Section 1: English-ChineseTranslation (50 points)
Translate the following passage into Chinese.
Improved human well-being is the greatest triumph of modern era. The age of plenty has also led to an unexpected global health crisis: two billion people are either overweight or obese. Developed countries have been especially susceptible to unhealthy weight gain. However, developing countries are now facing a similar crisis. Obesity rates have peaked in high income countries but are accelerating elsewhere. The combined findings of the World Health Organisation and the World Bank showed that in 2016 Asia was home to half the world’s overweight children. One quarter were in Africa.
This crisis will test the political resolve of governments that have focused on ending hunger. These governments must understand that the factors making cities convenient and productive also make their residents prone to obesity. Urbanites enjoy a variety of culinary options. International fast food chains are flourishing in developing countries. The health risks of such diets are compounded by the sedentary lifestyles of urban dwellers. People’s leisure time is also being occupied by television, movies and video games in the growing number of households.
The alarming implication of these trends is that developing countries may become sick before they get rich. That sickness may, in turn, cripple health systems. The yearly health care costs in Southeast Asia of obesity-related complications like diabetes and cardiovascular disease are already as high as US $10 billion. Such diseases are an added burden on countries already struggling to manage primary health care needs.
Policies related to taxation, urban design, education and the promotion of food systems may help control obesity at a lower cost than eventual medical treatment for an increasingly overweight population. Some governments have already experimented with direct interventions to control obesity, such as taxation on unhealthy foods and drinks. Thailand, Brunei, and Singapore have adopted soda tax . South Africa is likely to introduce a sugar tax beginning in April 2018. The city of Berkeley in California recognises that taxes alone are not enough to address obesity. Proceeds from the city’s sugar tax are used to support child nutrition and community health programmes. This underscores the importance of education.
There is also promise in many initiatives. Urban design holds significant power to reshape lifestyle patterns and public health. Improving the attractiveness of public space can draw residents out of their cars and living rooms. A recent study of urban neighbourhoods in Shanghai and Hangzhou found that residents living in walkable neighbourhoods are healthier than residents living in less walkable neighourhoods in urban China. Finally, healthier lifestyles begin in grocery store aisles.
Governments should encourage tighter connections between agricultural production systems, urban grocers and food vendors. Such initiatives can also help urban residents better understand the mechanics of food sourcing. This raises awareness about the relationship between natural foods and healthy lifestyles. Combining controls on unhealthy foods with policies that incentivise healthy eating and active lifestyles is important for developing countries from both an economic and social point of view. To quote the recent Global Nutrition Report, “Reducing obesity will boost global development.”
Section 2: Chinese-EnglishTranslation (50 points)
Translate the following passage into English.