基本实现全覆盖。截至2017年8月,律师人数已达33万多人,律师事务所发展到2.6万多家。全国律师每年办理诉讼案件330多万件,办理非诉讼法律事务100多万件,年均承办法律援助案件50多万件,提供公益法律服务230多万件次,担任法律顾问50多万家。
保障犯罪嫌疑人、被告人、服刑人合法权利。完善对在押犯罪嫌疑人、被告人强制措施的解除和变更程序,减少羁押性强制措施适用,各级检察机关对不构成犯罪或证据不足的,依法决定不批捕或不起诉,对认为确有错误的刑事裁判依法提出抗诉。2012年至2016年,全国检察机关对不需要继续羁押的12552名犯罪嫌疑人建议释放或者变更强制措施。2016年,各级检察机关对侦查机关不应当立案而立案的,督促撤案10661件;监督纠正违法取证、违法适用强制措施等侦查活动违法情形34230件;对不构成犯罪或证据不足的,不批准逮捕132081人,不起诉26670人;对认为确有错误的刑事裁判提出抗诉7185件。改善羁押和监管条件,加强看守所和监狱的建设和管理,保障被羁押人、服刑人的人身安全和其他合法权利不受侵犯。截至2017年6月,全国看守所普遍建立被羁押人心理咨询室,有2501个看守所实现留所服刑罪犯互联网双向视频会见;全国2400多个看守所建立了法律援助工作站,为在押人员提供法律帮助。截至2016年,全国看守所均建立了在押人员投诉处理机制,有2489个看守所聘请了特邀监督员。完善刑罚执行制度,健全社区矫正制度。截至2017年6月,各地累计接收社区矫正对象343.6万人,累计解除社区矫正273.6万人,现有社区矫正对象70万人。全国共建立县(区)社区矫正中心2075个。现有社区服务基地25278个,教育基地9373个,就业基地8272个,社区矫正小组68.7万个。社区矫正对象在矫正期间的重新违法犯罪率为0.2%。
完善法律援助制度。加强刑事法律援助工作,落实刑事诉讼法及相关配套法规制度关于法律援助范围的规定,建立法律援助参与刑事和解、死刑复核案件办理工作机制和法律援助值班律师制度,健全依申请法律援助工作机制、办案机关通知辩护工作机制及法律援助参与刑事案件速裁程序试点工作机制,依法为更多的刑事诉讼当事人提供法律援助。扩大民事、行政法律援助覆盖面,与民生紧密相关的事项逐步纳入法律援助补充事项范围。放宽经济困难标准,法律援助门槛进一步降低,惠及更多困难群众。完善法律援助便民服务机制,努力实现法律援助咨询服务全覆盖,推进法律援助标准化建设。2013年至2016年,全国法律援助经费总额达到73亿元,共办理法律援助案件500余万件,受援群众超过557万人,提供法律咨询超过2800万人次。
强化未成年人刑事司法保护。坚持对犯罪的未成年人实行教育、感化、挽救的方针,实施判处五年有期徒刑以下的未成年人犯罪记录封存等制度。最高人民检察院成立未成年人检察工作办公室,截至2016年11月,全国有24个省级检察院、192个市级检察院、1024个基层检察院成立未成年人检察专门机构。推进少年法庭建设,截至2017年6月,全国共有少年法庭2200余个,少年法庭法官7000多名。近年来,未成年人重新犯罪率基本控制在1%-3%,未成年人罪犯数和犯罪案件数整体呈下降趋势。
完善国家赔偿制度和司法救助制度。出台《关于办理刑事赔偿案件适用法律若干问题的解释》,发布国家赔偿指导性案例,完善赔偿案件质证程序,规范精神损害抚慰金裁量标准。2013年至2017年6月,各级法院受理国家赔偿案件20027件。加强和规范国家救助工作,统一案件受理、救助范围、救助程序、救助标准、经费保障、资金方法,实现“救助制度法治化、救助案件司法化”。最高人民法院设立司法救助委员会,各级法院也相继成立司法救助委员会。2014年、2015年、2016年,中央与地方安排的救助资金总额分别为24.7亿元、29.4亿元、26.6亿元,共有26.8万余名当事人得到司法救助。
有效破解“执行难”。建立并运行覆盖全国法院的执行指挥系统和网络执行查控系统,健全联合信用惩戒体系,出台网络司法拍卖等涉执行司法解释和规范文件,案件执行质效显著提升。发布《关于加快推进失信被执行人信用监督、警示和惩戒机制建设的意见》,规定37项惩治“老赖”措施。完善包括先予执行在内的执行工作机制,切实有效缓解当事人困难。开展涉民生案件专项集中执行活动,着重执行涉及人民群众生存生活的追索劳动报酬、农民工工资、赡养费、抚养费等9类案件。2016年,全国法院共受理执行案件614.9万件,执结507.9万件,同比上升均超过三成;执行到位金额1.5万亿元,同比增加五成以上。
大力推进司法公开。人民法院建设审判流程公开、庭审活动公开、裁判文书公开、执行信息公开四大平台。截至2017年10月16日,中国审判流程信息公开网累计公开案件信息项83.3万项,访问量达253万次;截至2017年11月3日,各级法院通过中国庭审公开网直播庭审40.4万件,观看量达到30.1亿人次,全国共有3187家法院接入中国庭审公开网,覆盖率达90.43%;2013年7月,中国裁判文书网上线,截至2017年11月3日,公开裁判文书3634万份,访问量114亿次,访问范围覆盖210多个国家和地区;截至2017年9月30日,中国执行信息公开网累计公布失信被执行人861万人次,被执行人信息4509万条。检察机关建成案件信息公开系统,运行案件程序性信息查询、法律文书公开、重要案件信息发布和辩护与代理预约申请等四大平台,全面落实行贿犯罪档案公开查询,推行刑事诉讼案件公开听证。发布《关于进一步深化狱务公开的意见》,创新公开方式,深化公开内容,依法公开罪犯减刑、假释提请建议和暂予监外执行决定。
完善人民陪审员、人民监督员制度。发布《人民陪审员制度改革试点方案》和《深化人民监督员制度改革方案》,改革选任办法,扩大陪审案件、监督案件的范围,充分发挥人民陪审员、人民监督员作用。2016年,全国人民陪审员共参审案件306.6万件。人民监督员制度改革试点深入推进,截至2017年6月,共选任人民监督员2.1万余人。全国各级检察机关积极组织案件监督,完善监督评议程序,建立职务犯罪案件台账,建设人民监督员评议厅。2014年9月到2017年7月,各级检察机关接受人民监督员监督评议的案件共7491件,监督评议后人民监督员不同意检察机关拟处理意见的247件,检察机关采纳76件,采纳率30.8%。
运用现代科技促进公正审判。适应互联网业态发展,设立互联网法院。“智慧法院”建设全面推进,运用大数据、云计算等信息网络技术对各类审判信息资源进行规范化管理和统计分析,统一裁判尺度特别是刑事证据标准,促进类案同判和量刑规范化,防范冤假错案发生,保障当事人获得公正审判。推进“互联网+诉讼服务”建设,开展网上立案、在线调解、远程庭审、电子送达、网上公开等司法便民服务措施。开通“法信——中国法律应用数字网络服务平台”,为法官、律师提供法律文件检索、专业知识解决方案、类案剖析等服务,提升审判质量和效率,并向社会大众提供法律规范和裁判规则参考,进一步满足不同主体的多元司法需求。
III. Effectively Enhancing Judicial Protection of Human Rights

The judicial system plays a significant role in human rights protection. Since the 18th CPC National Congress, China has put people first in its judicial system, integrated criminal punishment with human rights protection, pressed ahead with judicial system reform, continuously developed and improved a socialist judicial system with Chinese characteristics, and endeavored to embody fairness and justice in each and every legal case.

Guaranteeing independent and impartial enforcement of judicial and procuratorial authorities as per the law. Thanks to comprehensive implementation of judicial accountability reform, improvement of the classified management system of judicial personnel, and full adoption of judge quota system reform, the number of judges has been streamlined from 198,800 to 120,000, and procurators from 158,000 to 86,000. Further progress has been made in standardization, specialization and professionalization. According to the principle that those who review a case pass judgment, and those who pass judgment are held accountable, judges and procurators are subject to life-long accountability for cases they handle during their service. Based on strict implementation of judicial accountability, a career security system in line with professional characteristics of judicial personnel has been established.

The mechanism that guarantees performance of duty of judicial personnel in accordance with the law has been improved, clearly stipulating that judges and procurators are to be free from interference by administrative organs, social groups and individuals when handling cases as per the law. Provincial-level courts and procuratorates have direct jurisdiction over the staffing, finance and property of their subordinate courts and procuratorates, and circuit courts under the Supreme People’s Court and trans-regional courts and procuratorates have been set up to handle trans-regional cases in a concentrated way. The enforcement mechanism of judicial power, which explicitly differentiates power and responsibility, features effective supervision and regulation, and guarantees protection, continues to be improved.

Pressing forward with reform of the criminal litigation system centering on trials. Basic evidence criteria at all stages of criminal litigation have to be made clear to ensure that factual evidence must withstand the test of the law, that innocent people are safeguarded from criminal punishment, and that the guilty ones are brought to justice. “The Opinions on Pushing Forward the Reform of the Criminal Litigation System Centering on Trials” and its implementing rules have been released to accelerate the reform of the criminal litigation system centering on trials, to strictly carry out the principle of assessing penalty by law, evidence-based adjudication and excluding illegally-obtained evidence, to guarantee legalization and justification of trial procedures, and to ensure that trial in court plays a decisive role in investigating facts, confirming evidence, protecting litigants’ rights, and impartially adjudicating cases. A mechanism to separate complicated cases from simple ones has been applied to handle each in a distinct way. Since 2014, when the summary proceeding for criminal cases was adopted as trial in 18 cities including Beijing, pilot courts have concluded over 90 percent of cases within ten days of filing, with a rate of appeal of only 2 percent. Trial effectiveness and litigation efficiency have seen considerable improvement, and the rights of litigants have been effectively protected. In addition, the pilot reform of imposing lesser penalties on suspects who admit their guilt and accept punishment has been extended. To increase litigation efficiency, effectively reduce social conflict, and repair social relations as quickly as possible, lesser penalties will be imposed on criminal suspects and defendants who acknowledge their guilt, accept punishment, return ill-gotten gains, or make compensation as per the law.

Guaranteeing individual rights and interests in litigation. People’s courts have changed the case filing review system into a case filing register system to put every case on file and review any litigation to completely protect the litigious rights of the parties concerned. Since the adoption of the case register system in May 2015 people’s courts have registered and taken up on the spot 95 percent or more of the cases. By September 2017 over 39 million cases had been filed through registration. The Ministry of Public Security has released the “Opinions on Reforming and Improving the System of Accepting and Filing Cases”, stipulating that public security organs must accept cases within their jurisdiction reported by people or handed over by superior organs and counterparts, and deal without any prevarication with accusation, seizure and delivery, and voluntary surrender. By June 2017 public security organs at provincial level had released opinions on carrying out reform on accepting and filing cases, and 18 provincial public security organs had set up case management departments to make case acceptance and filing more standardized, effective, convenient, and transparent.

Abiding by the rules concerning excluding illegally-obtained evidence. In order to regulate investigation and interrogation activities, we need to put in place strict rules concerning excluding illegally-obtained evidence stipulated by the Criminal Procedure Law, further clarify the scope and requirements of interrogation recording for cases subject to audio and video recording, and require that procuratorates and public security organs must have complete real-time audio and video recording when interrogating suspects concerning power abuse, those who might incur life imprisonment or the death penalty, and other suspects of major crimes. Provisions on Several Issues Concerning the Strict Exclusion of Illegally-obtained Evidence in Handling Criminal Cases has been released, further clarifying criteria and exclusion processes for illegally-obtained evidence at all stages of criminal procedure. Evidence collected by means of threat or illegal confinement should be subject to the rules of excluding illegally-obtained evidence. There are rules on exclusion of repeated illegally-obtained evidence, and the defense counsel now has more say in excluding illegally-obtained evidence. The Provisions clarify preliminary review functions of the pretrial conference on legitimacy of collected evidence, exclusion rules concerning illegally-obtained witness testimony, statements of victims and tangible evidence, and the principle of on-court verdict. Since 2013 procuratorates have withheld their approval in the case of 2,624 arrests, and declined to prosecute 870 accused through exclusion of illegally-obtained evidence.

Preventing and correcting wrongful convictions. The Ministry of Public Security issued the “Notice on Further Strengthening and Improving Law Enforcement to Prevent Miscarriages of Justice” and other documents to reinforce the mechanism and system preventing miscarriages of justice, improve the law enforcement system and case handling criteria, strengthen case scrutiny, and regulate the procedures of assessing, evaluating, rewarding and penalizing law enforcement personnel to prevent miscarriages of justice at source. The Ministry of Justice released the “Opinions on Maximizing the Functions of the Forensic Assessment System to Prevent Miscarriages of Justice” to strengthen all-round forensic assessment management and further regulate such activities. The Supreme People’s Procuratorate released “Several Opinions on Effectively Performing Procuratorial Functions to Prevent and Correct Miscarriages of Justice”, scrutinizing all activities concerning evidence, procedures and application of laws, improving the system of discovery, correction, and prevention of cases of misjudgment, and holding to account those responsible. The Supreme People’s Court issued the “Opinions on Establishing and Improving the Working Mechanisms for the Prevention of Miscarriages of Justice in Criminal Cases”, stipulating that the defendant should be acquitted in cases of lack of evidence, and no one should be punished without criminal evidence. People’s courts at all levels conduct impartial trials in line with fact and law and make corrections when they find wrongful cases. From 2013 to 2017 they corrected 37 wrongful convictions involving 61 people, and acquitted 4,032 defendants as per the law.

Protecting lawyers’ right to practice. The protection of lawyers’ right to practice is essential to protecting the lawful rights and interests of their clients and ensuring proper enforcement of the laws. China has formulated or revised multiple laws, regulations and documents to better respect and guarantee lawyers’ right to practice. “The Opinions on Deepening the Reform on the Lawyer System”, the Regulations on Guaranteeing Lawyers’ Right to Practice by Law, the “Notice on Formulating and Completing Fast Response Mechanism to Safeguard Lawyers’ Right to Practice”, the “Notice on Further Improving the Work to Guarantee Lawyers’ Right to Practice”, and the Measures on the Pilot Work to Apply Lawyer Defense to All Criminal Cases have been released, stipulating multiple-level measures to protect lawyers’ right to practice, resolve prominent conflicts in the protection of lawyers’ rights, and further clarify the duties of relevant departments to protect lawyers’ right to practice and the right of persons. The Supreme People’s Court has opened an online service platform for lawyers. Via this platform, lawyers will be able to file cases, access files, and contact judges. Since 2013 procuratorates at all levels have regulated and corrected 6,542 cases in which lawyers’ right to practice were being impeded by state organs and case-handling personnel. By March 2017 rights protection centers had been established in 31 provincial-level lawyers’ associations and in most cities with districts, basically covering the whole country. By August 2017 there were more than 330,000 lawyers and over 26,000 law firms across the country. Every year lawyers handle over 3.3 million lawsuits, more than one million non-litigation legal matters, take on over 500,000 cases of legal aid, offer public legal services in more than 2.3 million cases, and act as legal consultant for more than 500,000 entities.

Guaranteeing the legitimate rights and interests of criminal suspects, defendants and prisoners. China has improved the procedures for granting exemptions from or altering of compulsory measures to suspects in custody and defendants, and reduced the application of compulsory measures of custody. Procuratorates at all levels, in accordance with the law, decide not to arrest or prosecute anyone for acts that they do not consider to be a crime or when there is insufficient evidence, and contest the criminal ruling when they believe that there is a real error in accordance with the law. From 2012 to 2016, procuratorial organs across the country recommended release or changes in the compulsory measures in case of 12,552 criminal suspects who did not require further detention. In 2016, procuratorial organs at all levels urged the withdrawal of 10,661 cases that they considered should not have been filed by investigation organs. They scrutinized and corrected 34,230 cases of investigation activities involving obtaining evidence in contravention of the law, and illegally applying compulsory measures. They rejected the arrest of 132,081 suspects and the prosecution of 26,670 accused for acts that did not constitute a crime or where there was insufficient evidence, and they filed 7,185 criminal counter appeals against wrong judgment.

The state has improved the conditions of detention and supervision, strengthened the construction and management of detention facilities and prisons, and guaranteed personal safety and other legitimate rights and interests of detainees and prisoners. By June 2017, psychological counseling rooms had been widely established in detention centers in China; 2,501 detention centers had two-way video calling services through the internet for detainees and prisoners, and more than 2,400 detention centers across the country had set up legal aid workstations to provide legal assistance to detainees. As of 2016, all detention centers in the country had set up complaint-handling mechanisms for detainees, and 2,489 detention centers had appointed special supervisors. China has improved the execution of penalties and the institutions of community correction.[Community correction refers to non-imprisonment correction penalty imposed on those whose crimes are relatively minor and who have been sentenced to public surveillance, probation, release on parole, and temporary execution outside prison.] By the end of June 2017, administrative organs of justice around the country had received a total of 3.4 million persons subject to community correction. Of these, 2.7 million had completed their correction, and 700,000 continued their community correction. A total of 2,075 county and district community correction centers have been set up nationwide. There are 25,278 community service bases, 9,373 education bases, 8,272 employment bases, and 687,000 community correction groups in China. The recidivism rate in the case of those assigned to community correction is 0.2 percent.

Improving the legal assistance system. China has reinforced criminal legal assistance. China has implemented provisions of the Criminal Procedure Law and other relevant laws and regulations on legal assistance. It has established a working mechanism of legal assistance contributing to the settlement of cases involving victim-offender reconciliation and the review of death penalty, and the legal assistance duty counsel system. China has improved the mechanisms for providing legal assistance to applicants, and for public security organs and procuratorates to notify the defendants about the legal assistance. China has improved the pilot mechanism for legal assistance playing a role in summary trial procedures for criminal cases; and provided legal assistance to more criminal litigants in accordance with the law. China has expanded the coverage of civil and administrative legal assistance and gradually included matters closely related to people’s life into the scope of legal assistance. China has relaxed the criteria for economic difficulty applying to entitlement to legal assistance, further lowered the threshold for legal assistance, and helped more people in need. China has improved the mechanism of providing convenient legal assistance to the public, striven to achieve full coverage of legal assistance consultancy services, and promoted the standardization of legal assistance. From 2013 to 2016, a total of RMB7.3 billion was used for handling more than 5 million legal assistance cases, helping more than 5.57 million people and providing legal consultancy services in more than 28 million cases.

Strengthening criminal judicial protection of juveniles. China has persevered with the principles of education, persuasion, and rehabilitation for juveniles who commit crimes, and implemented the system of sealing juvenile criminal records in cases below five years of fixed-term imprisonment. The Supreme People’s Procuratorate has set up a procuratorial work office for juveniles. As of November 2016, 24 provincial procuratorates, 192 municipal procuratorates and 1,024 grassroots procuratorates had set up special procuratorial agencies for minors. The state has promoted the development of juvenile courts, and as of June 2017, there were more than 2,200 juvenile courts and over 7,000 juvenile court judges throughout the country. In recent years, the recidivism rate of juvenile offenders has been held at 1-3 percent. The numbers of juvenile criminals and juvenile criminal cases have been declining as a whole.

Improving the state compensation system and judicial aid system. China has promulgated the Interpretation on Several Issues Concerning the Application of Law in the Handling of Criminal Cases Regarding Compensation, issued guiding cases on state compensation, improved the procedure of cross-questioning evidence, and standardized compensation for mental suffering. From 2013 to June 2017, courts at all levels heard 20,027 cases involving state compensation. China has strengthened and standardized the work of legal aid, unified the filing of cases, the scope, the procedures and the standards of legal aid, and the supply and the use of funds so as to institutionalize the legal aid system and handle cases qualified for legal aid in a judicial framework. Courts at all levels including the Supreme People’s Court have set up legal aid committees. The total amount of aid provided by the central and local governments was RMB2.47 billion in 2014, RMB2.94 billion in 2015 and RMB2.66 billion in 2016, benefiting more than 268,000 people.

Effectively resolving difficulties in the execution of court rulings. China has established a command system and an online check and control system about the execution of court rulings by all people’s courts. It has improved an integrated punishment system on loss of credit, and issued judicial interpretations and normative documents on online judicial auctions and other issues related to the execution of court rulings, thus significantly improving the quality and efficiency of execution. China has promulgated Opinions on Establishment of a Mechanism of Credit Supervision, Warning and Punishment over People Found to Have Lost Their Credit by the Court, which stipulated 37 measures to punish diehard debtors. It has improved the work mechanism for execution, including advance execution, and effectively alleviated difficulties of the parties involved. The state has carried out special and concentrated actions concerning cases related to people’s daily lives and focused on nine types of such cases, including the recovery of wages due, the wages of migrant workers, and alimony and support payments. In 2016, courts across the country heard a total of 6.1 million applications for execution, of which 5 million were concluded. This was an increase of more than 30 percent over 2015. They involved sums amounting to RMB1.5 trillion, an increase of 50 percent over 2015.

Vigorously promoting judicial openness. The people’s courts have built four major platforms for releasing information on judicial process, trials, written judgments, and the execution of judgments. By October 16, 2017, China Judicial Process Information Online had released 833,000 items of information about the cases and received 2.5 million visits. As of November 3, 2017, courts at all levels had broadcast 404,000 live trials online through Chinacourt.org, attracting more than 3 billion visits. A total of 3,187 courts – 90.43 percent of all courts in China – have access to Chinacourt.org. China Judgments Online was launched in July 2013. As of November 3, 2017, it had released 36 million copies of written judgments and received 11.4 billion visits from more than 210 countries and regions. As of September 30, 2017, China Law Enforcement Information Online had revealed the identities of people who had been subjected to execution of court rulings in a total of 8.61 million civil cases, and more than 45 million pieces of information about these defendants. The people’s procuratorates have established a case information disclosure system and four major platforms for information services concerning trial procedures, the disclosure of legal documents, release of information on major cases, and the application for defense and legal representatives. In addition, full information was made available to the public on criminal cases involving the offering of bribes. Public hearing was adopted in criminal litigation cases. China has released the “Opinions on Further Opening Prison Affairs,” creating new open channels, expanding scope of release of information, and releasing decisions in accordance with the law on commutation of sentences, petitions for parole, and execution of sentences outside prison.

Improving the system of people’s jurors and supervisors. “The Pilot Program to Reform the People’s Jurors System” and the “Program for Furthering Reform of the People’s Supervisors System” have been issued to reform measures on the selection and appointment of people’s jurors and supervisors, expand the scope of cases that involve people’s jurors and supervisors so as to give full play to their role. In 2016, people’s jurors participated in the trial of more than 3 million cases. Pilot projects on reform of the people’s supervisor system have continued. As of June 2017, over 21,000 people’s supervisors had been appointed. Procuratorial organs at all levels have organized the supervision of cases, improved the procedures for supervision and appraisal, set up accounts for abuse-of-power cases, and established conference rooms to be exclusively used for hearing opinions of people’s supervisors. From September 2014 to July 2017, 7,491 cases handled by the procuratorates were supervised and appraised by the people’s supervisors. Of the 247 cases in which people’s supervisors gave opinions at variance with the preliminary decisions of procuratorial organs, 76 cases, or about 31 percent, were ruled in favor of the opinions of the people’s supervisors.

Applying modern science and technology to the legal process. To adapt to the developing internet industry, China has established internet courts. It is promoting the “smart court” in an all-round way, using information network technologies such as big data and cloud computing to standardize the management and statistical analysis of all types of trial information, to standardize criteria for judgment, especially concerning evidence in criminal cases, to promote consistent rulings in similar cases, to prevent and correct miscarriages of justice, and to ensure that all parties involved will obtain a fair trial. China has promoted “internet + litigation service” and launched convenient judicial services such as online filing, online mediation, remote court trial, electronic delivery, and online public disclosure. China has launched www.faxin.cn, a digital network service platform on the application of Chinese law, which aims to provide judges and lawyers with services such as legal document retrieval, professional solutions, and case analysis, to enhance the quality and efficiency of judgments, to make legal standards and judgment rules available to the general public, and to further meet the diverse legal needs of different subjects.

四、夯实人权法治化保障的社会基础
建设法治社会,是实现人权法治化保障的社会基础。中共十八大以来,中国努力提升全民法治意识,全面推进法治社会建设,为人权法治化保障营造良好的社会环境。
强化国家工作人员的法治观念和人权保障意识。实行宪法宣誓制度,要求凡经各级人民代表大会及县级以上各级人民代表大会常务委员会选举或者决定任命的国家工作人员以及各级人民政府、人民法院、人民检察院任命的国家工作人员,在就职时应当公开进行宪法宣誓,激励和教育国家工作人员忠于宪法、遵守宪法、维护宪法,加强宪法实施。发布《党政主要负责人履行推进法治建设第一责任人职责规定》,规定县级以上地方党委和政府主要负责人是推进法治建设第一责任人,履职情况纳入政绩考核指标体系。发布《关于完善国家机关工作人员学法用法制度的意见》,把遵守法律、依法办事作为考察干部的重要依据。各地普遍建立了党委(党组)理论学习中心组学法制度,把法治纳入干部录用和晋职培训,列入各级党校和干部学院的必修课,人权知识被普遍纳入教学内容。国务院新闻办公室和国家人权教育与培训基地针对国家公职人员举办多期人权知识培训班,传播人权知识,提升人权意识。
在全社会普及人权和法治观念。确定每年12月4日为国家宪法日,在全社会普遍开展宪法教育,弘扬宪法精神。实施“六五普法”规划和“七五普法”规划,推进全民普法和守法。发布《关于实行国家机关“谁执法谁普法”普法责任制的意见》,明确国家机关是法治宣传教育的责任主体。发布《青少年法治教育大纲》,把法治教育纳入国民教育体系,培育青少年法治观念、普及法治知识、养成守法意识,提高运用法律方法维护自身权益、通过法律途径参与国家和社会生活的意识和能力。截至2016年,全国共建立法治教育基地3.2万多个,96.5%以上的中小学配备了法制副校长或者法制辅导员。各中小学结合学生年龄特点,在相关课程教学中融入人身权利、受教育权利、经济权利等学习内容,增强学生的权利意识。以促进诚信守法、依法经营为重点,加强企业法治文化建设,增强企业职工权益保障意识。集中开展进城务工人员法律知识培训、法治宣传周等活动,增进农民和进城务工人员的法治观念和权利意识。在北京、上海、天津、重庆、广州等地设立8个国家人权教育与培训基地,广泛开展人权理论研究和人权教育培训。
加强公共法律服务和人民调解工作。发布《关于推进公共法律服务体系建设的意见》,加快推进公共法律服务体系一体化建设,促进公共法律服务均等化。增加公共法律服务供给,消除无律师县,建立集律师、公证、司法鉴定、人民调解等功能于一体的公共法律服务大厅,推广“一村一社区一法律顾问”制度,完善“12348”免费法律咨询服务热线,使人民群众能便捷获得法律服务,有效维护人民群众自身权益。重点加强行业性、专业性人民调解工作,依法及时化解医疗、劳动等领域矛盾纠纷。2013年至2016年,共调解各类矛盾纠纷3719.4万件,其中行业、专业领域矛盾纠纷545万件。截至2016年,全国共有人民调解组织78.4万个,人民调解员385.2万人,覆盖全国城乡社区。2013年至2016年,每年调解矛盾纠纷900多万件,调解成功率达97%以上,促使大量矛盾纠纷化解在基层。
保障基层民众自治权利。不断完善基层群众自治,加强城乡社区协商,完善城乡居民诉求表达、利益协调和权益保障机制。截至2016年,全国共有约85%的村建立村民会议或村民代表会议制度,89%的社区建立居民(成员)代表大会,64%的社区建立协商议事委员会,“村民议事”“小区协商”“业主协商”“村(居)民决策听证”等协商形式在全国城乡社区逐步推广。截至2016年,全国98%的村制定了村规民约或村民自治章程,城市社区普遍制定了居民公约或居民自治章程,村规民约、社区公约等在社会治理中的作用得到发挥。
发挥群团组织、社会组织维护公民合法权益的积极作用。工会、共青团、妇联等群团组织通过多种渠道反映民众诉求,在反家庭暴力法、劳动保障监察条例等法律法规的制定过程中积极建言献策。各级工会履行劳动法律监督职责,开展重大劳动违法典型案件公开曝光工作,积极维护劳动者合法权益。截至2016年,全国共有工会劳动法律监督组织近99万个,工会劳动法律监督员199万人。2012年至2016年,县以上妇联系统通过12338热线等渠道受理妇女权益投诉133万余件次,基层妇联协调专业力量共同为权益受侵害的妇女提供矛盾排查、纠纷化解、法律援助、关爱帮扶的综合维权服务。各类社会组织在维护合法权益、表达正当诉求、参与公共事务管理中发挥重要作用。截至2017年6月,全国依法登记的社会组织约72.5万个,其中社会团体34.4万个,社会服务机构37.5万个,基金会5919个。慈善类社会组织在扶贫济困救灾和应对各类突发事件中的优势和作用得到充分发挥。政府向社会组织购买服务力度加大,2017年,中央财政全年共立项474个,立项总资金18206万元,配套资金7668万元,预计直接受益群众超过107.84万人,培训社会组织负责人近7400人。
IV. Consolidating Social Mechanisms for Legal Protection of Human Rights

A society under the rule of law serves as a social mechanism for legal protection of human rights. Since the 18th CPC National Congress, China has endeavored to raise public awareness of the rule of law and comprehensively govern the country by the rule of law, in order to create a conducive social environment for legal protection of human rights.

Strengthening officials’ awareness of the rule of law and the responsibility for the protection of human rights. All officials elected or appointed by people’s congresses at all levels and by standing committees of people’s congresses at county level or above, and all officials appointed by people’s governments, people’s courts and people’s procuratorates at all levels should, when assuming office, take an oath on the Constitution in public in order to encourage and inspire them to be loyal to, stick to and safeguard the Constitution and enhance the enforcement of the Constitution. The Regulations on the Duties and Responsibilities of Top Leaders of the Party and Government as the Principal Persons Liable for Implementing the Rule of Law has been released. The regulations stipulate that Party secretaries and government heads at or above county level shall be the first to be held accountable in promoting the rule of law, and that fulfillment of such duties is among the key indicators in the official performance evaluation system. “The Opinions on Improving the System of Study and Use of the Law of Staff Members in State Organs” has been released, stipulating that obedience to law and action in accordance with the law serve as important criteria for the performance of officials. A practice of studying the law with Party committees or Party leadership groups has been formed across the country. The rule of law has become an essential component of official appointment and promotion training, as well as a compulsory course in Party schools and official training schools at all levels. Human rights knowledge is a common element of the curriculum. The Information Office of the State Council and national human rights education and training bases have convened multiple training classes on human rights for officials, to disseminate information and increase awareness of the subject.

Popularizing ideas about human rights and the rule of law. December 4 has been celebrated as the National Constitution Day and the education on the Constitution has been popularized to promote the spirit of the Constitution. The sixth and seventh five-year plans for popularization of and education in the law should be carried out to call for popularization and obedience of the law across the country. “The Opinions on Law Publicity Responsibility of State Organs” stipulates that state organs have the primary responsibility for publicity and education on the rule of law. “The Guideline on the Education of the Rule of Law Among Adolescents” has been released to incorporate education on the rule of law in the national education system. It will develop adolescents’ awareness of the rule of law and popularize understanding of the rule of law. It will also build a mindset in favor of abiding by the law, and give people the awareness and enhance the ability to protect their own rights and interests by means of the law, and help them enhance their ability through legal training to participate in national and social life. By 2016 more than 32,000 education centers on the rule of law had been established nationwide and almost all elementary and middle schools had designated vice principals or counselors in charge of education on the rule of law. All these schools have added rights of the person, right to education, and economic rights to their curricula, along with teaching activities designed for students at different stages to enhance their awareness of their rights. With the aim of promoting good faith, for the law, and operations in accordance with the law, enterprises are urged to enhance education on the rule of law and make employees aware of the protection of their rights and interests. Intensive training courses have been organized for migrant workers and the “Rule of Law Publicity Week” has been launched for them. The awareness of the rule of law and the rights of rural residents and migrant workers has been enhanced. Eight national human rights education and training bases have been established in Beijing, Shanghai, Tianjin, Chongqing and Guangzhou to expand research on human rights theory, and education and training on human rights.

Enhancing public legal services and mediation for people. “The Opinions on Promoting the Public Legal Services System” has been released to integrate and promote equal access to public legal services. In order to give the public convenient access to legal services to protect their rights and interests, the following measures are pursued:

increase the supply of public legal services;

guarantee availability of lawyers in every county;

establish public legal services halls where lawyers, notarization, judicial authentication and mediation will be available;

promote the system of “designating a legal counselor to every village and community”, and

improve the “12348” free hotline for legal advice.

The key lies in strengthening mediation in industry and the professions, and in solving medical and labor disputes rapidly in accordance with the law. From 2013 to 2016, more than 37 million disputes were mediated, including 5.45 million disputes in industry and the professions. By the end of 2016 there were 784,000 people’s mediation centers with 3.8 million mediators serving communities in both rural and urban areas. From 2013 to 2016, more than 9 million disputes were mediated, and over 97 percent of those disputes were solved. This played a key role in relieving conflict and easing stress at the community level.

Guaranteeing people’s right to self-governance at the community level. China has made constant effort to improve self-governance at the community level, strengthen community consultation in urban and rural areas, and complete the mechanism to help urban and rural residents express their demands, coordinate interests and protect rights and interests. By 2016 about 85 percent of villages had set up villagers’ meetings or meeting of villagers’ representatives. Eighty-nine percent of communities had established congresses of residents. Sixty-four percent of communities had established consultative councils, and consultative forms such as “villager discussion”, “community consultation”, “property owner consultation”, and “villager hearing on decision-making” have steadily taken shape in China. By 2016, 98 percent of rural villages nationwide had formulated villagers’ codes of conduct or villagers’ self-governance regulations, while similar residents’ codes of conduct or residents’ self-governance regulations had been formulated in urban communities. These play an extensive role in social governance.

Giving full play to people’s organizations and social organizations in protecting the legitimate rights and interests of citizens. People’s organizations such as trade unions, communist youth leagues and women’s federations communicate people’s demands through multiple channels and actively offer suggestions on formulating laws against domestic violence and regulations on supervision of labor protection. To protect the legitimate rights and interests of workers, trade unions at all levels scrutinize the enforcement of laws on labor and expose major violations. By the end of 2016 there were nearly 990,000 watchdog organizations in all trade unions with almost 2 million observers. From 2012 to 2016, women’s federations at county level or above handled 1.33 million complaints about violations of women’s rights and interests through multiple channels like the “12338” hotline, and community-level women’s federations worked together with professionals to investigate and resolve disputes and provide legal assistance and care to the woman victims so that their rights and interests are protected. Social organizations of all kinds play a significant role in safeguarding legitimate public rights and interests, expressing legitimate demands and participating in public affairs management. By June 2017 there were 725,000 registered social organizations nationwide, including 344,000 social groups, 375,000 social services organizations, and 5,919 foundations. The strengths of non-governmental philanthropic organizations have played an important role in poverty alleviation, disaster relief, and emergence response. The government is spending more to purchase services from social organizations. In 2017 the central government approved 474 projects totaling RMB182 million plus RMB77 million of supporting funds, directly benefiting over 1 million people and training nearly 7,400 heads of social organizations.
五、加强党对人权法治化保障的领导
中国是一个有着13亿多人口的大国,中国共产党是一个有着8900多万党员的大党,在中国的政治生活中,中国共产党居于领导地位。党的领导是中国特色社会主义法治最根本的保证,也是中国实现人权法治化保障的最大优势。中共十八大以来,中国共产党坚持“尊重和保障人权”原则,不断加强和改进党对法治工作的领导,坚持依法执政,坚持依法治国和依规治党有机统一,加强党内法规制度建设,在法治建设的各个关键环节上为推进中国人权法治化保障提供强有力的政治保证。
将尊重和保障人权纳入依法治国基本方略。中共十八大提出“加快建设社会主义法治国家”,并将“人权得到切实尊重和保障”作为全面建成小康社会的重要目标。中共十八届三中全会提出“推进法治中国建设”并强调“完善人权司法保障制度”。中共十八届四中全会通过《关于全面推进依法治国若干重大问题的决定》,从6个领域、30个方面对科学立法、严格执法、公正司法、全民守法、法治队伍建设、加强和改进党对全面推进依法治国的领导等各方面提出190项重大举措,对加强中国特色社会主义法治体系建设,加快建设社会主义法治国家作出具体部署,明确提出“加强人权司法保障”的各项具体任务。中共十九大提出必须把党的领导贯彻落实到依法治国全过程和各方面,坚持依法治国和依规治党有机统一,成立中央全面依法治国领导小组,加强对法治中国建设的统一领导,维护国家法制统一、尊严、权威,加强人权法治保障,保证人民依法享有广泛权利和自由。
坚持依法执政和依规治党。法治是治国理政的基本方式。中国共产党坚持把依法治国基本方略同依法执政基本方式统一起来,把党总揽全局、协调各方同人大、政府、政协、审判机关、检察机关依法依章程履行职能、开展工作统一起来,把党领导人民制定和实施宪法法律同党坚持在宪法法律范围内活动统一起来。制定《中共中央关于加强党领导立法工作的意见》,要求起草政治方面以及重大经济社会方面的法律法规,应经过党中央或者同级党委(党组)讨论。强调坚持民主决策、集体领导原则,集体研究决定立法中的重大问题,使党对立法工作的领导进一步制度化、规范化、民主化。中共十八大以来,中共中央政治局先后多次组织以法治为主题的集体学习,要求党的领导干部做尊法学法守法用法的模范,各级党委要重视法治培训,完善学法制度,提升干部法治素养;要求各级领导干部提高运用法治思维和法治方式的能力,努力以法治凝聚改革共识、规范发展行为、促进矛盾化解、保障社会和谐。中共十八大以来,先后制定或修订《关于新形势下党内政治生活的若干准则》《中国共产党党内监督条例》等具有标志性、关键性、引领性的党内法规,由党章和准则、条例、规则、规定、办法、细则等构成的党内法规制度体系逐步形成。对新中国成立以来至2012年6月期间中央党内法规和规范性文件进行了全面清理,在规范党组织工作、活动和党员行为的1178件党内法规和规范性文件中,经过清理宣布失效369件,废止322件,继续有效487件。
支持司法机关依法独立公正行使职权。《中共中央关于全面推进依法治国若干重大问题的决定》提出要完善确保依法独立公正行使审判权和检察权的制度,明确要求各级党政机关和领导干部要支持法院、检察院依法独立公正行使职权。制定《领导干部干预司法活动、插手具体案件处理的记录、通报和责任追究规定》,明确所有干预司法活动、插手具体案件处理的情况都要记录,属于违法干预司法活动、插手具体案件处理的要通报,违法干预造成后果的要追责,保障司法机关依法独立公正行使职权。
加强对权力的监督和制约。中共十八大以来,始终坚持加强党内法规制度建设,强化权力运行制约和监督,让人民监督权力,坚持用制度管权管人管事。中共十八届六中全会通过《关于新形势下党内政治生活的若干准则》,明确进一步完善权力运行制约和监督机制,形成有权必有责、用权必担责、滥权必追责的制度安排;规定实行权力清单制度、公开权力运行过程和结果、健全不当用权问责机制、加强对领导干部的监督等;要求党的各级组织和领导干部必须在宪法法律范围内活动,自觉按法定权限、规则、程序办事,决不能以言代法、以权压法、逐利违法、徇私枉法,保证把人民赋予的权力真正用来为人民谋利益。《中国共产党党内监督条例》明确规定,党的领导机关和领导干部特别是主要领导干部是党内监督的重点对象,构建起党中央统一领导、党委(党组)全面监督、纪律检查机关专责监督、党的工作部门职能监督、党的基层组织日常监督、党员民主监督的党内监督体系。中共十九大报告提出,健全党和国家监督体系,深化国家监察体制改革,将试点工作在全国推开,组建国家、省、市、县监察委员会,实现对所有行使公权力的公职人员监察全覆盖;制定国家监察法,依法赋予监察委员会职责权限和调查手段,用留置取代“两规”措施。
坚决惩治腐败保障人民利益。中国共产党以零容忍态度惩治腐败,先后制定修订廉洁自律准则和纪律处分、问责、党内监督、巡视工作等条例,建立了系统性预防和惩治腐败的制度体系。中共十八大以来,中共中央纪委共立案审查省军级以上党员干部及其他中管干部440余人,全国纪检监察机关处分153.7万人,其中厅局级干部8900余人,县处级干部6.3万人,涉嫌犯罪被移送司法机关处理5.8万人。在强有力的执纪震慑下,2016年有5.7万名党员干部主动交代违纪问题。自2014年初至2017年8月,全国共有6100余个单位党委(党组)、党总支、党支部,300余个纪委(纪检组)和6万余名党员领导干部被问责。组织开展12轮中央巡视,对277个地方、部门和单位的党组织进行巡视,对16个省区市开展“回头看”,对4个单位进行“机动式”巡视,实现党的历史上首次一届任期内中央巡视全覆盖。中央纪委设立47家派驻纪检组,实现对139家中央一级党和国家机关派驻监督全覆盖。2016年国家统计局问卷调查结果显示,人民群众对党风廉政建设和反腐败工作的满意度从2013年的81%增长到2016年的92.9%。

V. Strengthening the CPC Leadership over Legal Protection of Human Rights

China is a large country with a population of more than 1.3 billion. The CPC is a large party with more than 89 million members. It plays a leading role in the political life of China. CPC leadership provides the fundamental guarantee for the socialist rule of law with Chinese characteristics and is also the strongest means in China’s fight to ensure legal protection of human rights. Since the 18th National Congress, the CPC has continuously strengthened and improved its leadership in building the rule of law by following the principle of “respecting and safeguarding human rights.” It has worked hard in promoting law-based governance of the country, rule-based governance of the Party and intra-Party institution building, providing a strong political base for guaranteeing legal protection of human rights in China in all key areas.

Respect for and protection of human rights has been incorporated in the basic strategy of the rule of law. At the 18th National Congress, the CPC decided to “step up efforts to build a socialist country based on the rule of law” and made it clear that achieving the goal that “human rights are fully respected and protected” was an important part of building a moderately prosperous society in all respects. At the Third Plenary Session of the 18th Central Committee, the CPC decided to “promote the rule of law in the country” and emphasized the need to “improve the judicial system to protect human rights”. At the Fourth Plenary Session of the 18th Central Committee, the CPC adopted the “Resolution of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China on Major Issues Concerning Advancing the All-round Law-based Governance”. This resolution put forward 190 measures in the areas of sound lawmaking, strict law enforcement, impartial administration of justice, and common observance of the law. It also provides for:

building a capable workforce dedicated to developing the rule of law;

strengthening and improving the Party’s leadership over efforts to advance the all-round law-based governance of the country;

creating an overall plan for developing a system of socialist rule of law with Chinese characteristics;

building a country of socialist rule of law, and

completing specific tasks to provide “stronger judicial protection of human rights.”

As stated by the central leadership at the 19th CPC National Congress, to ensure that the people enjoy extensive rights and freedoms as prescribed by law we must:

exercise Party leadership at every point in the process and over every dimension of law-based governance;

combine law-based governance of the country and rule-based governance of the Party;

set up a central leading group for advancing law-based governance in all areas to exercise unified leadership over the task of building the rule of law in China;

uphold the unity, sanctity, and authority of China’s legal system, and strengthen legal protection of human rights, and

ensure that people enjoy legitimate rights and freedoms.

Law-based governance of the country and rule-based governance of the Party have both been upheld. Rule of law is fundamental to the governance of a country. The CPC has:

upheld the basic strategy of rule of law with the basic practice of law-based governance;

exercised overall leadership;

coordinated all efforts so as to ensure that people’s congresses, governments, committees of the Chinese People’s Political Consultative Conference, courts, and procuratorates all perform their duties and carry out their work in accordance with the law and their charters;

worked to ensure that it leads the people in enacting and enforcing the Constitution and the laws, and

operated within the confines of the Constitution and the law itself.

The CPC issued the “Opinions of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China on Strengthening the Party Leadership over Legislation”, requiring that drafting of laws and regulations on politics and other major areas of the economy and society must be deliberated by the CPC Central Committee, or the Party committee or Party leadership group at the same level. Reflecting the need to better define its leadership over legislation and make it more institutional, procedure-based and democratic, the CPC also emphasized the significance and importance of following principles of democratic decision-making and collective leadership, and deciding major legislative issues through collective deliberation. Since the 18th CPC National Congress, the Political Bureau of the CPC Central Committee has organized group study sessions on the rule of law. It requires that Party officials must take the lead in respecting, studying, observing, and applying the law. In addition, Party committees at all levels must ensure training in the rule of law, improve the system for studying the law, and promote awareness of the law among officials. Officials at all levels should develop their ability to think and act based on law, work to reach consensus on reform, promote procedure-based development, resolve conflict, and safeguard social harmony in accordance with the law. Since the 18th National Congress, the CPC has made or revised some key regulations of iconic significance, including the “Guiding Principles for Political Activities Within the Party in the New Era” and the “Regulations of the Communist Party of China on Internal Scrutiny”, gradually forming a system that consists of the Party Constitution, guiding principles, regulations, measures, and implementing rules. The CPC has also reviewed and reorganized its internal regulations and normative documents dating from the founding of the PRC in October 1949 to June 2012. Among 1,178 such regulations and documents, 369 were declared invalid, 322 were abolished, and 487 are still in effect.

The court and the procuratorate must exercise their power independently and impartially in accordance with the law. “The Resolution of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China on Major Issues Concerning Advancing the All-round Law-based Governance” states that we should improve the system for ensuring the law-based, independent, and impartial exercise of judicial and procuratorial powers, and that Party and government agencies and officials at all levels should support courts and procuratorates in exercising their powers independently and impartially in accordance with the law. The CPC issued the “Regulations on Recording, Circular of Criticism and Accountability of Intervening in Judicial Activities and in Handling of Specific Cases by Officials” which stipulates that all such interventions must be recorded, officials accused of interventions must be criticized in the form of circular, and officials whose interventions have had consequences should be held accountable. In so doing, the CPC has ensured that the courts and procuratorates exercise their power independently and impartially in accordance with the law.

Scrutiny and checks on the exercise of power have been strengthened. Since the 18th National Congress, the CPC has continued to develop its institutions, strengthening scrutiny and checks on the exercise of power, granting powers of scrutiny to the public, and providing an institutional framework to manage power, personnel and activities. At the Sixth Plenary Session of the 18th Central Committee, the CPC adopted the “Regulations for Political Activities Within the Party in the New Era.” It states that mechanisms for controlling the exercise of power must be improved, so as to establish institutions which ensure that power comes with responsibility, that the use of power comes with accountability, and that those who abuse power are held to account. It stipulates that powers must be delineated, that the process and results of the exercise of power must be made public, that accountability mechanisms for inappropriate use of power must be reinforced, and that scrutiny over officials must be strengthened. To ensure that the power granted by the people will always be exercised in their interests, it requires that Party organizations and officials at every level must act within the scope of the Constitution and other laws, that they must act within the line of authority, rules and procedures prescribed by law, and must not treat their own word as law, place their own authority above the law, break the law in pursuit of personal interests, or bend the law for favoritism. “The Regulations of the Communist Party of China on Internal Scrutiny” expressly stipulate that internal scrutiny is primarily targeted at the leading organs and officials of the Party, particularly top leaders. The document also states that a sound system of internal scrutiny under the unified leadership of the Central Committee should be established, comprising overall supervision by Party committees or Party leadership groups, specialized supervision by commissions for discipline inspection, functional supervision by Party organs, routine supervision by primary-level Party organizations, and democratic scrutiny by Party members. As stated in the report to the 19th CPC National Congress, we will improve the supervision systems applying to the Party and the state, further reform the national supervision system, and conduct nationwide trials. We will establish supervisory commissions at national, provincial, prefectural, and county levels, ensuring that supervision covers all public servants who exercise public power. We will formulate the National Supervision Law, which will define duties and powers of these supervisory commissions, and their means of investigation. The practice of shuanggui [ A form of intra-Party disciplinary action of the CPC that requires a Party member under investigation to cooperate with questioning at a designated place and a designated time.] will be replaced by detention.

We have fought resolutely against corruption in order to guarantee people’s interests. The CPC has shown zero tolerance in the fight against corruption. It has revised codes about clean conduct, and regulations on disciplinary punishment, accountability, intra-Party scrutiny, and inspection tours, creating a framework for systematically preventing and combating corruption. Since the 18th CPC National Congress, the CPC Central Commission for Discipline Inspection has investigated more than 440 Party-member officials at or above the provincial level and other officials registered at and supervised by the CPC Central Committee. Commissions for discipline inspection and departments of supervision around the country have dealt with 1,537,000 people, including 8,900 at bureau level and 63,000 at county level, and 58,000 cases of suspected criminal activity have been transferred to the judiciary. This strong enforcement has acted as a powerful deterrent. In 2016, 57,000 Party-member officials took the initiative to confess their violations of Party discipline. From the beginning of 2014 to August 2017, more than 6,100 Party committees or Party leadership groups, general branches and branches, more than 300 discipline inspection commissions or teams, and more than 60,000 Party-member officials were held accountable throughout the country. The Central Commission for Discipline Inspection has organized 12 rounds of inspection tours, including inspection of Party organizations in 277 local governments, departments and entities, “return inspections” of 16 provinces, autonomous regions and municipalities directly under the central government, and “flexible inspections” of four entities. For the first time in its history, the CPC achieved full coverage of central inspection tours during a single term of office of central leadership. The Central Commission for Discipline Inspection set up 47 dispatched resident teams, covering all the 139 central-level departments of the Party and the government. According to a 2016 survey of the National Bureau of Statistics, the CPC effort to improve Party conduct, uphold integrity, and combat corruption saw the index of public satisfaction with this initiative rise from 81 percent in 2013 to 92.9 percent in 2016.

 

六、积极促进全球人权法治建设
中国始终是世界和平的建设者,全球发展的贡献者,国际秩序的维护者。中国政府倡导构建人类命运共同体,积极参与国际人权法治体系建构,认真履行国际人权义务,深入开展司法领域国际合作,推进全球人权事业健康发展。
倡导构建人类命运共同体。2013年3月,中国国家主席习近平在莫斯科国际关系学院演讲中首次提出“命运共同体”理念。2015年9月,习近平主席在联合国成立70周年系列峰会上全面阐述了打造人类命运共同体的主要内涵。2017年1月,习近平主席在日内瓦万国宫出席“共商共筑人类命运共同体”高级别会议,并发表题为《共同构建人类命运共同体》的主旨演讲。在演讲中,习近平主席深刻、全面、系统阐述人类命运共同体理念,主张共同推进构建人类命运共同体伟大进程,坚持对话协商、共建共享、合作共赢、交流互鉴、绿色低碳,建设一个持久和平、普遍安全、共同繁荣、开放包容、清洁美丽的世界。习近平主席的重要讲话为应对当前突出全球性挑战指明了根本出路,对完善国际人权治理也具有重要启示。“构建人类命运共同体”理念被联合国大会、安全理事会、人权理事会等载入相关决议,标志着这一理念成为国际人权话语体系的重要组成部分,拓宽了国际人权保障视野,为推进全球人权治理朝着公正合理的方向发展发挥了重要作用。
积极参与涉人权保障国际规则制定。中国是联合国的创始会员国,参与了《联合国宪章》《世界人权宣言》和一系列国际人权文献的制定工作,为国际人权规则体系发展作出了重要贡献。参与了《维也纳宣言与行动纲领》《发展权利宣言》《儿童权利公约》《残疾人权利公约》《和平权利宣言》《消除对妇女一切形式歧视公约》等的制定,在以《联合国气候变化框架公约》为主渠道的气候变化国际谈判中发挥建设性作用,推动气候变化《巴黎协定》的达成和生效。中国提出“一带一路”重大倡议,大力推动经济、环境保护、医疗卫生、青少年、儿童保护与发展、网络空间治理、反腐败、禁毒等领域国际合作规则制定。
认真履行国际人权义务。中国已参加包括《经济社会文化权利国际公约》《儿童权利公约》《残疾人权利公约》《消除对妇女一切形式歧视公约》《消除一切形式种族歧视国际公约》《禁止酷刑和其他残忍、不人道或有辱人格的待遇或处罚公约》等26项国际人权公约,并积极为批准《公民及政治权利国际公约》创造条件。中国重视国际人权文书对促进和保护人权的重要作用,认真履行条约义务,及时向相关条约机构提交履约报告,与条约机构开展建设性对话,并充分考虑条约机构提出的建议与意见,结合中国国情对合理可行的建议加以采纳和落实。2012年,中国执行《残疾人权利公约》首次报告顺利通过审议。2013年,中国执行《儿童权利公约》第三、四次合并报告和执行《〈儿童权利公约〉关于儿童卷入武装冲突问题的任择议定书》首次报告顺利通过审议。2014年,中国接受第二轮国别人权审查报告获得人权理事会核可,中国执行《经济社会文化权利国际公约》第二次履约报告顺利通过审议,中国执行《消除对妇女一切形式歧视公约》第七、八次合并报告接受消除对妇女歧视委员会审议。2015年,中国执行《禁止酷刑和其他残忍、不人道或有辱人格的待遇或处罚公约》第六次报告接受禁止酷刑委员会审议。中国积极参加国际维和行动,自1990年至2017年8月,累计派出维和军事人员3.6万人次,先后参加了24项联合国维和行动。2017年,建成8000人规模的维和待命部队。
有效开展司法领域国际合作。中国已加入《海牙送达公约》《海牙取证公约》和《联合国打击跨国有组织犯罪公约》。截至2016年,中国已与19个国家签订了民(商)刑事司法协助条约(协定),均已生效;与40个国家签订了刑事司法协助条约(协定),其中32个已生效;与20个国家签订了民(商)事司法协助条约(协定),其中17个已生效。2013年至2016年,中国中央机关平均每年处理的各类司法协助请求总数在3300件以上。加强国际反腐败合作,推动通过《二十国集团反腐败追逃追赃高级原则》《二十国集团2017-2018年反腐败行动计划》,确立以“零容忍、零漏洞、零障碍”为主要内容的反腐败追逃追赃10条原则。开展“天网行动”,加大海外追逃、遣返引渡力度。2014年至2017年10月中旬,共从90多个国家和地区追回外逃人员3453名,追赃95.1亿元,“百名红通人员”48人。
积极参与国际执法安全合作。中国同国际社会一道共同打击恐怖主义、分裂主义、极端主义犯罪和毒品犯罪。在联合国、国际刑警组织、上海合作组织、东南亚国家联盟、金砖国家等国际和区域性组织框架内加强反恐合作,打击一切恐怖势力。与有关国家通过高层交往、机制性磋商、签署合作协定等方式加强在反恐问题上的交流与合作,加大对“三股势力”的打击力度。积极参与制定应对世界毒品问题的有关国际文件,与周边国家开展打击贩毒走私活动。在中老缅泰湄公河流域执法安全合作机制内,持续开展“平安航道”联合扫毒行动。2016年,在中国承办的第二阶段“平安航道”联合扫毒行动中,中国、老挝、缅甸、泰国、柬埔寨、越南六国共破获毒品刑事案件6476起,抓获犯罪嫌疑人9927人,缴获各类毒品12.7吨、易制毒化学品55.2吨。

 

VI. Actively Promoting the Development of Global Human Rights Under the Rule of Law

China has always safeguarded world peace and contributed to global development, and upholds the international order. The Chinese government advocates building a community of shared future for humanity. China actively participates in building a legal system of international human rights, earnestly fulfills international human rights obligations, conducts in-depth international exchanges and cooperation in judicial field, and champions the healthy development of global human rights.

Building a community of shared future for humanity. In March 2013 Chinese President Xi Jinping put forward the idea of “a community of shared future” for the first time in a speech at the Moscow State Institute of International Relations. In September 2015, at the summits commemorating the 70th anniversary of the founding of the United Nations, he expanded this vision. In January 2017, he attended a high-level meeting on “discussing and building a community of shared future for humanity” at the Palais des Nations in Geneva, Switzerland, and delivered a keynote speech, entitled “Work Together to Build a Community of Shared Future for Humanity”. In his speech, Xi elaborated on the concept of a community of shared future for humanity in a profound, comprehensive and systematic way and called on the peoples of all countries to work together to push forward the great process. Xi advocates an open, inclusive, clean and beautiful world that enjoys lasting peace, universal security, and common prosperity through dialogue and consultation, joint efforts, win-win cooperation, and exchanges and mutual learning, and by pursuing green and low-carbon development. President Xi Jinping’s speech indicates the fundamental means of addressing current global challenges, and has important implications in improving international human rights governance. The concept of “building a community of shared future for humanity” has been written into relevant resolutions of the UN General Assembly, the Security Council and the Human Rights Council, signifying that it has become an important part of international human rights discourse. It broadens the perspective of international human rights protection and plays an important role in advancing global human rights governance in an equitable and rational way.

Actively participating in the making of international rules related to the protection of human rights. As a founding member of the United Nations, China has been involved in creating the UN Charter, the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and other international human rights instruments, making an important contribution to the development of international human rights rules. It has participated in formulating the Vienna Declaration and Program of Action, the Declaration on the Right to Development, the Convention on the Rights of the Child, the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities, the Declaration on the Right of Peoples to Peace, and the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women. China has played a constructive role in international climate change negotiations with the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change as the main channel, and made every effort to ensure that the Paris Agreement on climate change is concluded and comes into force. China has created the Belt and Road Initiative, and pressed forward with establishing international cooperation rules concerning the economy, environmental protection, healthcare, adolescents, the protection and development of children, cyberspace governance, anti-corruption and drug control.

Sincerely fulfilling its obligations to the international human rights conventions. China has acceded to 26 international human rights conventions including the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, the Convention on the Rights of the Child, the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities, the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women, the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination, and the Convention Against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment. It has also actively created conditions for the approval of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights. China cherishes the important role played by international human rights instruments in promoting and protecting human rights, and sincerely fulfills its obligations to the international human rights conventions. It submits timely reports on implementing the conventions to the treaty bodies concerned, holds constructive dialogues with these bodies, takes into full consideration the proposals they raise, and adopts rational and feasible measures in the light of China’s actual conditions. In 2012 China’s first report on implementing the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities was approved. In 2013 China’s third and fourth combined report on implementing the Convention on the Rights of the Child and China’s first report on implementing the Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child on the Involvement of Children in Armed Conflict was approved. In 2014 China underwent the second-round Universal Periodic Review (UPR) held by the UN Human Rights Council, which approved the UPR report on China. China’s second report on implementing the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights was approved. China submitted its combined seventh and eighth periodic report on the implementation of the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women to the UN Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination Against Women for review. In 2015 China submitted its sixth report on implementing the Convention Against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment to the UN Committee Against Torture for review. China actively participates in international peacekeeping operations. From 1990 to August 2017, 36,000 Chinese military peacekeeping personnel were sent abroad to take part in 24 UN peacekeeping operations. In 2017 China built a peacekeeping standby force of 8,000 troops.

Effectively conducting international cooperation on legal matters. China has acceded to the Hague Service Convention (also known as the Convention on the Service Abroad of Judicial and Extrajudicial Documents in Civil or Commercial Matters), the Hague Evidence Convention (also known as the Convention on the Taking of Evidence Abroad in Civil or Commercial Matters), and the United Nations Convention Against Transnational Organized Crime. By 2016 China had signed judicial assistance treaties or agreements on civil, commercial, and criminal cases with 19 countries, all of which had come into force. It had signed judicial assistance treaties or agreements on criminal cases with 40 countries, 32 of which had come into force, and it had signed judicial assistance treaties or agreements on civil and commercial cases with 20 countries, 17 of which had come into force. Between 2013 and 2016, China’s central organs handled more than 3,300 requests for judicial assistance every year. China has strengthened international cooperation against corruption, and promoted the adoption of the “G20 High Level Principles on Cooperation on Persons Sought for Corruption and Asset Recovery” and the “2017-2018 G20 Anti-Corruption Action Plan”. Ten principles on persons sought for corruption and asset recovery have been established, the main provisions of which are “zero tolerance against corruption, zero loopholes in our institutions and zero barriers in our actions”. China carries out “Sky Net” operation and intensifies efforts to pursue, repatriate and extradite fugitives accused of corruption. From 2014 to mid-October 2017, 3,453 fugitives were brought back from more than 90 countries and regions, including 48 on the list of 100 most wanted fugitives, and illegal assets worth RMB9.5 billion were recovered.

Taking an active part in international law-enforcement and security cooperation. China works with the international community to combat terrorism, separatism and extremism and drug-related crimes. Within the framework of international and regional organizations including the UN, Interpol (International Criminal Police Organization), SCO (Shanghai Cooperation Organization), ASEAN (Association of Southeast Asian Nations) and BRICS (Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa), China works to strengthen counter-terrorism cooperation with other countries in order to combat all forces of terrorism. China has enhanced counter-terrorism exchanges and cooperation with other countries through high-level contacts, institutional consultation, and cooperation agreements, and intensified the fight against the “three evil forces” of terrorism, extremism and separatism. China is actively involved in creating international instruments to address the world drug problem, and fights alongside neighboring countries against drug trafficking and smuggling. It continues the Safe Mekong Joint Operation within the law-enforcement and security cooperation mechanism along the China, Laos, Myanmar and Thailand sections of the Mekong River. In the Second Safe Mekong Joint Operation by China, Laos, Myanmar, Thailand, Cambodia and Vietnam, organized by China in 2016, 6,476 drug-related cases were solved, 9,927 suspects were arrested, and 12.7 tons of narcotics and 55.2 tons of precursor chemicals were seized.
结束语
推进全面依法治国,不仅使建设社会主义法治国家迈出了重要步伐,也使中国的人权法治化保障达到了一个新的高度。事实表明,中国人民从来没有像今天这样享有如此充分的经济、社会、文化权利和公民及政治权利,中国人权事业的发展正如沐春风、充满生机。
社会主义初级阶段,是当今中国的基本国情和最大实际。坚持全面依法治国,建设法治国家、法治政府、法治社会,实现国家治理体系和治理能力现代化,实现更高水平的人权法治化保障,仍有许多工作要做,还有很长的路要走,需要作出长期不懈努力。
中国共产党第十九次全国代表大会已就深化全面依法治国实践作出重大部署。当前,在习近平新时代中国特色社会主义思想指导下,在以习近平同志为核心的党中央坚强领导下,中国人民正在为实现“两个一百年”奋斗目标和中华民族伟大复兴的中国梦而努力。在实现伟大梦想的征程上,社会主义法治国家建设必将取得更加丰硕的成果,中国的人权法治化保障水平必将得到更大提升,中国必将为发展人类政治文明作出新的更大的贡献。

 

Conclusion

China’s efforts to comprehensively advance law-based governance has enabled it to take major steps in building a law-based socialist country and lift legal protection of human rights to a new level. Never before have Chinese people enjoyed such full economic, social and cultural rights and civil and political rights as today. The cause of human rights in China is making consistent progress in the right direction.

The basic and practical context is that China is still and will remain for the foreseeable future in the primary stage of socialism. There is still much work to be done and a long way to go to advance law-based governance in all fields, build a country of socialist rule of law, construct a law-based government and a law-governed society, modernize China’s system and capacity for governance, and realize higher levels of legal protection of human rights.

The 19th CPC National Congress defined major plans for advancing law-based governance. Now, guided by Xi Jinping Thought on Socialism with Chinese Characteristics for a New Era, and under the strong leadership of the CPC Central Committee with Xi Jinping as the core, Chinese people are working hard to realize the Two Centenary Goals [ The Two Centenary Goals were put forth by the CPC at its 18th National Congress for building socialism with Chinese characteristics. The two goals are to complete the building of a moderately prosperous society in all respects by the centenary of the CPC (founded in 1921) and to build China into a modern socialist country that is prosperous, strong, democratic, culturally advanced, and harmonious by the centenary of the PRC (founded in 1949).] and the Chinese Dream of national rejuvenation. In the cause of realizing the great dream, we will certainly make further solid progress in building a law-based socialist country. We will promote legal protection of human rights and make a new and greater contribution to the development of human civilization.

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